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Overview

Adfrar 40Mg Prefilled Syringe

Manufacturer: Torrent Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Medicine composition: Adalimumab
Prescription vs.OTC: Prescription by Doctor required

Adfrar 40Mg Prefilled Syringe is a medicine used in the treatment of psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid pneumonia, Crohn's disease, ankylosing spondylitis, chronic psoriasis, ulcerative colitis, hidradenitis suppurativa, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. It is an anti inflammatory, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) binding biological medicine.

Adfrar 40Mg Prefilled Syringe should not be taken if you are having any kind of infection, are allergic to it or any ingredient in it, using anakinra, abatacept, or if you are already on some other TNF blocker. You should also consult your doctor before taking Adfrar 40Mg Prefilled Syringe if you already had hepatitis B, tuberculosis, heart problems, liver problems in the past, or any other infections that keeps coming back. Adfrar 40Mg Prefilled Syringe should also be avoided if you are taking in medicine or supplements or if you are pregnant, plan on becoming pregnant, or you are breastfeeding.

The side effects of Adfrar 40Mg Prefilled Syringe include headache, mild pain, back pain, swelling at site of injection, nausea, runny nose. Immediately see a doctor if you experience severe allergic reactions, extreme pain, sudden mood changes, sudden weight loss or weight gain. In many cases certain type of cancers or lymphoma have been reported and past infections like TB have also been reactivated.

Adfrar 40Mg Prefilled Syringe is available as an injection given under the skin. You should not inject it into the muscles. It should always be administered as per the dosage prescribed by the doctor on the basis of your physiological conditions.

In addition to its intended effect, Adfrar 40Mg Prefilled Syringe may cause some unwanted effects too. In such cases, you must seek medical attention immediately. This is not an exhaustive list of side effects. Please inform your doctor if you experience any adverse reaction to the medication.
Headache
Sinus inflammation
Rash
Upper respiratory tract infection
Injection site reaction.
Is It safe with alcohol?
Interaction with alcohol is unknown. Please consult your doctor.
Are there any pregnancy warnings?
Adfrar 40mg prefilled syringe is probably safe to use during pregnancy.
Animal studies have shown low or no adverse effect on the foetus, however, there are limited human studies. Please consult your doctor.
Are there any breast-feeding warnings?
Unknown. Human and animal studies are not available. Please consult your doctor.
Is it safe to drive while on this medicine?
Does this affect kidney function?
There is no data available. Please consult doctor before consuming the drug.
Does this affect liver function?
There is no data available. Please consult doctor before consuming the drug.
Below is the list of medicines, which have the same composition, strength and form as Adfrar 40Mg Prefilled Syringe, and hence can be used as its substitute.
Are there any missed dose instructions?
If you miss a dose of Adalimumab, please consult your doctor.
Whenever you take more than one medicine, or mix it with certain foods or beverages, you're at risk of a drug interaction.
What are you using Adfrar 40Mg Prefilled Syringe for?
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Psoriasis
Other
Crohn's Disease
Ulcerative Colitis
How much was the improvement?
Excellent
Average
Poor
How long did it take before seeing improvement?
Within 2 hours
More than 2 days
Within a day
How frequently did you take this medicine?
Once a day
Not taking on daily level
Twice a day
How did you take this medicine?
With Food
Empty stomach
What were the side effects of this medicine?
Headache
Disclaimer: The information produced here is best of our knowledge and experience and we have tried our best to make it as accurate and up-to-date as possible, but we would like to request that it should not be treated as a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis or treatment.

Lybrate is a medium to provide our audience with the common information on medicines and does not guarantee its accuracy or exhaustiveness. Even if there is no mention of a warning for any drug or combination, it never means that we are claiming that the drug or combination is safe for consumption without any proper consultation with an expert.

Lybrate does not take responsibility for any aspect of medicines or treatments. If you have any doubts about your medication, we strongly recommend you to see a doctor immediately.

Popular Questions & Answers

I am taking adfrar 40 injection for AS and breastfeeding my 2 years old son at night. Can it be harmful to my son? What to do if it is?

