Diabetes, medically referred to as diabetes mellitus, is a condition when the pancreas of the body does not produce enough insulin or the body is not able to absorb sufficient levels of insulin. Symptoms include frequent urination, constant thirst and hunger, fatigue, blurry vision and slow healing cuts and bruises. In type 1 diabetes there can be sudden weight loss and those while in type 2 diabetes, people may experience numbness, pain and tingling sensation in their hands and feet.
HOW IS DIABETES DIAGNOSED?
Doctors can determine whether a patient has a normal metabolism, prediabetes or diabetes in one of three different ways - there are three possible tests:
• The A1C test
• The FPG (fasting plasma glucose) test
• The OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test)
HOW IS DIABETES TREATED?
There is no cure for diabetes. Medications and insulin is given to keep the blood sugar levels under normal range. Diet and exercise are very helpful in keeping type 2 diabetes under check. Homeopathy is also effective in keeping diabetes under control.
DID YOU KNOW?
Hospitalisation may be required for very severe cases.
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) or diabetes is the impaired insulin secretion and variable degrees of peripheral insulin resistance leading to the hyperglycemia. The early symptoms related to the hyperglycemia include polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria and the blurred vision.
Later complications in diabetes mellitus include vascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy and predisposition to infection. Serious & long term complications include heart disease, kidney failure, Ulcer in foot and eye damage.
Treatment is healthy & balanced diet, exercise, and drugs that reduce the glucose levels, include insulin.
Type 1 diabetes: Also called as juvenile onset diabetes, Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It is caused by the body attacking its own pancreas with antibodies. This type of diabetes may be caused by a genetic predisposition. Type 1 diabetes treatment involves taking of insulin.
Having type 1 diabetes does require lifestyle changes which includes
• Frequent blood sugar level testing
• Healthy balanced diet
• Daily exercise
• Taking of insulin or other medication if prescribed.
Type 2 Diabetes: This type of diabetes was also called as non-insulin dependent diabetes and known as adult onset diabetes. Type 2 diabetes also augments your risk of stroke and heart diseases. With this type of diabetes mellitus, the pancreas generally produces some amount of insulin. But the amount is produced is not adequate for the body’s needs.
Type 2 diabetes can be kept under check with proper dietary and exercise regime.
Gestational Diabetes: Diabetes that’s triggered by the pregnancy is called as gestational diabetes. It is diagnosed in the middle or late pregnancy. Because of the high blood sugar levels in a mother are circulated through the placenta to the baby. This type of diabetes must be controlled to protect the baby’s growth and development.
Complications in Diabetes Mellitus:
There are 3 most common, devastating complications of diabetes mellitus:
• Diabetic Retinopathy- most common cause of adult blindness.
• Diabetic Nephropathy- leading cause of chronic kidney disease.
• Diabetic Neuropathy - this results in injury of nerves due to microvascular disease, direct effects of hyperglycemia on neurons, and intracellular metabolic changes that impair nerve functions.
How Diabetes Mellitus can be managed?
There is no cure for the diabetes mellitus, but it can be treated and controlled.
• Keep your blood glucose levels near to the normal blood sugar level as possible by balancing the food you intake with proper medications.
• Maintain your blood cholesterol level and
• Control your blood pressure
• Plan to always eat and following a balanced diet plan
• Exercise regularly
• Take medication, if prescribed
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