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HIV Tridot Test Tips

HIV & STD - How Are They Related?

MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Program in Diabetology
General Physician, Delhi
HIV & STD - How Are They Related?
The general acceptance is that, when someone suffers from Sexually Transmitted Disease or STD, the risk of getting affected by HIV increases for that particular person. This is true for both biological as well as for behavioral reasons.

HIV is one of the diseases which are caused as a result of sexual transmission. Before knowing the exact link between HIV and STD, understanding what the two concepts exactly are, would be beneficial.

Let us now look at the two concepts in detail:

STD -

As already mentioned earlier, STD basically stands for Sexually Transmitted Disease. This is used to refer to a condition that gets passed from one person to another by way of sexual contact.
A person can develop a Sexually Transmitted Disease if anyone has unprotected sex either in the vagina, anal or orally with someone, who is already carrying a STD.
Sexually Transmitted Disease can also be sometimes called as a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) or even as Venereal Disease.
Still, this does not mean that sex is the only medium through which sexually transmitted diseases get transmitted from one person to another. On the basis of specific diseases under this, one can also get plagued by infections while sharing needles as well as breastfeeding.
Now, we will discuss the symptoms of STD in men and women, which would give a clear picture as to how do they differ between the two sexes:
Symptoms in Men -

Though there is a possibility that Sexually Transmitted Diseases may not come up with any kind of symptoms, still certain diseases under this do have some obvious symptoms.
Among men, some of the common symptoms include:
Discomfort or Pain experienced while having sex or at the time of urination.
Men could also notice sores, bumps or rashes on or close to the penis, testicles, anus, buttocks, thighs and even mouth.
There could be unusual discharge or even bleeding from the penis.
Testicles might get swollen or they could cause a lot of pain.
Symptoms in Women -
Some of the common symptoms of STD among women include:

Discomfort or pain suffered at the time of having sex or while urinating.
Rashes or sores around the vagina, thighs, anus or mouth.
Unusual kind of discharge or bleeding from the vagina
Itchy feeling in or just around the vagina.
Types of STDs
HIV happens to be one of the STDs. Other diseases include:

Chlamydia
Gonorrhea
Syphilis
Pubic Lice
Trichomoniasis
Herpes
Now, let us talk about HIV in detail:
HIV is a kind of virus that tends to damage the immune system. The immune system primarily helps the human body in fighting against infections and different kinds of diseases. HIV that is untreated causes infection and also goes on to kill CD4 cells, which are a kind of immune cell known as T cells.

Some of the early symptoms include:

Fever
Aches and Pains
Chills
Lymph nodes getting swollen
Sore throat
Headache
Feeling of nausea
Rashes
Though these symptoms getaway within a month people can even carry HIV without having serious or any kind of symptoms that persist and live for many years.

Some of those symptoms are:

Fevers
Recurrent fatigue
Headaches
Stomach problems
The relation between STD and HIV

Research suggests that Sexually Transmitted Diseases like Gonorrhea and Syphilis not only look to provide HIV very easy access to cells and tissues of the body that are vulnerable but also STD co-infection can actually lead to an increase in the infections of the person with HIV, hence making them more probable towards transmitting the virus to others.

People, who are already suffering from Sexually Transmitted Diseases, can increase their susceptibility towards HIV through a number of ways. They are as follows:

Some kind of Sexually Transmitted Diseases can lead to open wounds or ulcers to get formed in the genital area. These kinds of wounds can provide the virus called HIV, a direct entry into a person s blood.
Certain diseases that are sexually transmitted, do not result in having open wounds but the presence of the infection itself can cause one s body to have an increase in the concentration of CD4 T-cells in the genital region.
The fact has been well established that increase in the concentration of these CD4 T-cells can give HIV with quite a favorable target for spreading the infection.
People, who are infected with a Sexually Transmitted Disease or STD, also have quite heavy concentrations of HIV in the liquids of semen and also in the vaginal fluid. This leads to an increase in the possibility of HIV transmission.
A study has even proved that Men having got infected with HIV and Gonorrhea, have HIV, at least 10 times more in their seminal fluid than those who are only infected with HIV.
Some of the major concerns are Sexually Transmitted Diseases like Infective Syphilis, Gonorrhea, and Herpes, with the strong evidence getting established regarding the fact that Chlamydia can also lead to an increased risk of HIV among women.
1939 people found this helpful

HIV - How Does Nutrition Help In It?