MBBS, DNB (Obstetrics & Gynecology), (MRCOG)
Gynaecologist, Chennai
I am taking adfrar 40 injection for AS and breastfeeding my 2 years old son at night. Can it be harmful to my son? Wh...
Hi Lybrate-user, The drug transfers into breast milk in small amounts but is not likely absorbed by the infant. Most experts state that adalimumab is likely compatible with breastfeeding. No adverse effects or developmental abnormalities have been reported in infants exposed to adalimumab monotherapy during breastfeeding. Although no infant side effects have been reported during mono therapy with immunosuppressive biologic, the mother can monitor the child for signs and symptoms of infection or gastrointestinal irritation. There are currently no recommendations or requirements for laboratory monitoring of the infant during exposure to these medications.
2 people found this helpful

We have taken 5 injections of Adfrar drug in last 3 months as prescribed by our doctor for my mother who is suffering from chronic rheumatic arthritics. Suddenly her pain is again revived in her body as before when she wasn't taking any injection. My query is that is this injection helpful as temporary relief and as we stop taking it the pain will come back as before as per Injection cost is approx 12k and considering the affordability factor and pain coming back as soon we stop take injection means is it a kind of pain killer only. Request for a prompt reply.

Erasmus Mundus Master in Adapted Physical Activity, MPT, BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Chennai
We have taken 5 injections of Adfrar drug in last 3 months as prescribed by our doctor for my mother who is suffering...
It is called as Rheumatic arthritis. If your pain is more in the distal joints, ie. In the upper limbs if the pain is present in the fingers/wrist and in the lower limbs it the pain is present in the toes/ ankle, then we shall definitely say it is Rheumatic arthritis. Wear elbow brace and wrist brace which will make her to feel warm and that will make the joints become firm. Hot water fermentation will help Knee cap will also help to prevent the damaged cartilages If your pain is more in the distal joints, ie. In the upper limbs if the pain is present in the fingers/wrist and in the lower limbs it the pain is present in the toes/ ankle, then we shall definitely say it is Rheumatic arthritis. Which joints you have pain? If your proximal joints (ie. Shoulder, hip & knee has pain) then you can pour hot (warm) water in that area to reduce the inflammation. If you have pain in the distal joints ie. Wrist, fingers, ankle, toes then you can wear either elbow brace or wrist brace which will help you to feel warm and very protective. And also immerse the distal joints in the hot water tub which will help you to reduce the pain. Consult the near by physiotherapy clinic and also consult a general physician to check with your ESR levels to check whether you have inflammation You can take Ultrasonic therapy in one of the nearby physiotherapy clinics which would help to heal the damaged cartilages along with shortwave diathermy which would help to improve the blood circulation. Ice therapy would definitely help to reduce the inflammation.

We have taken 5 injections of Adfrar drug in last 3 months as prescribed by our doctor for my mother who is suffering from chronic rheumatic arthritics. Suddenly her pain is again revived in her body as before when she wasn't taking any injection. My query is that is this injection helpful as temporary relief and as we stop taking it the pain will come back as before as per Injection cost is approx 12k and considering the affordability factor and pain coming back as soon we stop take injection means is it a kind of pain killer only or shall we switch to some other treatment which is more effective Request for a prompt reply.

