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Top Health Tips on Treating German Measles (Child)

Pneumonia - How Best Can You Prevent Yourself?

MBBS, F.E.M-RCGP(UK)
General Physician, Gurgaon
Pneumonia - How Best Can You Prevent Yourself?
Pneumonia is a type of lung infection that may affect one or both lungs. In this condition, the air sacs, also known as alveoli, fill with pus or fluid, which makes it difficult to breathe. Moreover, pneumonia is known to cause inflammation in the air sacs. This disease may range from mild to life-threatening and the severity depends on the cause of inflammation, the organism fostering your infection, your age and general health.

Symptoms:

Most common symptoms associated with the condition are:

Chest pain
Difficulty in breathing
Shaking chills
Rapid heartbeat
Fever
Rapid breathing
Dry cough
Vomiting
Wheezing
Nausea
Muscle aches
Bluish skin tone due to oxygen deficiency
Blood in sputum that is coughed up mucus
Labored breathing
Confusion
High fever
Causes:

Bacteria: One of the most common causes of pneumonia is the bacteria named as Streptococcus pneumoniae. This type of pneumonia may occur after you have had flu or a cold or maybe even on its own. Moreover, it may affect only one part of the lung i.e. the lobe and is also known as lobar pneumonia.
Viruses: Viruses are one of the main reasons why children below 5 years of age suffer from pneumonia. Viruses that cause pneumonia may also cause cold or flu. Viral pneumonia is usually mild and may be treated at home itself. However, in some cases, it may be very severe and life-threatening.
Mycoplasmas: Mycoplasma is a type of bacteria that doesn't have a cell wall around the cell membrane which is why they are usually unaffected by most antibiotics which target cell wall synthesis. The symptoms of pneumonia caused by mycoplasmas are mild and the patient does not require bed rest. This type of pneumonia is known as 'Walking Pneumonia'.
Fungi: People with weakened immune systems or chronic health problems usually develop pneumonia due to fungi. You may also develop fungal pneumonia by inhaling large doses of it mainly found in soil or bird droppings.
Prevention against Pneumonia

It is important for all of us to prevent ourselves from pneumonia and for that we can follow the below mentioned steps:

Know about the symptoms of pneumonia first: It is difficult to detect or diagnose pneumonia, especially in people over the age of 65. In older patients, the common symptoms such as fever, chills, cough may not be experienced. You should watch out for non-respiratory symptoms like weakness, dizziness, delirium and confusion. It is even more difficult to diagnose pneumonia in people who are suffering from preexisting conditions.
Practice good hygiene: Common respiratory Infections, influenza and cold may cause pneumonia. You should follow hygienic habits. Wash your hands regularly before meals and use hand sanitizers in order to prevent the illness from spreading. You should also maintain proper oral hygiene as several oral infections may also lead to pneumonia. You should also keep away from people who are affected by pneumonia or any other illness like flu, cold and serious diseases such as measles or chicken pox. All these factors may cause pneumonia.
Get vaccinated: It is recommended for people of all ages who may be at a risk of getting pneumonia to get vaccinated and immunized against pneumonia causing virus called pneumococcal pneumonia. This is a one-time vaccine, which prevents and reduces the severity of pneumonia. A booster vaccine after every five years may also be prescribed. Elderly people should be vaccinated against all diseases which cause pneumonia.
Quit smoking: Smoking accounts for being a major cause or risk factor for pneumonia. It increases a person s chance of getting pneumonia as the lungs ability to defend themselves from the infection is reduced. By quitting smoking, you will be able to prevent pneumonia.
Maintain a good general health: Maintaining an overall good health and following healthy habits will help you in preventing pneumonia. This is because your immune system stays strong and is able to fight efficiently against pneumonia-causing infections. A proper diet with all essential nutrients is also recommended along with regular physical exercise and proper rest.
Severe cases of pneumonia are capable of making you suffer and you may be admitted to a hospital. According to studies, it has been estimated that more than 60% of people over the age of 65 need to be hospitalised because of pneumonia. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pulmonologist.
5041 people found this helpful

Measles: Symptoms and Treatments!

