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Overview

Genteal 0.3% Eye Drop

Genteal 0.3% Eye Drop

Manufacturer: Novartis India Ltd
Medicine composition: Hypromellose
Prescription vs.OTC: Prescription by Doctor not required

Genteal 0.3% Eye Drop is used to treat the symptoms of dry and/or irritated eyes. Common causes of this condition are windy conditions, excessive use of computers, excessive reading, sunny weather, heating or air conditioning, and certain medications. It functions as an eye lubricant, keeping your eyes moist. This helps to protect the eye from infections and probable injuries, and alleviates the symptoms of dry eye syndrome, such as itching, burning, or the feeling that there is something in your eye.

This medicine is available in the form of eye drops and ointments for topical application. While using this medicine, do as directed by your doctor. It may be best to use the ointment before you go to bed, while you can use the eye drops as many times as you require during the day. The adverse effects caused by this medicine are usually temporary, and include blurred vision, and a burning or stinging or an irritating sensation in the eyes. If these symptoms persist, immediately inform your doctor. Also consult your doctor if you develop redness in your eyes, or if the initial adverse effects appear to persist. This medicine may be harmful if swallowed. Keep it away from children.

dry eye disease
Is It safe with alcohol?
No interaction found
Are there any pregnancy warnings?
Genteal 0.3% eye drop is safe to use during pregnancy.
Adequate and well-controlled human studies have shown low or no risk.
Are there any breast-feeding warnings?
Genteal 0.3% eye drop is probably safe to use during breastfeeding. Please consult your doctor.
Is it safe to drive while on this medicine?
Patient should wait until the vision clears before driving or using machines.
Does this affect kidney function?
There is no data available. Please consult doctor before consuming the drug.
Does this affect liver function?
There is no data available. Please consult doctor before consuming the drug.
Below is the list of medicines, which have the same composition, strength and form as Genteal 0.3% Eye Drop, and hence can be used as its substitute.
Are there any missed dose instructions?
If you miss a dose of Hypromellose, skip it and continue with your normal schedule. Do not double the dose.
Whenever you take more than one medicine, or mix it with certain foods or beverages, you're at risk of a drug interaction.

Popular Questions & Answers

Hello Doctor The problem i am facing that is my tummy is bulging out and looks very awkward. What should i do for this?

MSc
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Lucknow
Hello Doctor
The problem i am facing that is my tummy is bulging out and looks very awkward. What should i do for this?
Hi, Thank you for your query. We will be happy to help you. For reducing belly fat, consume foods that contain soluble fibre such as nuts, seeds, lentils and beans. Never skip breakfast. Avoid eating bad fats but eat foods that contain good fats. Avoid oily food and other junk completely. Drink plenty of water. For exercises, you can do the bicycle exercise, jogging, running, cycling etc. We are here to guide you. If you need a detailed or customized diet plan, feel free to drop a message. Eat healthy, stay healthy Regards.

I am 20 year male. And I can see that my tummy fat is increasing day by day, maybe its not too much now but i am still worried. I have been trying some workouts for 2 weeks but its helping only a bit not much. Can you suggest any other activities I can do to reduce my belly fat also including diet. Thanks.

Diploma In Diet & Nutrition
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Hyderabad
I am 20 year male. And I can see that my tummy fat is increasing day by day, maybe its not too much now but i am stil...
You will not see any results for any exercise in two weeks. For abs exercises, you need to invest at least 2-3 months to see positive changes. Commit your self for long term exercises. That will keep you health, fit and trim.

I am suffering from over weight. I have been feeling since many months. Inspite of performing workouts n managing my diet there is not much difference. I feel tired on my belly n muh fat on my thighs n butt. please help.

MSc
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Lucknow
I am suffering from over weight. I have been feeling since many months. Inspite of performing workouts n managing my ...
Hi, Thank you for your query. We will be happy to help you. For a healthy and effective weight loss, -Cut back on all junk and processed food -Plan your meals: Plan meals ahead of time and make sure they are calorie controlled. Include lots of healthy food such as fruits and vegetables in your diet. Prefer only home cooked meals. Have 4 to 5 servings of fresh fruits and veggies daily. -Increase your water consumption. -Exercise regularly. -Stay consistent to see results If you require a detailed and customized diet plan, feel free to drop a message. Eat healthy, stay healthy.