Erasmus Mundus Master in Adapted Physical Activity, MPT, BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Chennai
We have taken 5 injections of Adfrar drug in last 3 months as prescribed by our doctor for my mother who is suffering...
It is called as Rheumatic arthritis. If your pain is more in the distal joints, ie. In the upper limbs if the pain is present in the fingers/wrist and in the lower limbs it the pain is present in the toes/ ankle, then we shall definitely say it is Rheumatic arthritis. Wear elbow brace and wrist brace which will make her to feel warm and that will make the joints become firm. Hot water fermentation will help Knee cap will also help to prevent the damaged cartilages. If your pain is more in the distal joints, ie. In the upper limbs if the pain is present in the fingers/wrist and in the lower limbs it the pain is present in the toes/ ankle, then we shall definitely say it is Rheumatic arthritis. Which joints you have pain? If your proximal joints (ie. Shoulder, hip & knee has pain) then you can pour hot (warm) water in that area to reduce the inflammation. If you have pain in the distal joints ie. Wrist, fingers, ankle, toes then you can wear either elbow brace or wrist brace which will help you to feel warm and very protective. And also immerse the distal joints in the hot water tub which will help you to reduce the pain. Consult the near by physiotherapy clinic and also consult a general physician to check with your ESR levels to check whether you have inflammation The sound what you hear is called as Crepitus /ˈkrɛpɪtəs/ (also termed crepitation) is a medical term to describe the grating, crackling or popping sounds and sensations experienced under the skin and joints or a crackling sensation due to the presence of air in the subcutaneous tissue. Popping Knees and Crackling Knuckles. Occasionally hearing pops, snaps, and crackles when you bend your knees doesn’t necessarily mean you have arthritis. The kneecap (patella) is the small, convex bone that sits at the front of the knee, shielding the joint. You can take Ultrasonic therapy in one of the nearby physiotherapy clinics which would help to heal the damaged cartilages along with shortwave diathermy which would help to improve the blood circulation. Ice therapy would definitely help to reduce the inflammation.

Hi I'm 36 years male suffering from ankylosing spondylitis since year 2007. Now I'm taking biological drugs i.e. *(Adalimumab) Exemptia* Injection for last 6 months (Took Exemptia 40 mg 6 injections and now taking Exemptia 20 mg (already completed 4 doses of 20 mg). I got married in May 2017 and now we want are planning for a baby. So is it right that we can conceive now? As I have a doubt that as I'm taking tnf blocker i.e Adalimumab so may affect the unborn fetus? So should we conceive now or wait?& also does Adalimumab damages the sperm?

MBBS
General Physician, Delhi
Hi I'm 36 years male suffering from ankylosing spondylitis since year 2007. Now I'm taking biological drugs i.e. *(Ad...
No significant difference of sperm quality between healthy controls and anti-TNF treated patients with SpA, sperm abnormalities were also found in 102 healthy controls Sperm abnormalities are a common finding in healthy men, they are more pronounced in patients with active SpA. The sperm quality of patients with SpA with inactive disease receiving long-term TNF would like to advice you to under went IuI procedure to conceive.

Popular Health Tips

Uveitis - Do You Know It Can Increase The Risk Of Other Diseases?

MBBS, MS - Ophthalmology
Ophthalmologist, Ghaziabad
Uveitis - Do You Know It Can Increase The Risk Of Other Diseases?

Uveitis is a set of inflammatory diseases that results in the swelling and damaging of the eye tissue. It can lead to temporary or permanent loss of vision. This disease often affects a part of the eye called the uvea, from which it has derived its name. It can affect people of all ages and can last from a short to long period of time. Ophthalmologists categorize uveitis into four major parts posterior uveitis, anterior uveitis, panuveitis uveitis and intermediate uveitis. This disease can be infectious or noninfectious, depending on the nature of the infection.

What causes uveitis and what are the major risk factors?
This disease is caused by the eye's inflammatory response and is caused by a series of potential factors such as the following:

  • Immune system attack from the body
  • Eye bruises
  • Eye infection or tumor within the eye
  • Foreign toxins that penetrate the eye

What are the diseases associated with uveitis?
Uveitis is associated with a range of diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Behcet's syndrome, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's (VKH) disease, psoriasis, herpes zoster infection, tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis.

What are the typical symptoms of uveitis?
One or both eyes can be affected by uveitis. Some of the common symptoms include pain in the eye, light sensitivity and blurred and dark spots in vision. Moreover, the symptoms might vary from person to person and greatly depends on the type of inflammation. The symptoms also vary according to the type of uveitis.

What is the detection process?
The process of detection starts with a patient's medical history followed by several medical tests to rule out autoimmune disorders. This is followed by an evaluation of the central nervous system to rule out multiple sclerosis. Some of the other tests conducted by ophthalmologists include measuring the ocular pressure, slit lamp exam, funduscopic exam and visual acuity test.

The primary aim of the treatment is to eradicate inflammation, restore vision, prevent tissue damage and reduce pain. The treatment plan depends on the type of uveitis a patient displays. Doctors often suggest a dose of corticosteroid eye drops to arrest the infection in and around the eye. Other treatment methods include the prescription of immunosuppressive agents.

