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Obesity - A Leading Cause Of Death Worldwide!

Doctor of Medicine (M.D.), MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Physician, Bangalore
Obesity - A Leading Cause Of Death Worldwide!
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess accumulation of body fat creates an adverse effect on health. Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing rates in adults and children. In 2015, 600 million adults and 100 million children were obese. Obesity is more common in women than men.It is defined by body mass index (BMI) and further evaluated in terms of fat distribution via the waist-hip ratio (WHR) and total cardiovascular risk factors. Body mass index is closely related to both percentage body fat and total body fat.

It is defined as the subject's weight divided by the square of their height and is calculated as follows:

BMI = m/h2(Where m and h are the subject's weight and height, respectively)Waist-hip ratio is the dimensionless ratio of the circumference of the waist to that of the hips. This ratio is calculated as waist measurement divided by hip measurement (W H)The WHR has been used as an indicator or measure of health and the risk of developing serious health conditions.

The BMR of the body is classified into the following types:

BMI (kg/m2)
Classification up to 18.5
Underweight18.5 25.0
Normal weight25.0 30.0
Overweight 30.0 35.0
Class I obesity 35.0 40.0
Class II obesity

40.0 and above

Class III obesity

Diet: Excessive food energy intake
Sedentary lifestyle
Other illnesses: Hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, growth hormone deficiency, and eating disorders
Certain medications: Insulin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants, steroids, certain anticonvulsants, pizotifen, and some forms of hormonal contraception
Gut bacteria Health risks associated with obesity
Bone and cartilage degeneration (osteoarthritis)
Coronary heart disease
Gallbladder disease (gall stone)
High blood pressure (hypertension)
High total cholesterol and high levels of triglycerides (dyslipidemia)
Respiratory problems
Several cancers
Sleep apnea
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Management of obesity
Conservative management

Diet: Limit energy intake from total fats and sugars and increase consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, and nuts.
Eat consistently: Resist the urge to overeat. Your food intake should follow a regular routine. Overeating not only upsets your routine but also impacts your metabolism.
Breakfast: Never miss your breakfast. Breakfast is a crucial meal; it also helps stave off hunger later on in the day, which often leads to overeating and snacking.
Monitor yourself: Keep a close check on what you eat and regularly weigh yourself.
Physical activity: Perform at least 200 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise each week. This schedule should be spread out over at least 3 days.
Watching TV: Limit watching TV to no more than 10 hours each week.
Surgical management

The surgical management of obesity involves the following two procedures:

Restrictive procedures
Malabsorptive procedures
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Laparoscopy - Know Importance Of It In Gynaecology!

DNB - Obstetrics & Gynecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Pune
Laparoscopy - Know Importance Of It In Gynaecology!
Laparoscopy, also known as minimally invasive surgery, is a type of surgery that is used to operate the organs inside the abdomen without making big incisions. The surgery is done with the help of a laparoscope, which is a long and thin tube carrying a high-resolution camera at the front and high-intensity light. A laparoscope is connected to a video monitor and then inserted inside the abdomen through the small incision (0.5 cm to 1.5 cm). As the instrument moves inside the abdomen, it sends images to the video monitor, which the surgeons uses as a reference to operate the affected parts.

Laparoscopy is also used as a diagnostic technique to examine the organs of the abdomen or pelvis and this makes it very useful for gynaecologists. This surgical and diagnostic technique plays a significant role in gynaecology as it can help diagnose and treat multiple gynaecological problems with minimum pain and discomfort to the patient. In fact, there is a special instrument called fertiloscope, a type of laparoscope that is modified and made fit for the trans-vaginal application.

