CAKUT or Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract is a group of simple to life-threatening malfunction or malformation of the ureters, kidney, bladders, testis, penis or female genitalia. These malformations are present from the birth when the genital or urinary system of the fetal starts developing. In young children, this kind of malformations can lead to renal transplantations and kidney failures. The primary cause of this kind of congenital problem with the urinary tract is genetic while other possible cause can be due to the environment.
Some of the most common Congenital problems with the urinary tract are:
- Bladder Exstrophy: One of the most common congenital problems in children is bladder malformation. In this case, the bladder is flattened in shape and not round. So it will be exposed on the abdominal walls. This, in turn, will result in widely separated pelvic bones. Thus the function of female genitalia, penis and prostate will be affected. There are different types of Exstrophy and surgeries required for correcting them.
- Undescended Testes: Usually, in the abdomen area, the testicles are formed. After the formation, they pass from the abdominal wall muscles and twist to the local place. This happens in the last few weeks of the pregnancy and is seen only in 5 percent of full-grown boys. Most of the times, testicles fall to the normal place in the first 6 months of their life. Any abnormality in the testicles or missing testicles can be due to problems in the testicular blood vessels or due to loss of blood flow to that particular area. Surgical and nonsurgical therapies like hormone management can be used to treat this kind of congenital problem.
- Vesicoureteral Reflux: The Ureter is the tube in the human body that carries the urine from the kidneys to the bladder. When there is Vesicoureteral Reflux problem, then the urine flows back in the ureter. When the reflux of urine takes place, then that will get detained in that area and can cause damage to the kidneys. There are basically two types of Vesicoureteral Reflux and the primary condition is congenital problems. This problem can also be treated with the help of surgical and nonsurgical methods.
- Hydronephrosis: Another very common congenital problem with the urinary tract in children is Hydronephrosis. The flow of the urine from the kidney can be prevented by any obstruction. This obstruction can result in fluids getting filled in the organs. There can be many disorders or problems associated such as Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney, Posterior Urethral Valve, Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction and Idiopathic Hydronephrosis. There can be many other problems also associated along with these.
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