Gynaecomastia otherwise commonly referred to as “man boobs”, refers to a common disorder of the endocrine system that causes a man's breasts to swell and become larger than normal. It is most commonly observed in teenage boys and older men. Gynaecomastia is usually caused by an imbalance between sex hormones testosterone and estrogen. Estrogen helps in the growth of breast tissues. Normal men usually have much higher levels of testosterone, which restricts the estrogen from causing the breast tissues to grow. While the causes of Gynaecomastia have not been specific till date, doctors have largely attributed them as physiological or pathological. The signs of Gynaecomastia vary from a very small amount of extra tissues around the nipples to more prominent breast features appearing in one or both breasts. There are two common methodologies of treatment for gynaecomastia. This includes a surgery to remove the excess breast tissue or medication to adjust a hormone imbalance. Male Chest reconstruction is usually not considered as a viable option. However, a General Practitioner may refer the patient to a Plastic Surgeon if gynaecomastia has persisted for a long time and if it has not responded to any other form of treatment. However, medical treatment has been found to be most effective when done within the first two years of the male breast enlargement. The doctor usually prescribes Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) in the event of painful Gynaecomastia.
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