Uses of laparoscopy

It helps in diagnosing and curing a host of female infertility problems.
It has proven to be helpful in treating a number of disorders related to the female reproductive organs.
It is a reliable, precise, and cost-effective instrument or technique used by a number of gynaecologists at the first stage of infertility treatment.
It is a sound technique to treat female infertility as it helps to determine whether a patient needs conventional treatment, IVF (in vitro fertilization), or corrective surgery.
Use of laparoscopy in gynaecological problems

Treatment of fibroids of uterus
Treatment of ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy in which the fertilized egg attaches itself outside the uterus)
Treatment of endometriosis (a painful condition in which the tissue lining the inside of the uterus called endometrium begins to grow outside)
Removal of adhesions
Removal of the womb or ovaries
Removal of the lymph nodes during cancer treatment
Removal of ovarian cysts
Diagnosis of cancer of the reproductive organs
Female sterilization (surgery of fallopian tubes to prevent pregnancy)
Detection of tumors or abnormal mass of tissues
Assessment of the effectiveness of the infertility treatment that has been carried out
Advantages of laparoscopy:
Laparoscopy offers many advantages over conventional surgery and diagnosis, including the following:

It is more precise and accurate
It is painless (during surgery as well as a diagnosis)
It minimizes hemorrhage
It allows for shorter recovery time
It ensures reduced risk of infection to the organs
It is cost-effective
It is more helpful for the gynaecologists as they can see the inside of the organs in real-time
Therefore, it is evident that laparoscopy is no less than a boon in gynaecology. Its multiple advantages and high success rate in treating infertility problems in women and other problems related to their reproductive organs make it a great surgical and diagnostic technique. Nevertheless, it is necessary to take the advice of the doctor before undergoing laparoscopic surgery or diagnosis.
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Gallstone - Know Forms Of It!

MBBS, MS - General Surgery
Diabetic Foot Surgeon, Mumbai
Gallstone  - Know Forms Of It!
These Gallstones don t cause any problems in most cases. But prompt treatment is required if stones block ducts and cause infections and inflammation in the pancreas. This may lead to the removal of the gallbladder through a surgery, known as cholecystectomy, which further includes techniques such as laparoscopic (keyhole) cholecystectomy or open surgery.

Although it is a less vital organ, the body can cope up even after removal.

Procedure of surgery:

The surgery involves the removal of gallbladder and gallstones through several incisions in the abdomen. In order to see clearly, the surgeon inflates the abdomen with air or carbon dioxide.
A lighted scope attached to a video camera is inserted into one incision near the belly button. The video monitor is used as a guide for inserting other surgical instruments into the other incisions to remove the gallbladder.
Intraoperative cholangiography is the X-ray procedure which shows the anatomy of bile ducts. This is done before the surgeon removes the gallbladder.
Bile flows from the liver through the common bile duct after the surgery into the small intestine. As the gallbladder has been removed, the gallbladder can no longer store bile between meals but has no effect or little effect on digestion.
In case of open surgery, the surgeon reaches the gallbladder through a large, single incision in the abdominal wall.
Complications after gallbladder surgery:

This surgery carries some degree of risk like any other surgery. Complications such as internal bleeding, infection, injury to nearby digestive organs, injury to the bile duct and injury to blood vessels.

Types of gallstones:

There are three main types of gallstones. They are

Mixed stones: They are made up of cholesterol and salts. They tend to develop in batches.
Cholesterol stones: Mainly made of cholesterol, which is crucial to many metabolic processes. They can grow large enough to block the bile ducts.
Pigment stones: The colour of bile is greenish-brown, due to some particular pigments.
Medical factors to consider before cholecystectomy:

The most important factor is the consideration of your medical history. This is because the pre-existing conditions influence decisions on surgery and anaesthetic and information about any bad reactions or side effects from any medications would be helpful for surgery.

Self-care after the surgery:

Taking rest is the most important thing after surgery. Avoid things such as heavy lifting and physical exertion. The usual recovery period after the surgery is one week.
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IVF vs Tubal Ligation Reversal - How Are They Different?

IVF Specialist, Raipur
IVF vs Tubal Ligation Reversal - How Are They Different?
In vitro fertilization (IVF) includes empowering the woman with medicines, taking various eggs from her ovaries, fertilizing them with her partner s sperm, and inserting a portion of the subsequent embryos into her uterus with the trust that one will form into a fetus.

Tubal ligation reversal, on the other hand, requires a laparotomy, which needs a much bigger entry point on the abdomen, usually around four to six fingers long. Since the skin, each of the muscles, and different tissues of the stomach must be sliced through, there is extensively more uneasiness and a longer recovery time required after the surgery, when compared with a laparoscopic surgery, for example, with a tubal ligation.