MD, Diploma in Family Medicine, MBBS
HIV Specialist, Ghaziabad
HIV - How Does Nutrition Help In It?
A healthy immune system and optimum physical strength is maintained by an adequate nutritional status of the body. Unexpected loss of weight, loss of appetite, low dietary intake due to ulcers in the mouth and an altered rate of metabolism are common in HIV infected individuals. It is essential to regain the lost weight and the muscle mass in the early stages of the infection since the correction of nutritional status becomes difficult with the progression of the disease.

Certain measures like definitive anti-retroviral therapy combined with the treatment of opportunistic infections like TB, Candidiasis and other bacterial infections along with the provision of nutritive aid in the form of a balanced diet, regular physical activity, and use of appetite stimulants help in improving the general health of the body. A widespread deficiency of essential nutrition and micro-nutrients is observed among the HIV-infected people. Supplement composition, treatment given and characteristics of the patient vary widely across researches done.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends an intake of 1 Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of each of the required micronutrient. This may sometimes require taking supplements of the micronutrients.There is a direct relation between HIV infection and malnutrition, where each makes an individual more susceptible to the other. HIV infection can increase the severity of malnutrition and vice versa.

Malnutrition can worsen the progression of HIV, which further in turn further worsens malnutrition. This is an unending cycle, until an intervention occurs. An increase in the nutritional needs, poor intake of nutrients and increased losses through vomiting and diarrhea lead to a poor nutritional status.

This causes weight loss and wasting of muscles.
Loss of the lean body mass is definitively linked to disease and morbidity.
There is a sense of overall lack of energy, fatigue, lethargy and weakness.
The immune system is composed of proteins.
Reduced intake of proteins in the diet results in a decreased production of the immune cells.
Certain amino acids are responsible to aid in the efficient functioning of the immune system.
Deficiency of these amino acids impairs immune function.
This impairment of the immune system makes the individual vulnerable to various infections.
The opportunistic infections like tuberculosis (TB), Candida and bacterial pneumonias are commonly observed in individuals with HIV.
These diseases further strain the immune system and cause disease progression. It is important to know that nutrition acts as an adjunct to appropriate anti-retroviral therapy. Multivitamins, supplements of beta-carotene and Vitamin A, zinc, selenium and probiotics help in maintaining optimum nutrition in an HIV infected individual. Anabolic agents and appetite stimulants help in overcoming muscle wasting. Nutrient-dense meals consumed in small portions at frequent intervals are better accepted in the body rather than the regular 3 large meals.

Water consumption during meals should be avoided, to prevent a feeling of fullness in the stomach due to water rather than food. A healthy and balanced nutrition is essential in living a normal life. Maintaining the lost weight and stamina of the body, replacement of the lost nutrients, vitamins and minerals aid in improvement of the immune function. Proper nutrition can delay progression of the HIV infection into AIDS disease by improving the response of the body to the treatment given.
1104 people found this helpful

HIV - Can It Be Checked Through Oral Test?

Dentist, Mumbai
HIV - Can It Be Checked Through Oral Test?
HIV is a systemic disease which affects all parts of the body. The oral cavity also has some tell-tale symptoms which indicate HIV / AIDS. A careful examination and detailed history of symptoms is essential. In some cases, the oral manifestations could be the area where HIV is suspected. This can help in reducing morbidity and improves prognosis. The oral lesions that occur in HIV patients can vary and differ significantly in children and adults. While there are a variety of oral lesions in HIV-infected individuals, listed below are some common infections seen in HIV patients. These are a combination of fungal, viral and bacterial infections.