Hi doctor, I would like to ask you about the Apetamin syrup for increasing weight is it really effective?

MSc
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Lucknow
Hi doctor,
I would like to ask you about the Apetamin syrup for increasing weight is it really effective?
Hi, Thank you for your query. We will be happy to help you. Instead of medicines, go for natural ways for weight loss. For increasing your weight, eat lots of carbohydrates (potatoes, rice, corn etc.) and good fats (various nuts, peanut butter etc.), high fat dairy (whole milk, cheese, paneer/tofu). Drink milk everyday. Increase your regular meal portions by a little amount. Exercise a little daily. We are here to guide you. For a detailed or customized diet plan, feel free to drop a message. Eat healthy, stay healthy Regards.

Hii I'm suffering from body weight, im trying to loss my weight but it was not getting loss pls give me an suggestions to lose my weight tq.

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine & Surgery (BAMS), M.Sc - Dietitics/Nutrition
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Bangalore
Hii I'm suffering from body weight, im trying to loss my weight but it was not getting loss pls give me an suggestion...
Hello Lybrate user Basically if your are trying hard and not loosing then you need to understand your body properly. There are very minute changes we miss while doing weight loss because which wil not see results. Focus on 1. Portion control while eating 2. Drink 3 to 3.5 ltrs of water everyday 3. Take high protein diet like chicken, boiled eggs 4. Add lots of fruits and salads in you r diet. Top of this customised diet plan is very important feel free to contact Regards Eat wise drop a size.

Popular Health Tips

Know Your Sugar Levels

Doctor of Medicine (M.D.), MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Internal Medicine Specialist, Bangalore
Know Your Sugar Levels

Diabetes and wellness 

Know your blood sugar levels if you are diabetic or if you are living with diabetics 

In the 1950s, the method a person used to check blood glucose levels was to drop a reagent tablet into a small test tube containing a few drops of urine mixed with water.

The 1970s and 1980s marked are a turning point in the treatment of diabetes. Innovations such as blood glucose readers and strips measuring blood glucose (sugar) levels gave patients and doctors good tool to measure diabetes.

A) diabeties is diagnosed when the fasting plasma glucose is ⥠126 mg/dl or random blood glucose ⥠200 mg/dl b) prediabetes is diagnosed when value of fasting blood glucose 110 â 125 mg/dl and 2 hr post prandial sugars between 140 to 199 mg /dl.

  •  Hba1c
  • Normal range: 4.5 â 5.6%
  • Prediabetes range: 5.7 â 6.4%
  • Diabetic range: ⥠6.5%
  • Glycated hemoglobin (hba1c) is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the three-month average plasma glucose concentration. 

For newly diagnosed patients of diabetes, hba1c test has to be done along with fasting and postprandial sugar before starting treatment and it has to be repeated once in 3 months.

Many people are not aware of hba1c test. Once diabetic, this test has to be done every 3 months and it has to be done in standardised laboratory for accuracy.

Now a days urine sugar testing has no importance. It is not considered in diagnosis or follow up of diabetes.
Avoid testing urine sugar for follow up with doctor.

How frequently to check blood sugar?
Checking blood sugar depends on the severity of diabetes.
I suggest to check fasting sugar, 2 hrs post breakfast and predinner sugar with glucometer at home once a week.

  • If diabetes is well controlled, follow up with the doctor once in 3 month with fbs/ppbs and hba1c report.
  • If sugars are moderately controlled and on insulin, follow up with doctor atleast once in 2 months.
  • If blood sugars are erratic and not in control, once a month consultation is necessary.
  • Remember hba1c testing has to be done only once in 3 months.
1 person found this helpful

Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)

CCT (UK) General Psychiatry, MD-Psychiatry, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Psychiatrist, Delhi
Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)


Postural tachycardia syndrome (pots) can be a life altering and debilitating chronic health condition. Simply standing up can be a challenge for people with pots as their body is unable to adjust to gravity. Pots is characterised by orthostatic intolerance (the development of symptoms when upright that are relieved by lying down). Symptoms include headaches, fatigue, palpitations, sweating, nausea, fainting and dizziness and are associated with an increase in heart rate from the lying to upright position of greater than 30 beats per minute, or a heart rate of greater than 120 beats per minute within 10 minutes of standing. 