Here are a few common differences:

Sperm quality: The male partner needs a sperm test before basic procedures of either of the two. In case that the sperm quality is great, then the couple could consider proceeding. In case that the sperm quality is poor, in vitro treatment is the better alternative. With IVF, poor sperm quality is effectively overcome.
Tubal status: The length of the remaining tubal stumps after tubal ligation is an important aspect. The more extended the two remaining stumps are on each side, the better and more effective is the pregnancy. The shorter the stumps, the lower are the odds for pregnancy.
Status of other pelvic conditions: Pelvic endometriosis or any scar tissue in the range of the tubes or ovaries would diminish the chance for accomplishment after tubal ligation reversal. Although, IVF pregnancy achievement rates are usually not influenced by these conditions. Along these lines, in vitro fertilization is most likely a superior alternative in women with noteworthy endometriosis or pelvic scar tissue.
Female age: Chances for pregnancy with either tubal ligation or IVF decrease in the mid to late thirties and significantly reduce at the age of thirty-eight. By age forty-three or forty-four, not many women will have the capacity to have a baby using either approach.
Egg amount and quality: A few women have a decrease in either egg amount or quality prior in life than anticipated. In this manner, the woman s ovarian capacity needs to be tested before a choice is made in regards to whether to continue with either tubal ligation or in-vitro fertilization. AMH levels, ovarian antral follicle number, and day 3 FSH levels are generally done to evaluate ovarian capacity or hold.
Doctor intervention: The greatest favorable position of tubal ligation reversal over IVF is that once the woman has experienced the surgery she ideally will not require any medication through the doctor, for example, medications or systems, keeping in mind the end goal to get pregnant.
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Bladder Cancer - Ayurvedic Remedies For It!

MD - Ayurveda
Ayurvedic Doctor, Delhi
Bladder Cancer - Ayurvedic Remedies For It!
Bladder cancer is the result of the growth of cancerous cells inside the bladder. Bladder cancer is mainly of four types:

Urothelial carcinoma: In this type of bladder cancer, the tumours may be limited to the bladder or spread from the urothelial to the deeper layers in the bladder. The urothelial is the epithelium lining in the renal pelvis, ureters, urethra and bladder.
Squamous cell carcinoma: Squamous cells are flat, thin cells that form after a prolonged infection in the bladder. The cancer starts from these cells.
Adenocarcinoma: Glandular cells in the bladder produce and discharge mucus. This type of cancer begins from the glandular cells.
Superficial bladder cancer: If the cancer is limited to the bladder lining, then it is known as superficial bladder cancer. The cancer might spread to the bladder muscle wall, or spread to the lymph nodes and organs close to it.
It is important note that, if bladder cancer is detected early, then it can be cured most of the times.

Who is at a risk of acquiring bladder cancer?
Those who smoke or have a history of bladder cancer in the family or are exposed for to industrial chemicals for long durations are at an increased risk of bladder cancer.

The symptoms of bladder cancer include:

Blood in urine
More frequent passing of urine
There is a sensation of pain or burning when urinating
Bladder is not emptied completely
Pain in the lower back
Bladder cancer treatment by conventional medication can be complemented by Ayurveda; especially, with the Panchakarma therapy, which detoxifies the body. Detoxification can be done by:

Snehana therapy that is oil massage
Swedana that is steaming therapy
Vamana that is by urging vomiting
Virechana that is by purging
Basti is the enema medication
Nasya or through nasal medication
Raktamokshana Therapy
Along with the above mentioned therapies, consuming medicated juices, which contain fruits and vegetables is good for the body. Antioxidant Ayurvedic medicines are also highly beneficial. Practicing yoga, sound therapy, pranayama, acupressure and acupuncture can help in the long run.

Sometimes, traditional cancer medication can rob the body of its strength once the symptoms are cured. Rasayan Chikitsa can help the body regain its strength. Rasayan Chikitsa improves the metabolism, memory, longevity, hair and complexion. It brings back the vigour that was lost. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a specilized ayurveda and ask a free question.
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Gall Bladder Surgery - How To Prepare For It?