Candidiasis: Candida is an opportunistic fungus that is normally present in the oral cavity and with reduced immunity of HIV, recurrent bouts of the infection begins to show up. It can be in the form of regular thrush which is whitish and cannot be scraped off (pseudomembranous candidiasis), hyperplastic candidiasis (white patches which can be scraped off) or erythematous (reddish patches). Candida can involve any part of the oral mucosa including the pharynx and the palate.
Herpes Simplex: This is the most common viral infection seen in patients with HIV/AIDS. There could be primary or secondary infection of herpes virus, especially inside the mouth and the vermillion border of the lips.
Herpes zoster: This virus, when already present in the body, can be reactivated with HIV/AIDS and with oral herpes. The distinction with herpes simplex is from their distribution. These are unilateral, along the distribution of the maxillary or mandibular nerve. The lesions appear both on the facial skin and the oral mucosa. While the facial ones break open and form crusts, the mucosal ones coalesce to form larger lesions.
Hairy Leukoplakia: This is present in about 20% of asymptomatic HIV patients. Onset of hairy leukoplakia is an indication of rapid progression of HIV with increased CD4 counts. The typical lesion is a non-movable, hairy lesion along the side of the tongue and can spread to the top and the undersurface of the tongue. There are large amounts of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) identified from biopsies of hairy leukoplakia.
Cytomegalovirus: If the ulcers have a necrotic base with a halo surrounding it, it is CMV infection, usually seen on any oral mucosal surface.
Periodontal disease: This is one of the bacterial infections that manifests itself in HIV patients. It can take two forms such as Linear Gingival Erythema (LGE) which can subsequently lead to Necrotizing Ulcerative Periodontitis (NUP). The oral hygiene is generally good with minimal plaque and there is rapid bone loss and soft tissue reddening and swelling. The, mouth, therefore is certainly a window to one s health.
Diagnosing HIV with Western Blot Test-

It is a series of blood screenings are performed to test for HIV. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), also known as an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), is the first test that your healthcare provider will order to screen for HIV. ELISA, like the Western blot test, detects HIV antibodies in your blood. Antibodies are proteins your immune system produces in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as viruses. If you test positive for HIV on the ELISA test, your provider will order the Western blot test to confirm HIV infection.
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HIV - Know Mode Of Transmission!

MD - Internal Medicine, DIM -Diploma in Industrial Medicine, Certificate in HIV Medicine
HIV Specialist, Mumbai
HIV - Know Mode Of Transmission!
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a subgroup of retrovirus (lentivirus) that causes HIV infection. After a period of time, this infection leads to what is called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Epidemiology

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), from 2010-2015, the estimated rate of HIV infection in all 50 US states decreased from 14.2 per 100,000 population in 2010 to 12.3 per 100,000 population in 2015. In 2015, 39,513 individuals were diagnosed with HIV infection. From 2010 to 2014, the annual number of new HIV infections decreased by 9%.

Virology HIV-1 and HIV-2 are retroviruses in the Retroviridae family, Lentivirus genus. They are enveloped, diploid, single-stranded RNA viruses with a DNA intermediate. Upon entry into the target cell, the viral RNA genome is converted into double-stranded DNA by an enzyme, reverse transcriptase that is transported along with the viral genome in the virus particle. The resulting viral DNA is then imported into the cell nucleus and integrated into the cellular DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, integrase. HIV contains three retroviral genes, namely gag, pol, and env.

Gag gene: Encodes group-specific antigen; the inner structural proteins
Pol gene: Encodes polymerase; it also contains integrase and protease
Env gene: Encodes the viral envelope, the outer structural proteins responsible for cell-type specificity. Glycoprotein 120, the viral envelope protein, binds to the host CD4+molecule
Pathophysiology

HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system, such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells and leads to cellular immune deficiency. This results in the development of opportunistic infections and neoplastic processes.

Mode of Transmission
Sexual intercourse: Unprotected sexual intercourse; especially receptive anal intercourse and different sexual partnersContact with or transfer of blood, pre-ejaculate, semen, and vaginal fluids infected with the virus. Spread from an infected mother to her infant through breast milk. An HIV-positive mother can transmit HIV to her baby both during pregnancy and childbirth due to exposure to her blood or vaginal fluid.

Signs and Symptoms There are 3 categories of infection

Category A: Asymptomatic HIV infection without a history of symptoms or AIDS-defining conditions
Category B: HIV infection with symptoms that are directly attributable to HIV infection
Category C: HIV infection with AIDS-defining opportunistic infections
Investigation

A high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) should be used for screening.

Management

Start with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in all HIV-infected adults ready to start therapy.
CD4 count is no longer a criterion for starting the therapy.
Use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors.
For refractory cases, during the failing treatment regimen and before switching therapy, use rapid confirmation, perform resistance testing and reevaluate.
936 people found this helpful

Hip Fracture - How To Avert It?

MBBS, DNB (Orthopedics), Diploma in Orthopaedics, MCH- Orthopedics
Orthopedic Doctor, Hyderabad
Hip Fracture - How To Avert It?
Old age or certain medical conditions may cause osteoporosis. In such conditions, one needs to be cautious as even the smallest of falls can cause fractures which may render the patient bed-ridden. Here are a few tips to how you can prevent hip fracture.