Diagnosis:-

Detailed questioning of the patient is the key to accurate diagnosis. Physical examination and appropriate investigations are also important. Other causes of symptoms need to be considered and identified.

Patients are usually diagnosed by a cardiologist, neurologist or medicine for the elderly consultant.

To be given a diagnosis of pots, a person needs to have:

A sustained increase in heart rate of greater than 30 beats per minute within 10 minutes of standing those aged 12-19 years require an increase of at least 40 beats per minutethese criteria may not apply to those with a low heart rate when resting there is usually no drop in blood pressure on standing

Investigations

It may be necessary for patients to have some or all of the tests below

Electrocardiography (ecg)

An ecg is performed to rule out any heart problems that may cause symptoms similar to those found in pots.

The active stand test

The active stand test can be used to diagnose pots. Under careful supervision, heart rate and blood pressure are measured after resting lying down, then immediately upon standing and after 2, 5 and 10 minutes. This test may bring on symptoms of pots and some people may faint.

Head-up tilt table test

This involves lying on a table that can be tilted to an angle of 60 to 70 degrees in a quiet, dimly lit, temperature controlled room. Blood pressure and heart rate are recorded in a continuous manner. After a period of 5 to 20 minutes of lying flat, the table is tilted. Although a diagnosis of pots should be made by an increase in heart rate of 30 bpm within the first 10 minutes, this upright position can last between 10 and 45 minutes. The patient will be asked how they are feeling during the test, so symptoms can be matched with heart rate and blood pressure. The test will end if your blood pressure becomes too low, satisfactory results have been obtained, or the maximum time has elapsed.

If facilities are available, some patients are tilted after a carbohydrate drink (liquid meal challenge), exercise or heat.

24 hour ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate monitor

Sticky patches are applied to the chest and are linked to a little box which is attached by a belt your waist. It monitors heart rate over a 24 hour period. A blood pressure cuff on your arm will intermittently check your blood pressure. The patient is asked to go about their usual daily activities, trying to reproduce events that seem to cause the symptoms. A diary stating the time and activity performed at the moment when the symptoms started should be kept. Doctors look to see if there is a fast heart rate or drop in blood pressure at the time of symptoms.

Echocardiogram (heart ultrasound)

This test is to check if the heart’s structure is normal. In this test a technician will apply some jelly on the chest and will roll an ultrasound probe in many directions to create a 3 dimensional image of the heart. It is a painless and harmless test that similar to the ultrasound scan used routinely during pregnancy to look at the unborn baby.

24-hour urine collection 

Individuals with pots often have low urinary sodium levels of less than 150 millimole per 24 hours.

Another 24 hour urine collection may be carried out to test for high levels of noradrenaline and epinephrine to rule out pheochromocytoma (a growth on the adrenal gland) as a possible cause of symptoms.

Blood tests

Bloods are taken to rule out other conditions. These may include:

Kidney function blood count including ferritin liver tests thyroid tests calcium levels glucose

Blood can also be taken for norepinephrine whilst lying and then standing (or when upright on the tilt table); if levels exceed 600 picogram/millilitre, it may suggest hyperadrenergic pots.

Other tests which may be carried out

  • Eeg
  • Autonomic function screening tests
  • Sweat testing.
2 people found this helpful

Instructions for People With Acute Low Back Pain

MPT, BPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
Instructions for People With Acute Low Back Pain

The simple rule is that if bending forward has been the cause of over stretching, bending backward should rectify this problem and reduce any resultant distortion. You must restore the lordosis slowly and with caution, never quickly or with jerky movements. You must allow some time for the distorted joint to regain its normal shape and position: a sudden or violent movement may retard this process, increase the strain in and around the affected joint, and thus result in an increase of low back pain .

Remember, when commencing the exercises, some increase of mid line low back pain can be expected. Some exercises will only be effective when you actually move into the pain while exercising. You should feel some pain when doing these exercises, but you should never have a lasting increase in pain which remains present the following day.When in acute pain, you must, apart from exercising, make certain adjustments in your daily activities. These adjustments forma very important aspect of self-treatment. If you do not follow the instructions given below, you will unnecessarily delay the healing process. This is entirely your responsibility.Maintain your lumbar lordosis at all times. 

