Tuberculosis is still a major health problem in industrialized countries due to specific socioeconomic factors and there is the growing need of new rapid and accurate diagnostic methods. In order to achieve higher sensitivity and specificity compared to traditional methods of microscopic sputum examination and culture. There are two basic approaches for speciality diagnosis of tuberculosis treatment, the direct approach includes detection of mycobacteria or its products and the indirect approach includes measurements of humoral and cellular responses of the host against tuberculosis. Patients treated by surgeons and general physicians who were inexperienced in treating tuberculosis experienced a longer suspicion delay. Enhancing knowledge about tuberculosis among all physicians in the hospital, encouraging staff to consult tuberculosis specialists to confirm a diagnosis and implementing early alarm systems are crucial to improving the correct diagnosis of tuberculosis and to reducing delays in treatment. During the diagnosis of TB disease, the doctor will check for lymph nodes for swelling and also use a stethoscope to listen carefully to the sounds the lungs make while the patient is breathing. The most commonly used diagnostic tool for tuberculosis is a simple skin test, though blood tests are becoming more commonplace. A small amount of a substance called PPD tuberculin is injected just below the skin of your inside forearm. If the patient has ever been exposed to the TB bacteria then the skin will react to the antigens by developing a firm red bump at the site within 2 days.
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