Read on to find out more about the prevention of hip fracture.

Preventing falls: People over the age of 65 have a higher risk of falling due to various causes. To reduce such risks one should take the help of walking aids such as a walking stick. Avoid walking on slippery surfaces or wear rubber sandals and shoes to ensure that you do not slip on such a surface. One should also exercise regularly to maintain strength in the bones. Flexibility and fitness increase with exercise and thus decrease the chances of falling.
Hip protectors: Hip protectors are used for lessening the impact of a fall. It is highly useful in case of older people for preventing hip fractures. Hip protectors are basically a device which uses padding and plastic material for shielding and absorbing impact and is attached to specially designed undergarments. The padding absorbs the shock and the plastic material diverts the shock away from vulnerable areas. Hip protectors in the past were sparsely used as they used to be highly uncomfortable and used to cause a major inconvenience. Modern hip protectors however have reduced the level of discomfort and also have newer features which provide ventilation, thus reducing sweating. Hip protectors are highly useful for old people who are admitted in care homes and who have a high risk of falling. It is of relatively less useful for people who are active.
Frax tool: The world health organization (WHO) has developed a fracture assessment tool which calculates the risk of fracture of a person whose age is between 40 to 90 years. This tool takes into account the bone mineral density (BMD) and other factors such as age and sex to determine the chances of fracture depending on the current physical condition of your body.
1454 people found this helpful

Hearing Aids - How Can They Enhance Our Life?

MBBS, MS - Otorhinolaryngology
ENT Specialist, Delhi
Hearing Aids - How Can They Enhance Our Life?
Hearing has a deep impact on your life. It determines the kind of life you are going to lead. It has been found by various studies and surveys that hearing aids drastically improve the quality of life you lead. It is the much-needed relief to a life, burdened by the stress and strains of living with hearing impairment. The hearing aids are not just instruments. This is a way to live a life of dignity. According to the Evaluation of the Social and Economic Costs of Hearing Impairment report, hearing loss leads to socio and economic stress in ones life in major continents like Europe, Australia and the United States.

Research conducted by the National Council on Aging found that over 2,000 people living with a hearing impairment or loss experienced positive changes in their respective lives after using hearing aids. They experienced improvements in social, emotional, psychological and physical spheres of life. Furthermore, a US study claims that nine in ten people using hearing aid say that their life has changed for the better after using the aids. It can also be said that hearing aid users lead a better life than non-users of these aids.

How these aids better your life?
Hearing aids gift you a life of expressions and dignity. They can connect you to the rest of the world and empower you to maintain your individualism. You are empowered to make your point in front of others and understand their perspectives too. Here s what a hearing aid can do for you:

Users of hearing aids have a better life as they have improved cognitive functioning. The family members claim that the users of these aids become more interactive. They are lesser of an introvert than the non-users.

It improves the social life of the user. He or she can participate in group activities and their family and other ties or relationships go smooth. There is no communication gap.
Hearing aids build up your confidence. You regain your lost dignity and faith in your abilities. Hearing loss kicks you to a life of loneliness, alienation and leaves you with low confidence levels.
It helps you in having better psychological functioning. It keeps you away from psychological problems like depression, personality disorders and over-all absurd behavioural changes.
It improves the understanding of closer or personal relationships. The warmth in a relationship is regained or bettered with effective communication.
1 person found this helpful

STD Checkup - Why Is It Vital?

MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, DCN -Diploma in Clinical Nutrition, MBBS, Fellowship in Cosmetic Gynaecologgy
Gynaecologist, Noida
STD Checkup - Why Is It Vital?
A STD or sexually transmitted disease is usually an infection which spreads from one person to another during sexual contact. Some STDs can also be transferred through touch, since they spread by skin contact. People hardly like to talk or discuss about STDs, but it is very important to rule out the possibilities of STD. Whether one likes it or not, if STD testing is ignored, then it can lead to long term consequences.

Why STD Testing is Important?

Often STDs have no signs and symptoms, and the only way to know that are you suffering from a STD is to get tested for it. So it is a good idea to get yourself tested, as you never know if you might have a STD even though you don't show symptoms. Also, when STDs are diagnosed, most of them can be cured.

Consequences of Not Getting Tested:

If one has STD and is not getting tested for the same, then it could lead to health problems which can cause permanent damages or might prove to be fatal. Some of the problems are:

- Undiagnosed and untreated STDs can lead to damaged reproductive system leading to sterile men and women.

