I am Dr Rita Bakshi chairperson of international fertility centre situated in Green Park Delhi. I have been in this field of fertility for last 18 years, I have to deal with men women who want to conceive. Let me talk of Semen analysis today, yes whether couple wants to conceive I have always asked both the men and the women to come to the OPD and I always tell that for men it is very easy because they have only one single test to do and which is Semen analysis, come to the think of it, it's not surprising for many men not to want to get the test done. They think that they are producing semen and it is put in the predictor of fertility, but to tell you the truth there are many many men who have semen but they may not have any sperms or in other words what we call is azoospermia, no sperms in the ejaculate. So I will request all men to have this test, their role in the field of fertility for example how the test should can be done is that they have abstenin or they do not consummate or masturbate for 3 to 5 days, minimum 3 and maximum 5 days. when they do not masturbate, do not have sex then they should take a clean container with a wide mouth in which they can ejaculate the masturbation. It is important that the semen should reach the lab within the 1 hour of ejaculation. When the ejaculation happens it is mandatory that it has done your baby possibly by masturbation in the lab itself goes to the lab or if it is direct home it would not to be kept in the refrigerator or heated it should be close to the body, at body temperature and it should reach the lab in the one hour, once it is there the semen is left for coagulation and the coaglatim to liquify within an hour to 45 minutes it liquefied and then it is tested for three parameters concentration, motility and morphology. Now the concentration the WHO parameter has now changed and now anything more than 15 million is Good enough found and the motility more than 30% is good enough and morphology of 4% is good enough. So but it is very important that these parameters are meant, in case they are not then one does suspect either infection which one treated with antibiotics and then retest. It is about 3 months for another sperm cycle to start, so give a gap of 3 months repeat sperm semen analysis and check for this sperm or the semen quality. for that man who has used azoospermia and no sperm at all in those cases, we have to find out whether it is because of some obstruction that there is no sperm or it is non-obstructive azoospermia.In case there is an obstruction then one can work out all the obstructions or one can put legally in the testis or the epidemic and take out the sperms from there. In case it is non-obstructive azoospermia one has to see whether the test is atrophy, however, the testosterone amount and look at they just one last word on testosterone injection which many people in the gym and gym trainers give the testosterone injection and steroids injections cause a severe depression in the sperm count and there are many many very good looking study boys who have no sperms just because they have them on the injectables for a long time. So only advice is that stay away from these injections look at the semen analysis and work on it. Thank you so much.