Furthermore, a doctor may suggest steroidal medication in the form of an eye drop, pill or injection. It can also be surgically infused into the eye. Some other agents used for treatment are azathioprine, methotrexate and mycophenolate. Medications such as these require regular monitoring of the blood to check for any side effects. Doctors also suggest biologics such as infliximab, rituximab, and adalimumab. Most of these drugs have a specific target in the immune system.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

5044 people found this helpful

Uveitis - Know How It Can Be Diagnosed!

ABC
Ophthalmologist, Jodhpur
Uveitis - Know How It Can Be Diagnosed!

Uveitis is a set of inflammatory diseases that results in the swelling and damaging of the eye tissue. It can lead to temporary or permanent loss of vision. This disease often affects a part of the eye called the uvea, from which it has derived its name. It can affect people of all ages and can last from a short to long period of time. Ophthalmologists categorize uveitis into four major parts posterior uveitis, anterior uveitis, panuveitis uveitis and intermediate uveitis. This disease can be infectious or noninfectious, depending on the nature of the infection.

What causes uveitis and what are the major risk factors?
This disease is caused by the eye's inflammatory response and is caused by a series of potential factors such as the following:

  • Immune system attack from the body
  • Eye bruises
  • Eye infection or tumor within the eye
  • Foreign toxins that penetrate the eye

What are the diseases associated with uveitis?
Uveitis is associated with a range of diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Behcet's syndrome, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's (VKH) disease, psoriasis, herpes zoster infection, tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis.

What are the typical symptoms of uveitis?

One or both eyes can be affected by uveitis. Some of the common symptoms include pain in the eye, light sensitivity and blurred and dark spots in vision. Moreover, the symptoms might vary from person to person and greatly depends on the type of inflammation. The symptoms also vary according to the type of uveitis.

What is the detection process?
The process of detection starts with a patient's medical history followed by several medical tests to rule out autoimmune disorders. This is followed by an evaluation of the central nervous system to rule out multiple sclerosis. Some of the other tests conducted by ophthalmologists include measuring the ocular pressure, slit lamp exam, funduscopic exam and visual acuity test.

The primary aim of the treatment is to eradicate inflammation, restore vision, prevent tissue damage and reduce pain. The treatment plan depends on the type of uveitis a patient displays. Doctors often suggest a dose of corticosteroid eye drops to arrest the infection in and around the eye. Other treatment methods include the prescription of immunosuppressive agents.

Furthermore, a doctor may suggest steroidal medication in the form of an eye drop, pill or injection. It can also be surgically infused into the eye. Some other agents used for treatment are azathioprine, methotrexate and mycophenolate. Medications such as these require regular monitoring of the blood to check for any side effects. Doctors also suggest biologics such as infliximab, rituximab, and adalimumab. Most of these drugs have a specific target in the immune system.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

6486 people found this helpful

What Is Uveitis? How Can It Be Treated?

Super-Speciality Trained Ophthalmologists
Ophthalmologist, Delhi
What Is Uveitis? How Can It Be Treated?

Uveitis is a set of inflammatory diseases that results in the swelling and damaging of the eye tissue. It can lead to temporary or permanent loss of vision. This disease often affects a part of the eye called the uvea, from which it has derived its name. It can affect people of all ages and can last from a short to long period of time. Ophthalmologists categorize uveitis into four major parts posterior uveitis, anterior uveitis, panuveitis uveitis and intermediate uveitis. This disease can be infectious or noninfectious, depending on the nature of the infection.

What causes uveitis and what are the major risk factors?
This disease is caused by the eye's inflammatory response and is caused by a series of potential factors such as the following:

  • Immune system attack from the body
  • Eye bruises
  • Eye infection or tumor within the eye
  • Foreign toxins that penetrate the eye

What are the diseases associated with uveitis?
Uveitis is associated with a range of diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Behcet's syndrome, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's (VKH) disease, psoriasis, herpes zoster infection, tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis.