Slouched sitting and bending forward as in touching the toes will only increase the pressure in the joints, stretch and weaken the supporting structures,and lead to further damage in the low back. If you slouch you will have discomfort and pain. 

Good posture is the key to spinal comfort. Sit as little as possible, and then for short periods only. 

If you must sit, choose a firm, high chair with a straight back, make sure that you have an adequate lordosis, and use a lumbar roll to support the low back. Avoid sitting on a low, soft couch with the legs straight out in front as in sitting up in bed or in the bath; both these situations force you to lose the lordosis. When getting up from the sitting position, you should attempt to maintain the lordosis: move to the front of the seat, stand up by straightening the legs and avoid bending forward at the waist.

Drive the car as little as possible; it is better to be a passenger than to drive yourself. If you must drive, your seat should be far enough back from the steering wheel to allow you to drive with your arms relatively straight. 

With the arms straight, your upper body is held back and you are prevented from slouching; this allows full benefit to be obtained from the lumbar roll, which should always be used when driving. Avoid activities which require bending forward or stooping. Many activities can be modified adequately to enable maintenance of the lordosis. It is possible to maintain the correct posture when vacuuming in the standing position; it is also possible to maintain a correct lordosis by going down on all fours when gardening, making beds, etc.

If you have acute low back pain, you should not lift at all. If you must lift, you should avoid objects that are awkward to handle or heavier than 30 pounds (15 kg). At all times you must use the correct lifting technique.

If you are uncomfortable at night, you may benefit from a supportive roll around your waist. For most people, it is recommended that the mattress should not be too hard but well supported by a firm base.

If your bed sags, slats or a sheet of plywood between mattress and base will straighten it, or else you can have the mattress placed on the floor.When getting up from lying, you should keep your back in lordosis: tum on one side, draw both knees up, drop the feet over the edge of the bed, raise yourself to the sitting position by pushing your upper body up with your hands, and avoid bending forward at the waist. Stand up from sitting as described before.

Avoid coughing and sneezing while you are sitting or bending forward. You should stand and bend backward if you are forced to cough or sneeze.Avoid those positions and movements which initially caused your problems. You must allow some time for healing to take place.

1 person found this helpful

Pregnancy Changes

BAMS, Msc-Psychoneurobics, Diploma in Counseling and Spiritual Health
Ayurveda, Faridabad
Pregnancy Changes

Pregnancy brings a variety of changes to the body. They can range from common and expected changes, such as swelling and fluid retention, to less familiar ones such as vision changes. Read on to learn more about them.

Hormonal changes:
Hormonal changes during pregnancy
The hormonal and physiological changes that come with pregnancy are unique.

Pregnant women experience sudden and dramatic increases in estrogen and progesterone. They also experience changes in the amount and function of a number of other hormones. These changes don’t just affect mood. They can also:

Create the “glow” of pregnancy
Significantly aid in the development of the fetus
Alter the physical impact of exercise and physical activity on the body
Estrogen and progesterone changes

Estrogen and progesterone are the chief pregnancy hormones. A woman will produce more estrogen during one pregnancy than throughout her entire life when not pregnant. The increase in estrogen during pregnancy enables the uterus and placenta to:

Improve vascularization (the formation of blood vessels)
Transfer nutrients
Support the developing baby
In addition, estrogen is thought to play an important role in helping the fetus develop and mature.

Estrogen levels increase steadily during pregnancy and reach their peak in the third trimester. The rapid increase in estrogen levels during the first trimester may cause some of the nausea associated with pregnancy. During the second trimester, it plays a major role in the milk duct development that enlarges the breasts.

Progesterone levels also are extraordinarily high during pregnancy. The changes in progesterone cause a laxity or loosening of ligaments and joints throughout the body. In addition, high levels of progesterone cause internal structures to increase in size, such as the ureters. The ureters connect the kidneys with the maternal bladder. Progesterone is also important for transforming the uterus from the size of a small pear — in its non-pregnant state — to a uterus that can accommodate a full-term baby.