MBBS, Diploma In Dermatology And Venerology And Leprosy (DDVL)
Dermatologist, Chennai
Measles: Symptoms and Treatments!
Measles refer to an infection caused by a virus of the same. It mainly affects the respiratory system and its onset is accompanied by high fever, runny nose, frequent coughing and itchy rashes all over the face. It is extremely contagious and spreads through saliva or even mucus. This infection has several symptoms. Some of them are-

Persistent coughing: Affecting the respiratory system, the onset of measles can be identified by persistent and a nagging cough, one that refuses to recuperate.
Fever: As discussed above, if you are infected by the measles virus, chances are very high that you will suffer from extremely high fever. It is often accompanied by chills.
Sore throat: The throat forms an important part of the respiratory system and if it is infected, its repercussions can be felt in the throat. You will have extreme difficulty in eating or swallowing food when suffering from measles.
Small white spots develop inside the mouth: Sometimes you may notice outbreak of small white spots in the interior of your mouth. In case you do, do not take it lightly. This is an important symptom of measles and you must consult a doctor immediately.
Notwithstanding the contagious nature of the infection, there are various treatments available in order to treat this infection. Some of them are-

Acetaminophen: This is used to relieve one of fever as well as pain in the muscles.
Take rest: Suffering from measles is an extremely uncomfortable situation and taking rest always helps. Your immune system, being infected by a virus is rattled and needs sufficient rest to recuperate.
Drink lots of water: Nothing can be an alternative to water. Therefore when suffering from measles, drink as much water as you can. Try to drink at least six to seven glasses of water, a day in order to purge your system.
4509 people found this helpful

Causes and Symptoms of Sore Throat

MBBS (M.A.M.C), M.S. ENT
ENT Specialist, Delhi
Causes and Symptoms of Sore Throat
Viruses are the most common cause of pain in the throat or sore throat, and it is often accompanied by cold symptoms like running nose, red watery eyes, cough and sneezing. Smoking, irritants in the air and pollution are the main causes of sore throat. It becomes very difficult to swallow food in such a condition when an individual experiences pain, itchiness or irritation in their throat.

The main causes of occurrence of Sore throat include:

-Leukemia in exceptional cases
-Measles
-Sinusitis
-Diphtheria
-Mumps
-Bacterial as well as Viral Infection as in Common Cold
-Influenza
-Smoking

Symptoms of Sore Throat:

The Nasal passages get blocked
-Inability to gulp down food
-Severe pain in the throat which is followed by coughing
-Lymph glands get swollen
-Fever is followed by Chills

When to Visit the Doctor:

It is very important to visit your Doctor if the pain in the throat lasts for longer time, and it is accompanied by symptoms like join pain, difficulty in breathing and fever. The primary symptom of sore throat is pain in the throat and other symptoms like hoarseness and white patches on the tonsils also occur under this condition. People of all age groups can get affected with this condition, but it affects mostly children and smokers. People with weak immune system and suffering from allergies are also prone to pain in the throat.
4045 people found this helpful

Urinary Tract Infection in Childhood - What Parents Need To Know?

MD - Paediatrics, MBBS, FISPN & FISPN - Pediatric Nephrology
Pediatrician, Noida
Urinary Tract Infection in Childhood - What Parents Need To Know?
Many children all over the world are affected by urinary tract infections or UTIs that can be resolved with simple antibiotics, but might also lead to complications at times. Most often, kids under 2 years of age are affected by it, and either the bladder or the kidney might be infected leading to cystitis or pyelonephritis.

Causes of UTIs
Though bacterial infections are the most common cause, viral or fungal infections might occur in some cases as well. Uncircumcised male infants, children with poor toilet habits, or female children with poor toilet hygiene are most susceptible to this disease. That is why; females must always wipe from front to back to avoid infecting the urethra. Children suffering from a weak immune system might also be at a risk.

Symptoms and signs
UTIs come with different signs including pain during urinating (dysuria), frequent urination, abnormal urge for urination, or bedwetting. Sometimes, fever, abdominal pain, blood in urine or vomiting might be signs as well.

Which doctor to consult?
In most cases, UTIs in children are treated by pediatricians, but if kidney function is troubled then a pediatric nephrologist needs to be contacted.

Tests carried out: To understand the underlying cause of the infection and any anatomical or functional risk factors, several examinations or tests are carried out. Vital signs like blood pressure, body temperature, and breathing rate are checked. The abdomen is palpated to find tenderness near the kidneys. Genital areas are also examined for signs of trauma, redness, discharge and such. Urine cultures are essential for diagnosing UTIs finally and this helps in assessing the antibiotic sensitivity profile too.
Good to know: Right after an antibiotic is administered, UTI in children starts getting resolved. But recurrent UTIs might lead to urinary tract abnormalities like kidney malformation. Also note that UTI is not contagious, and cannot be passed on if children share a bath or if you sit on an infected toilet seat.
Treatment
In most cases, UTIs respond well to oral antibiotics, though Pyelonephritis may require hospitalization and intravenous drip. Some studies are also carried out to check if the child is susceptible to renal scarring or kidney failure. These are as below:

Renal ultrasound: Defines the location of the kidneys and their size and shape clearly.
Voiding cysto-urethrogram: The bladder is filled with a dye through a catheter in this method. Then the catheter is removed to study if the bladder is getting emptied without any reflux or obstruction.
Renal scan: To test the functioning of the kidneys and the risk of renal scarring, a bit of radioactive material is used.
Intravenous pyelogram: Though rarely used, in this method, a dye is injected into the bloodstream and X-ray images are obtained.
Prevention

Maintaining proper hygiene: Girls should wipe from front to back and uncircumcised boys should be able to gently retract the foreskin to reveal the urethral opening.
Complete voiding of bladder: Encourage kids to urinate every two to three hours, since they often ignore a full bladder to carry on playing.
Avoid foods: Keep kids away from caffeine, carbonated drinks, excess chocolates, and too much citrus.
3751 people found this helpful

Chicken Pox - Should You be Immunized Against it?

DDF, FCCP, MD , MBBS
General Physician, Delhi
Chicken Pox - Should You be Immunized Against it?
Chickenpox or varicella is a type of viral infection that causes itchy rashes accompanied by tiny fluid-filled blisters. It is highly communicable to those who have not experienced this disease earlier or have not been immunized against it through vaccination.

The vaccine against chickenpox is a shot protecting anyone, who has already contracted the disease. It is known as the varicella vaccine since chicken pox is triggered by the virus called varicella-zoster. The vaccine is prepared from a living but a weakened virus.

Why would you require a chicken pox virus?

The risk behind the condition aggravating into something life threatening is high among adults, infants and people possessing a weak immunity system as they are prone to developing serious complications as well. There is no way you can predict who would be the next prey.
The illness is extremely contagious and can get transmitted either through air while coughing or sneezing or by direct contact especially with the fluid present in the chicken pox blisters. For this reason, you need to stay segregated until and unless all your blisters have dried up or crusted over. The illness may induce itchy rashes all over your body along with fussiness, cough and headaches.
The vaccine is recommended for all adults and adolescents who have not been infected by chicken pox ever earlier. A vaccine called MMRV offers a combined protection against varicella, rubella, mumps and measles.
The vaccine has to be administered in two shots. However the medicines are not devoid of mild side effects,for instance, swelling in the region where you have been injected alongside mild rashes.
Who should not opt for the vaccine?

Pregnant women, since the effect of the vaccine on your fetus is yet to be unraveled
People who are allergic to neomycin and gelatin ( a gelatin-free varicella vaccine is actually available)
People suffering from diseases caused due to a weak immunity system or taking high dosage of steroids
Cancer patients who have to be treated with chemotherapy, drugs and X-rays
People who have had a blood transfusion in about five months before receiving the shot.
3241 people found this helpful

All You Want To Know About Pinta

Diploma In Dermatologist, Venereologist and Laparoscopy, MBBS
Dermatologist, Rewari
All You Want To Know About Pinta
Pinta is a skin disease caused by a bacterial infection. It is usually acquired during childhood and contracted through the skin to skin contact with an infected person. The disease is endemic to Mexico, Central America and South America. About One million of cases with Pinta were reported in Central and South America in the year 1950. The disease sets in within an incubation period of two to three weeks. It affects mostly the exposed areas of the skin including the arms, legs and face. The word Pinta is a Spanish word which means painted . Pinta is classified under a treponemal disease because it is contagious and is caused by treponemes, a genus of spiral-shaped bacteria. Recent reports suggest the occurrence of disease in the Philippines and some areas of the pacific region.

The bacterium enters the skin through a cut, scratch or a lesion and causes a red scaly bump called the primary lesion. Other lesions may start to form surrounding the primary lesion usually in exposed surface of arms and legs. Local lymph nodes also become enlarged. Within three to nine months, these thick flat lesions called pintados spread all over the body. Sometimes the disease spreads to eyes causing eyelid deformities. The last stage of the disease is characterised by pigment changes in the skin including a combination of hyperpigmentation and depigmentation causing permanent discoloration. However, many patients get treated successfully before they reach the last stage.

Clinical Diagnosis of the infection is usually done through a blood sample showing bacterial infection or through diagnosing the scrapings of the lesion. The patient is subjected to an antibiotic treatment of drugs like penicillin, tetracycline, azithromycin and chloramphenicol. If prescribed dose of antibiotics is followed regularly, the cure is possible, however, skin damage caused due to lesions remain irreversible.