What are the typical symptoms of uveitis?
One or both eyes can be affected by uveitis. Some of the common symptoms include pain in the eye, light sensitivity and blurred and dark spots in vision. Moreover, the symptoms might vary from person to person and greatly depends on the type of inflammation. The symptoms also vary according to the type of uveitis.

What is the detection process?
The process of detection starts with a patient's medical history followed by several medical tests to rule out autoimmune disorders. This is followed by an evaluation of the central nervous system to rule out multiple sclerosis. Some of the other tests conducted by ophthalmologists include measuring the ocular pressure, slit lamp exam, funduscopic exam and visual acuity test.

The primary aim of the treatment is to eradicate inflammation, restore vision, prevent tissue damage and reduce pain. The treatment plan depends on the type of uveitis a patient displays. Doctors often suggest a dose of corticosteroid eye drops to arrest the infection in and around the eye. Other treatment methods include the prescription of immunosuppressive agents.

Furthermore, a doctor may suggest steroidal medication in the form of an eye drop, pill or injection. It can also be surgically infused into the eye. Some other agents used for treatment are azathioprine, methotrexate and mycophenolate. Medications such as these require regular monitoring of the blood to check for any side effects. Doctors also suggest biologics such as infliximab, rituximab, and adalimumab. Most of these drugs have a specific target in the immune system.

4558 people found this helpful

Options Other Than Knee Replacement

MBBS, M. S., SR (AIIMS),FIJRS (SOUTH KOREA)
Orthopedist, Delhi
Options Other Than Knee Replacement

There is no cure for arthritis but there are a number of treatments that may help relieve the pain and disability it can cause.

  • As with other arthritic conditions, initial treatment of arthritis of the knee is nonsurgical. Your doctor may recommend a range of treatment options.
  • Lifestyle modifications. Some changes in your daily life can protect your knee joint and slow the progress of arthritis.
  • Minimize activities that aggravate the condition, such as climbing stairs.
  • Switching from high impact activities (like jogging or tennis) to lower impact activities (like swimming or cycling) will put less stress on your knee.
  • Losing weight can reduce stress on the knee joint, resulting in less pain and increased function.
  • Physical therapy. Specific exercises can help increase range of motion and flexibility, as well as help strengthen the muscles in your leg. Your doctor or a physical therapist can help develop an individualized exercise program that meets your needs and lifestyle.
  • Assistive devices. Using devices such as a cane, wearing shock-absorbing shoes or inserts, or wearing a brace or knee sleeve can be helpful. A brace assists with stability and function, and may be especially helpful if the arthritis is centered on one side of the knee. There are two types of braces that are often used for knee arthritis: an" unloader" brace shifts weight away from the affected portion of the knee, while a" support" brace helps support the entire knee load.
  • Other remedies. Applying heat or ice, using pain-relieving ointments or creams, or wearing elastic bandages to provide support to the knee may provide some relief from pain.
  • Medications. Several types of drugs are useful in treating arthritis of the knee. Because people respond differently to medications, your doctor will work closely with you to determine the medications and dosages that are safe and effective for you.
  • Over-the-counter, non-narcotic pain relievers and anti-inflammatory medications are usually the first choice of therapy for arthritis of the knee. Acetaminophen is a simple, over-the-counter pain reliever that can be effective in reducing arthritis pain.
  • Like all medications, over-the-counter pain relievers can cause side effects and interact with other medications you are taking. Be sure to discuss potential side effects with your doctor.
  • Another type of pain reliever is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, or nsaid (pronounced" en-said"). Nsaids, such as ibuprofen and naproxen, are available both over-the-counter and by prescription. A cox-2 inhibitor is a special type of nsaid that may cause fewer gastrointestinal side effects. Common brand names of cox-2 inhibitors include celebrex (celecoxib) and mobic (meloxicam, which is a partial cox-2 inhibitor). A cox-2 inhibitor reduces pain and inflammation so that you can function better. If you are taking a cox-2 inhibitor, you should not use a traditional nsaid (prescription or over-the-counter). Be sure to tell your doctor if you have had a heart attack, stroke, angina, blood clot, hypertension, or if you are sensitive to aspirin, sulfa drugs or other nsaids.
  • Corticosteroids (also known as cortisone) are powerful anti-inflammatory agents that can be injected into the joint these injections provide pain relief and reduce inflammation; however, the effects do not last indefinitely. Your doctor may recommend limiting the number of injections to three or four per year, per joint, due to possible side effects.
  • In some cases, pain and swelling may" flare" immediately after the injection, and the potential exists for long-term joint damage or infection. With frequent repeated injections, or injections over an extended period of time, joint damage can actually increase rather than decrease.
  • Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (dmards) are used to slow the progression of rheumatoid arthritis. Drugs like methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and hydroxychloroquine are commonly prescribed.
  • In addition, biologic dmards like etanercept (embril) and adalimumab (humira) may reduce the body's overactive immune response. Because there are many different drugs today for rheumatoid arthritis, a rheumatology specialist is often required to effectively manage medications.
  • Viscosupplementation involves injecting substances into the joint to improve the quality of the joint fluid.
  •  Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, substances found naturally in joint cartilage, can be taken as dietary supplements. Although patient reports indicate that these supplements may relieve pain, there is no evidence to support the use of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate to decrease or reverse the progression of arthritis.
5 people found this helpful