Pregnancy hormones and exercise injuries

While these hormones are absolutely critical for a successful pregnancy, they also can make exercise more difficult. Because the ligaments are looser, pregnant women may be at greater risk for sprains and strains of the ankle or knee. However, no studies have documented an increased rate in injury during pregnancy.

A pregnant woman’s entire posture changes. Her breasts are larger. Her abdomen transforms from flat or concave to very convex, increasing the curvature of her back. The combined effect shifts the center of gravity forward and may lead to changes in her sense of balance.

Weight gain, fluid retention, and physical activity

Weight gain in pregnant women increases the workload on the body from any physical activity. This additional weight and gravity slow down the circulation of blood and bodily fluids, particularly in the lower limbs. As a result, pregnant women retain fluids and experience swelling of the face and limbs. This water weight adds another limitation on exercise. Learn about natural treatments for swollen hands.

Many women begin to notice slight swelling during the second trimester. It often continues into the third trimester. This increase in fluid retention is responsible for a significant amount of weight gain women experience during pregnancy. Tips for easing swelling include:

Rest
Avoid long periods of standing
Avoid caffeine and sodium
Increase dietary potassium
Weight gain is usually the primary reason that the body can’t tolerate prepregnancy levels of exercise. This even applies to the seasoned, elite, or professional athlete. Round ligament strain, increased size of the uterus, and pelvic instability from laxity of the ligaments may lead to increased discomfort during exercise.

Tip: for fun, take a photograph of yourself from the side profile early in your pregnancy, using your best posture. Take another photo near your due date and compare these side profiles. The changes are remarkable, aren’t they?

Senses
Sensory changes
Pregnancy can dramatically alter how a woman experiences the world through sight, taste, and smell.

Vision changes

Some women experience vision changes during pregnancy, characterized by increased nearsightedness. Researchers don’t know the precise biological mechanisms behind changes in vision. Most women return to prepregnancy vision after giving birth.

Common changes during pregnancy include blurriness and discomfort with contact lenses. Pregnant women often experience an increase in intraocular pressure. Women with preeclampsia or gestational diabetes may be at an elevated risk of rare eye problems, such as retinal detachment or vision loss.

Taste and smell changes

Most women experience changes in their sense of taste during pregnancy. They typically prefer saltier foods and sweeter foods than non-pregnant women. They also have a higher threshold for strong sour, salty, and sweet tastes. Dysgeusia, a decrease in the ability to taste, is most commonly experienced during the first trimester of pregnancy.

Certain taste preferences may vary by trimester. Although many women experience a dulled sense of taste for a short period of time postpartum, they typically regain full taste capability after pregnancy. Some women also experience a metallic taste in the mouth during pregnancy. This can aggravate nausea and may indicate a nutrient imbalance. Learn more about impaired taste.

At times, pregnant women also report changes in their sense of smell. Many describe a heightened awareness and sensitivity to a variety of odors. There’s little consistent and reliable data indicating that pregnant women actually notice and identify certain odors and intensity of odors more than their non-pregnant counterparts. Nevertheless, the vast majority of pregnant women report a perceived increase in their own sensitivity to odors.

Changes related to childbirth
Breast and cervical changes
Hormonal changes, which begin in the first trimester, will lead to many physiological changes throughout the body. These changes help prepare the mother’s body for pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding.

Breast changes

Pregnant women’s breasts often undergo a series of significant changes during pregnancy as their bodies prepare to supply milk to the newborn baby. Pregnancy hormones that affect skin pigmentation often darken the areola. As the breasts grow, pregnant women may experience tenderness or sensitivity and notice that the veins are darker and the nipples protrude more than before pregnancy. Some women may develop stretch marks on the breasts, particularly if they undergo rapid growth. Many women will also notice an increase in the size of the nipple and areola.

Small bumps on the areolas often appear. Most women will begin producing, and even “leaking,” small amounts of a thick, yellowish substance during the second trimester. This substance is also known as colostrum. In addition to producing the colostrum for the baby’s first feeding, milk ducts in the breasts expand in preparation for producing and storing milk. Some women may notice small lumps in the breast tissue, which can be caused by blocked milk ducts. If the lumps don’t disappear after a few days of massaging the breast and warming it with water or a washcloth, a doctor should examine the lump at the next prenatal visit.

