Bone fracture is a medical condition where the continuity of the bone is broken. It can occur in nay bone in the body. Most bone fractures are caused by falls and accidents, and the condition caused by disease are known as pathological fractures. A fracture may also be due to some underlying medical conditions which weaken the bones, such as osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, etc. There are different types of fractures, including avulsion, comminuted and hairline fractures. Stress fractures due to repetitive movements are common. Some of the common symptoms of bone fractures include bruising, pain and swelling, discoloured skin around the affected area, a grating sensation in affected bone, etc.
HOW IS BONE FRACTURE DIAGNOSED?
A bone fracture is diagnosed by an orthopedic by considering the history given, physical examination and radiographic imaging such as taking an X-Ray. CT scan or MRI scan is also done in multiple cases of bone fracture.
HOW IS BONE FRACTURE TREATED?
Treatment of bone fracture is done either through surgical method or conservative method. Surgical treatment involves joining of the broken bone with the help of rods. Conservative method involves the use of a cast that enables bone healing by rendering that part immobile.
DID YOU KNOW?
Metal plates and screws may also be used to fix a fracture.
A fracture may be defined as a medical term for a bone that is broken. Bone fractures are quite common and research shows that on an average, every person suffers from at least 2 fractures during their lifetime. The risk of a fracture is related to age, that is in general, children have a greater tendency to suffer from a fracture. But fractures in children are generally less complicated, as compared to adults. With adults, the bones become more brittle with age, thus if they tend to fall and fracture a bone, healing may be a bit complicated.
One may suffer from a fracture due to a number of reasons like- accidents, falls, osteoporosis and even sports injuries.
The various symptoms of fracture are as follows-
• Extreme pain
• One may experience a kind of deformity
• Inflammation and bruising
• A sense of numbness
• Problems with movement of the affected area
Fractures have been characterised into many different kinds, but the primary types of fracture are-
1. Complete fractures- In case of complete fractures, the affected bone breaks completely, that is, it breaks into two parts, sometime even more
2. Incomplete fractures- In case of incomplete fractures, the affected bones tends to crack, although there is no complete breakage
3. Compound fractures- Also known as an open fracture, the affected bone in this case snaps through the skin
4. Simple fractures- Also known as a closed fracture, the affected bones breaks, but does not snap through the skin
Some common types of simple fractures are-
Greenstick fracture- Known to be very common among children, this fracture is an incomplete one, with a bent bone
Transverse fracture- This fracture occurs at a right angle to the axis of the bone
Oblique fracture- This fracture occurs at an angle to the axis of the bone
Comminuted fracture- In this case the bone breaks into several fragments
Impacted fracture- Also called as a buckle fracture, it generally occurs in children and is identified when the two ends of the broken bone drive into each other.
Various other types of fractures include- pathological fractures and stress fractures. Pathological fractures generally occur because of a disease which tends to weaken the bones. For instance osteoporosis can lead to such fractures. Osteoporosis is a kind of disorder which makes the bones thin causing them to slowly lose their strength. Bone cancer too, can cause Pathological fractures.
It is generally the location of the fracture that determines its severity. Thus, one should be careful to seek the relevant treatment for complete healing and recovery. Leg fracture and hand fracture are very common among all. One may also suffer from clavicle fracture, patella fracture and humerus fracture if not careful.
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