Spondyloarthritis

MD
General Physician, Secunderabad
Spondyloarthritis

Spondyloarthritis (also known as spondyloarthropathy) is the term which describes the connective tissue diseases. It is the group of inflammatory diseases, including arthritis of the peripheral joints and spine (sacroiliitis or spondylitis); including the area where ligaments and tendons attach to bones (enthesitis or enthesopathy). These diseases cause pain or stiffness in the leg or arm joints, spine, ligaments and tendons become inflamed. Skin rashes, eye, and intestinal problems may also be able to occur.

Epidemiology

  • Spondyloarthritis is a pathology that specifically strikes young people. The symptoms most frequently start before the age of 45. It affects more males than females.
  • Predisposition to spondyloarthritis, especially spa, is determined largely by genetic factors.
  • The incidence rate is higher in populations with a higher prevalence of hla-b27.
  • Psoriatic skin lesions and colitis due to inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) have been considered as both basic, subtype-defining entities with their own genetic background (distinct from hla-b27 genotype), and as manifestations of spondyloarthritis.
  • There is a strong need to diagnose patients with spa in an earlier stage; currently, there is a delay of 5–10 years between onset of the first symptoms and diagnosis.

Types

There are five types of spondyloarthritis

Ankylosing spondylitis or bechterew disease: it is the type of arthritis that affects the spine. Symptoms include pain and stiffness in the lower back and in the neck. Spine bones fuse together and it will become rigid spine and it leads to stoope over posture.

Psoriatic arthritis: psoriatic arthritis is the form of arthritis that affects the people who have psoriasis. Most people diagnosed with psoriasis and later diagnosed with psoriatic arthritis. It may affect any part of the body such as fingertips and spine. The main symptoms are joint pain, stiffness, and swelling.

Psoriatic arthritis

Reactive arthritis: it occurs due to the infection by certain bacteria. Often the bacteria’s from genitals (chlamydia trachomatis) or bowel (campylobacter, salmonella, shigella, and yersinia). It usually targets your knees and joints of ankles or feet.

Reactive arthritis

Undifferentiated arthritis: undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis does not conform to any of the recognized inflammatory arthritis types. It may include monoarthritis of a single joint; oligoarthritis, which is usually when four or fewer joints are involved; or polyarthritis, which usually involves many small joints.

Risk factors

Risk factors may be higher due to following reasons:

  • Family member having the gene which causes spondyloarthritis
  • Positive results for the hla-b27 gene
  • Recurring bacterial infection in your gut
  • Have other inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis or inflammatory bowel disease

Causes

  • The main cause is not known, but researchers pointed out that the hereditary genetics playing an important role in this disease. Since this disease occurs often in family members of patients who have spondyloarthritis.
  • Many genes cause it. Up to 30 genes have been found. But the major gene that causes spondyloarthritis is hla-b27.
  • Bacterial infections can also cause reactive spondyloarthritis known to be triggered by a bacteria chlamydia or food borne infections.