Cervical changes

The cervix, or the entry to the uterus, undergoes physical changes during pregnancy and labor. In many women, the tissue of the cervix thickens and becomes firm and glandular. Up to a few weeks before giving birth, the cervix may soften and dilate slightly from the pressure of the growing baby.

In early pregnancy, the cervix produces a thick mucus plug to seal off the uterus. The plug is often expelled in late pregnancy or during delivery. This is also called bloody show. Mucous streaked with a small amount of blood is common as the uterus prepares for labor. Prior to delivery, the cervix dilates significantly, softens, and thins, allowing the baby to pass through the birth canal. Learn more about the stages of labor and how they affect the cervix.

Hair, skin, and nails
Changes in the hair, skin, and nails
Many women will experience changes in the physical appearance of their skin during pregnancy. Although most are temporary, some — such as stretch marks — can result in permanent changes. In addition, women who experience some of these skin changes during pregnancy are more likely to experience them again in future pregnancies or even while taking hormonal contraceptives.

Hair and nail changes

Many women experience changes in hair and nail growth during pregnancy. Hormone changes can sometimes cause excessive hair shedding or hair loss. This is especially true in women with a family history of female alopecia.

But many women experience hair growth and thickening during pregnancy and may even notice hair growth in unwanted places. Hair growth on the face, arms, legs, or back can occur. Most changes in hair growth return to normal after the baby is born. It’s common, however, for hair loss or increased shedding to occur up to a year postpartum, as hair follicles and hormone levels regulate themselves without the influence of pregnancy hormones.

Many women also experience faster nail growth during pregnancy. Eating well and taking prenatal vitamins adds to the growth hormones of pregnancy. Although some may find the change desirable, many may notice increased nail brittleness, breakage, grooves, or keratosis. Healthy dietary changes to increase nail strength can help prevent breakage without the use of chemical nail products.

“Mask” of pregnancy and hyperpigmentation

The vast majority of pregnant women experience some type of hyperpigmentation during pregnancy. This consists of a darkening in skin tone on body parts such as the areolas, genitals, scars, and the linea alba (a dark line) down the middle of the abdomen. Hyperpigmentation can occur in women of any skin tone, although it’s more common in women with darker complexions.

In addition, up to 70 percent of pregnant women experience a darkening of skin on the face. This condition is known as melasma, or the “mask” of pregnancy. It can be worsened by sun exposure and radiation, so a broad-spectrum uva/uvb sunscreen should be used daily during pregnancy. In most cases, melasma resolves after pregnancy.

Stretch marks

Stretch marks (striae gravidarum) are perhaps the most well-known skin change of pregnancy. They’re caused by a combination of physical stretching of the skin and the effects of hormone changes on the skin’s elasticity. Up to 90 percent of women develop stretch marks by the third trimester of pregnancy, often on the breasts and abdomen. Although the pinkish-purple stretch marks may never fully disappear, they often fade to the color of surrounding skin and shrink in size postpartum. Stretch marks can itch, so do apply creams to soften and reduce the urge to scratch and possibly damage the skin.

Mole and freckle changes

The hyperpigmentation caused by changes in hormones during pregnancy can cause changes in the color of moles and freckles. Some darkening of moles, freckles, and birthmarks can be harmless. But it’s always a good idea to see a dermatologist or physician about changes in size, color, or shape.

Pregnancy hormones can also cause the appearance of dark patches of skin that are often unpreventable. Although most skin pigmentation changes will fade or disappear after pregnancy, some changes in mole or freckle color may be permanent. It’s a good idea to have a skin check for potential skin cancer or pregnancy-specific skin conditions if you notice any changes.

Pregnancy-specific rashes and boils

Small percentages of women may experience skin conditions that are specific to pregnancy, such as puppp (pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy) and folliculitis. Most conditions involve pustules and red bumps along the abdomen, legs, arms, or back. Although most rashes are harmless and resolve quickly postpartum, some skin conditions may be associated with premature delivery or problems for the baby. These include intrahepatic cholestasis and pemphigoid gestationis.

Circulatory system
Circulatory system changes
The following are common during pregnancy:

Huffing and puffing while climbing stairs
Feeling dizzy after standing quickly
Experiencing changes in blood pressure
Because of rapid expansion of the blood vessels and the increased stress on the heart and lungs, pregnant women produce more blood and have to utilize more caution with exercise than non-pregnant women.