- Chlamydia, if untreated can lead to epididymitis and shrinkage of testicles and infertility in men. It also leads to pelvic inflammatory disease. But good news is, it can be treated easily.

- Syphillis can make a person blind and deaf, and can also be passed on to babies.

- Gonorrhea which can also be treated easily with antibiotics, can lead to infertility or death if untreated.

- Even HIV/AIDS, if diagnosed in early stages, can enable the patient to lead a normal life and does not mean only death, contrary to conventional perceptions.

Symptoms of STD:

While, gonorrhea, chlamydia and human papilloma virus (HPV) have no symptoms, the common symptoms of STDs might vary.

- In women, the common symptoms are abnormal vaginal discharge (thin watery, curdy white or yellowish), foul odour , pain and burning sensation during urination, bloody discharge and abdominal pain, blisters, warts, and swollen glands.

- Men often experience inflammation of the testicles, prostate, sores, fever, urethral discharge and pain during urination.

If these symptoms are observed, it is vital to get tested for STDs. Also the best way to protect your partner is not to practice unsafe sex and to refrain from the same until diagnosed and treatment is complete. Getting yourself tested for STD is also beneficial, as it can prevent against complications like cancers and infertility.

The standard STD panel of tests consists of -

I. Examination of discharge for bacteria , fungus, chlamydia etc

2. Herpes IgG antibody and HIV antibody blood tests, along with a blood test for syphilis antibody and DNA urine test for gonorrhea and Chlamydia. For more information, make an appointment with us.
4417 people found this helpful

Living With HIV - A Step For Better Health!

MBBS, PG Diploma (HIV Medicines)
HIV Specialist, Surat
Living With HIV - A Step For Better Health!
Living With HIV - A Step For Better Health!
1 person found this helpful

HIV - Know Nutrition For It!

MD - Internal Medicine
General Physician, Ahmedabad
HIV - Know Nutrition For It!
Nutrition and HIV are closely connected. When a patient s immune system is severely affected due to HIV, it can lead to malnutrition and vulnerability to other diseases. Such infections can cause diarrhea, weight loss, and weakness. Malnutrition and not maintaining a healthy intake of nutrients can be a direct link or cause to the progression of the HIV disease.

How does good nutrition help?
Healthy nutrition obviously cannot treat or cure an HIV infection, but it certainly can help the patient to maintain and reinforce the immune system. A healthy diet can also contribute to the general well-being of a patient. Healthy nutrition is an important factor in for people living with HIV. Besides, prophylaxis, a cure for unscrupulous infections, and Anti-Retroviral Treatment, nutrition is essential for an HIV patient.

What is a balanced diet for HIV Patients?
A balanced diet is not a singular meal for patients suffering from HIV. It denotes that a person should eat and drink the correct amount of food from various food groups in order to remain somewhat healthy and strong enough to deal with the treatment process. Drinking adequate clean water is imperative.

What should HIV patients consume?
People living with HIV are advised to consume the fresh vegetables grown in the vicinity. Seasonal fruits and vegetables should be incorporated into their diet.

Choosing foods from these food groups is the key to completing a balanced diet.

Cereals, pulses, roots, and rhizomes.
Legumes, nuts, seeds.
For non-vegetarians, the consumption of protein-rich food items such as fish, meat, and eggs is recommended.
Vegetables are the key to any proper diet is eating green vegetables. It is necessary to make sure that the vegetables are washed and cleaned in order to reduce the risk of further infections or diseases.
Daily consumption of freshly grown fruits including seasonal fruits.
Fats
Sugar
HIV patients should focus on eating regularly. Having three meals a day is a must. Along with a balanced diet, drinking lots of clean or purified water ensures that the body is fully hydrated and helps with maintaining a good digestive process. Foods items that are rich in vitamin A, for example, yellow-orange foods are very important in improving immunity. Fruits such as pawpaw, bananas, and vegetables such as carrots, are good sources of vitamin A.

A well-nourished person is highly likely to preserve a sturdier immune system for dealing with HIV and fighting off the infection. Consulting a physician regarding the appropriate diet is important as some food items may not be suitable for patients.
3039 people found this helpful

Target For HIV And AIDS!

MBBS, PG Diploma (HIV Medicines)
HIV Specialist, Surat
Target For HIV And AIDS!
Target For HIV And AIDS!
1 person found this helpful