Symptoms and complications of spondyloarthritis

The first and major symptoms of all types of spondyloarthritis are severe low back pain, swelling of arms, stiffness, and fatigue. The different types of spondyloarthritis can be manifested by the following signs and symptoms.

  • Alternative or unilateral buttock pain
  • Arthritis in small joints
  • Arthritis in large joints such as knee joint, ankle joint and elbow joint (peripheral arthritis)
  • Numbness and tingling sensation in arms and legs
  • Spinal fusion may occur in ankylosing spondylitis
  • Inflammation at the interfaces between bone and tendon or ligament of limbs (enthesitis)
  • Inflammation of intestine, urinary tract and aortic heart valves. These can lead to spinal joints inflammation.
  • Inflammation of joints in pelvis and spine (sacroiliitis)
  • Enteropathic arthritis shows symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain
  • Digestive problems
  • Skin disease like psoriasis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Redness of eye (iritis)
  • Swollen fingers and
  • Pain in the heels cause difficult to walk, stand even for small duration

Diagnosis and testing

First a doctor may ask for patient’s medical history, physical exam and may suspects for symptoms of spondyloarthritis. To confirm doctor may perform the following diagnosis and tests.

  • X-rays: x-ray images shows the change of the sacroiliac joints in the pelvis and fusion of spine. If these changes not observed, but symptoms shows spondyloarthritis doctor will suggest mri scan. Mri shows these changes more promptly than the x-ray.
  • Mri scans: it can show a very clear image of enthesitis and also the changes of sacroiliac joints.
  • Ct scans: ct also used for the imaging of bone joints.
  • Hla-b27: most patients with spondyloarthritis have hla-b27 gene, but some people don’t have this gene. So it is necessary to go for a hla-b27 test if the symptoms suspects spondyloarthritis.
  • Complete blood count (cbc): cbc can be useful to find the inflammation.
  • Musculoskeletal ultrasound scanning: ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce the images of inflammatory conditions of muscles, ligaments, and tendons.
  • Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (dexa) scans: used for measuring the bone mineral density usually the bones of the lower spine and hips. Bone loss is measured through this technique.

Treatment of spondyloarthritis.

  • There is no way to cure this disease condition, but there are treatments to counterparts the symptoms.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: certain nsaid’s like naproxen, ibuprofen, meloxicam, or indomethacin are prescribed by doctors to relief from the pain due to symptoms.
  • Corticosteroid medication: inflammation around the tendons and in the joints can be overcome by taking some corticosteroid drugs. This helps to reduce the swelling in the joints.
  • Antibiotics: antibiotics can be used in the case of reactive spondyloarthritis in which bacteria cause the major problems.
  • Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (dmard’s): sulfasalazine (azulfidine) and methotrexate are the best dmard’s to be used for the joint damages in limbs affected by arthritis.
  • Tumor necrosis alpha (tnf-alpha) blockers: fda approved tnab are adalimumab (humira), adalimumab-atto (amjevita), a biosimilar to humira, certolizumab pegol (cimzia), etanercept (enbrel), etanercept-szzs (ereizi), a biosimilar to enbrel, golimumab (simponi), infliximab (remicade), infliximab-dyyb (inflectra), a biosimilar to remicade, and secukinimab (cosentyx). These are biosimilars used to treat arthritis in spine joints.
  • Surgery: patients with over inflammation of pelvis joints needs hip replacement. In the case of heavy damage in the cartilage of joints needs surgery to repair. In some rare cases, spinal surgery also needed.

Prevention and control measures

  • Prevention from spondyloarthritis needed some lifestyle changes as follows.
  • Quit smoking: smoking speeds up the spinal fusion in addition to other bad health effects.
  • Follow good posture: practicing a proper sitting and posture makes your spine to escape from growing into slumped-over position and strain.
  • Daily physical exercise: frequent home exercise and physiotherapy is essential to reduce the stiffening of spine and other joint problems. It also helps to have your heart healthy.
  • Good diet: follow the diets that are rich in calcium. Dairy products are preferred foe calcium rich foods.
Psoriatic arthritis
3 people found this helpful