Heartbeat and blood volume during pregnancy

During the second trimester of pregnancy, the mother’s heart at rest is working 30 to 50 percent harder. Most of this increase results from a more efficiently performing heart, which ejects more blood at each beat. Heart rate may increase up to 15 to 20 percent during pregnancy. It’s not uncommon to approach 90 to 100 beats per minute in the third trimester. Blood volume increases progressively during pregnancy until the last month. The volume of plasma increases 40-50 percent and red blood cell mass 20-30 percent, creating a need for increased iron and folic acid intake.

Blood pressure and exercise

There are two types of circulatory changes that may have an impact on exercise during pregnancy. Pregnancy hormones can suddenly affect the tone in blood vessels. A sudden loss of tone may result in the feeling of dizziness and perhaps even a brief loss of consciousness. This is because the loss of pressure sends less blood to the brain and central nervous system.

Additionally, vigorous exercise may lead to decreased blood flow to the uterus while diverting blood to muscles. However, this has not been shown to have a long-term impact on the baby. Furthermore, there’s evidence to suggest that individuals who exercise have improved blood supply to the placenta at rest. This may be beneficial to placental and fetal growth and weight gain.

Dizziness and fainting

Another form of dizziness can result from lying flat on the back. This dizziness is more common after 24 weeks. However, it can happen earlier during multi-fetal pregnancies or with conditions that increase amniotic fluid.

Lying flat on the back compresses the large blood vessel leading from the lower body to the heart, also known as the vena cava. This decreases blood flow to and from the heart, leading to a sudden and dramatic decline in blood pressure. This can cause dizziness or loss of consciousness.

After the first trimester, it’s not recommended to do exercises that involve lying on the back due to the impact from blood vessel compression. Lying on the left side may help relieve dizziness and is a healthy position for sleep.

Women experiencing any of these conditions, particularly during exercise, should consult their doctor.

Respiratory and metabolic changes
Respiratory and metabolic changes
Pregnant women experience increases in the amount of oxygen they transport in their blood. This is because of increased demand for blood and the dilation of blood vessels. This growth forces increases in metabolic rates during pregnancy, requiring women to up energy intake and use caution during periods of physical exertion.

Breathing and blood oxygen levels

During pregnancy, the amount of air moved in and out of the lungs increases by 30 to 50 percent due to two factors. Each breath has a greater volume of air, and the rate of breathing increases slightly. As the uterus enlarges, the room for movement of the diaphragm may be limited. Therefore, some women report the feeling of increased difficulty in taking deep breaths. Even without exercise, these changes may cause shortness of breath or the feeling of being “air hungry.” exercise programs may increase these symptoms.

Overall, pregnant women have higher blood oxygen levels. Studies have shown that pregnant women consume more oxygen at rest. This does not seem to have an impact on the amount of oxygen available for exercise or other physical work during pregnancy.

Metabolic rate

Basal or resting metabolic rate (rmr), the amount of energy the body expends while at rest, increases significantly during pregnancy. This is measured by the amount of oxygen used during periods of total rest. It helps estimate the amount of energy intake required to maintain or gain weight. Changes in metabolic rates explain the need to increase calorie consumption during pregnancy. The body of a pregnant woman slowly increases its energy requirements to help fuel the changes and growth taking place in both the mother and baby.

Metabolic rates increase substantially by just 15 weeks’ gestation and peak in the third trimester during the greatest growth phase. This increased metabolic rate may put pregnant women at a higher risk of hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar. Although the metabolic rate may drop slightly as the pregnancy reaches term, it remains elevated over prepregnancy levels for several weeks postpartum. It will remain elevated for the duration of breastfeeding in women producing milk.

Body temperature changes

An increase in basal body temperature is one of the first hints of pregnancy. A slightly higher core temperature will be maintained through the duration of pregnancy. Women also have a greater need of water during pregnancy. They can be at higher risk of hyperthermia and dehydration without caution to exercise safely and remain hydrated.