The disease is prevalent in rural and poverty-stricken areas and thus holds a strong connect with the socio-economic life of people. The living conditions, adequate water supply, domestic, personal and community hygiene, a proper waste disposal system and mosquito prevention and control play an important role in the prevention of the disease.

Prevention and control programs for Pinta must focus on awareness generation among high-risk groups. Though community hygiene is covered under many state health programs, for many communities, personal hygiene and the safe domestic environment remains far from satisfactory. Thus, first and foremost intervention must include building knowledge about maintaining proper hygiene and inculcating good habits for health and disease prevention. Since the disease is generally acquired in childhood, educating the parents about the early signs and symptoms of infection can also go a long way in ensuring that timely medical help is provided.
2590 people found this helpful

Measles - Symptoms And Treatment

MBBS, MD - DVL
Dermatologist, Hyderabad
Measles - Symptoms And Treatment
Measles refer to an infection caused by a virus. It mainly affects the respiratory system and its onset is accompanied by high fever, runny nose, frequent coughing and itchy rashes all over the face. It is extremely contagious and spreads through saliva or even mucus. This infection has several symptoms. Some of them are:

Persistent coughing: Affecting the respiratory system, the onset of measles can be identified by persistent and a nagging cough, one that refuses to recuperate.
Fever: As discussed above, if you are infected by the measles virus, chances are very high that you will suffer from extremely high fever. It is often accompanied by chills.
Sore throat: The throat forms an important part of the respiratory system and if it is infected, its repercussions can be felt in the throat. You will have extreme difficulty in eating or swallowing food when suffering from measles.
Small white spots develop inside the mouth: Sometimes you may notice outbreak of small white spots in the interior of your mouth. In case you do, do not take it lightly. This is an important symptom of measles and you must consult a doctor immediately.
Not withstanding the contagious nature of the infection, there are various treatments available in order to treat this infection. Some of them are:

Acetaminophen: This is used to relieve one of fever as well as pain in the muscles.
Take rest: Suffering from measles is an extremely uncomfortable situation and taking rest always helps. Your immune system, being infected by a virus is rattled and needs sufficient rest to recuperate.
Drink lots of water: Nothing can be an alternative to water. Therefore when suffering from measles, drink as much water as you can. Try to drink at least six to seven glasses of water, a day in order to purge your system.
2574 people found this helpful

Measles - How They Affect You? + Treatment

Fellowship In PCCM, Fellow-Pediatric Flexible Bronchoscopy, Fellowship In Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care, D.C.H., M.B.B.S
Pediatrician, Ahmedabad
Measles - How They Affect You? + Treatment
Measles or rubeola as it is also known is one of the leading causes of children s death around the world. This viral infection is communicable through the air and spreads through contact with infected saliva and mucus. Thus sharing cutlery or glassware with an infected person can increase a person s risk of suffering from this disease. Thankfully measles can be prevented through vaccination known as MMR. This vaccination is given to infants and also protects them against mumps, rubella and chickenpox. The first dose of MMR vaccination is given when the child is about 1 year old and a booster dose is repeated when the child is 4-6 years old.

One of the most characteristic symptoms of measles is a reddish rash that begins inside the mouth and later erupts all over the body. This is usually preceded by a high fever, cold, cough, sore throat and swelling of the lymph nodes. Fatigue, diarrhoea and redness of the eyes are other symptoms of this disease. Measles symptoms are not apparent the moment a person is exposed to the virus. It can take 7 to 18 days for symptoms to become visible after catching the infection, this is known as the incubation period. Measles affects adults is a more severe way than children.

Children and adults with a weak immune system are highly susceptible to complications associated with measles. In some cases, it can lead to life threatening conditions, such as pneumonia and encephalitis or inflammation of the brain. Other complications associated with measles include ear infections, bronchitis, blindness and a sharp fall in platelet count. A pregnant woman suffering from measles also has a high risk of miscarrying the baby or preterm labour.

There is no definitive form of treating measles and doctors typically address the symptoms while prescribing medication. In most cases, the symptoms and the virus should disappear in two to three weeks. Some of the common forms of medicine prescribed to deal with measles are:

Medication to relieve fever
Antibiotics to prevent or treat accompanying bacterial infections
Vitamin A supplements to reduce the severity of measles symptoms
Pain relievers to deal with muscle pains
In addition, the patient needs plenty of rest and fluids to strengthen the immune system. The use of a humidifier can also help treat a sore throat and cough. Bright lights can aggravate headaches and irritation and hence should be avoided. Hence, avoid watching television and activities like reading.
1797 people found this helpful