Hyperthermia – overheating during pregnancy

Heat stress during exercise creates concern for two reasons. First, an increase in the mother’s core temperature, as in hyperthermia, can be harmful to the baby’s development. Second, loss of water in the mother, as in dehydration, can decrease the amount of blood available to the fetus. This can lead to increased risk of preterm contractions.

In non-pregnant women, moderate aerobic exercise causes significant increases in core body temperature. Pregnant women, whether they exercise or not, experience a general increase in base metabolic rate and core temperature. Pregnant women regulate their core temperature very efficiently. Increased blood flow to the skin and the expanded skin surface release increased body heat.

It’s been shown that pregnant women do not have as much of an increase in body temperature during exercise as those who are not pregnant. However, pregnant women should avoid exercising in non-breathable clothing and in very hot or humid conditions, since the impact of hyperthermia can be severe. The following may help reduce the risk of overheating while exercising:

Use fans during indoor activity
Exercise in the pool
Wear light-colored, loose-fitting clothing
Dehydration

Most women who exercise for 20 to 30 minutes or who exercise during hot and humid weather will sweat. In pregnant women, loss of bodily fluids from sweat can decrease the blood flow to the uterus, the muscles, and some organs. The developing fetus needs a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients carried through the blood, so injury may result from a lack of fluid.

In most conditions, uterine oxygen consumption is constant during exercise and the fetus is safe. However, exercising can be dangerous for women with pregnancy-induced hypertension. That’s because this condition limits uterine blood volume as the vessels clamp down and deliver less blood to the area.

If you’re cleared for exercise during pregnancy, be sure to follow common-sense tips. Avoid excessive heat and humidity and rehydrate, even when you’re not thirsty.

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How To Identify If Your Teenager Is Suffering From Depression?

M.A -Psychology
Psychologist, Kolkata
How To Identify If Your Teenager Is Suffering From Depression?

Teenagers face a huge amount of pressure, from puberty changes to questions regarding their identity and where they fit in. With this kind of uncertainty and instability, it is generally not easy to distinguish amongst depression and the developing hormonal changes. However, teen depression goes way beyond general teenage moodiness. It is a serious medical issue that affects each part of a teenager's life. Luckily, it is treatable and parents can offer assistance.

Here are a few signs that can help determine whether a teenager has depression:
Genuinely depressed teenagers regularly think, talk about, or make attention gathering attempts at suicide. However, a disturbing and increasing number of teenagers’ suicide attempts do happen in reality. Therefore, self-destructive or suicidal thoughts or behaviors need to be considered important and taken seriously.

  1. A teenager who stays sad, cranky, void or in an irritable mood and believes that life meaningless and good for nothing, is suffering from depression.
  2. They may experience a loss of enthusiasm for games or exercises they used to appreciate or a withdrawal from loved ones or an inescapable inconvenience seeing someone.
  3. They experience changes in appetite, critical weight gain or loss.
  4. A depressed teenager has a tendency to indulge in increased late-night activities, has too much or too little sleep, faces inconvenience getting up in the morning and is regularly late for school.
  5. A teenager who is depressed suffers from physical agitation, paces forward and backward and displays over the top or dull behaviors.
  6. He/she may have a loss of energy, social withdrawal, withdrawal from regular exercises, or fatigue.
  7. He/she may make basic remarks about themselves, conduct issues at school or at home, or become excessively sensitive to being rejected.
  8. A teenager who is depressed usually has poor performance in school, a drop in test results, or a poor attendance.
  9. He/she frequently complains about physical pain (headaches, stomach aches).
  10. He/she thinks or writes about death, gives away the most loved assets with remarks like "You would be better off without me."

Remember that a lot of these signs and symptoms are similar to the conduct of an ordinary teenager. That is the reason why a specialist or a psychologist should be considered in order to determine whether your child has depression or not. In case you are uncertain if your child is depressed or simply being an adolescent, consider to what extent these signs have been going on, how extreme they are, and how different your child is acting from his or her typical self.

Depression is a natural condition. It is not something to be embarrassed about and it should be dealt with. A mix of medical and psychological behavioral treatments are regularly prescribed for teenagers. Request a referral to a psychological wellness clinician from your doctor or medical attendant, a neighborhood recreational center or healing center, friends, kins, care groups, or clinicians. It is important that the entire family get instruction and support about the disorder as patients suffering from depression need company and support.

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