ENT Specialist, Faridabad
Gall Bladder Surgery - How To Prepare For It?
Surgery using a laparoscope is the most common way to remove the gallbladder. A laparoscope is a thin, lighted tube that lets the doctor see inside our belly. It is a minimally invasive surgery in which small incisions and specialized tools are used to remove a diseased or infected gallbladder.

The gall bladder is a small organ that sits right under the liver and is credited with bile storage, which can help the body in breaking down various kinds of fats that enter it. So, what all do you need to know about this operation? Read this list.

Reasons for Gall Bladder Operation: The gall bladder is not a very efficient organ. It can lead to blockages and choking as the bile it stores can become very thick and difficult to handle. Also, this bile can start to harbour deposits that are hard ball like substances, usually known as gall bladder stones. The size of these stones can vary from the size of a grain to the size of a golf ball.

Further, these gall bladder stones can cause infections which can lead to symptoms like nausea, vomiting, bloating and more. Another reason can also be the gall bladder disease known as chloelithiasis, which can cause abdominal pain. Inflammation in the pancreas, also known as pancreatitis, can lead to gall bladder open removal surgery.

Risk: While the gall bladder removal surgery is usually considered a safe one, with little or no complications, there are risks attached to this surgery too. These include sudden and excessive bleeding and the creation of blood clots, allergic reactions to the drugs used as well as anaesthesia, blood vessel damage, accelerated heart rate which leads to an increased risk of contracting a heart attack or heart disease, infections, inflammation or swelling in the pancreas, and injuries caused to the bile duct during surgery.

You might also need this type of surgery if you have the following:

1. biliary dyskinesia, which occurs when the gallbladder doesn't fill or empty correctly due to a defect
2. choledocholithiasis, which occurs when gallstones move to the bile duct and potentially cause a blockage that prevents the gallbladder from draining
3. cholecystitis, which is an inflammation of the gallbladder
4. pancreatitis, which is an inflammation of the pancreas

Laparoscopic surgery is preferred over open cholecystectomy surgery because the smaller incisions that are made reduce your risk of infection, bleeding, and recovery time.

Preparation: To prepare for your gall bladder removal surgery, the doctor may ask you to have a prescription fluid so that your bowels are flushed clean. You may also be asked to fast for at least six hours before the surgery so that there is no hindrance to the same. Also, the use of an antibacterial soap to bathe is usually prescribed so that the risk of contracting infections decreases.

While this surgery can be a simple one, you will have to take due care after the surgery to ensure that the recovery is fast and virtually pain free.
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Laparoscopic Surgery For Endometriosis!

MBBS, DNB - Obstetrics and Gynecology
Gynaecologist, Bhopal
Laparoscopic Surgery For Endometriosis!
Laparoscopy is one of the most common procedures for diagnosing and removing endometriosis. Instead of giving a big incision, this procedure of surgery uses lightweight instrument through a small hole or incision. There could be one or more incisions based on the number of instruments that require access inside the body. This procedure involves the use of a camera to ascertain endometriosis as well as treat it in the same sitting. This brings drastic improvement in infertility as well as pain associated with the endometriosis. If a cyst is found in the ovary, laparoscopic surgeon removes it very delicately without causing any harm to the normal ovary, as a part of the Laparoscopic Surgery for Endometriosis.

How does the procedure go?

Eating and drinking should be suspended before 8 hours of the laparoscopic surgery. The doctor takes a call on whether to give a general or local anesthesia. Mostly, General anaesthesia is given during such procedures. A person specialised in Gynecological Endoscopy ( Gynaec Laparoscopic Surgeon) is the best to perform such a procedure.

How is the procedure performed?

The abdomen is first inflated with gas with the help of a needle. It pushes the abdominal wall from the organs to give a clear visibility to a surgeon. The laparoscopic Camera is then pushed through an incision or a set of incisions to examine the internal organ. If the scar tissue or endometriosis needs to be removed, a doctor can use one of the several laparoscopic techniques such as electrocautery, excision etc. Post the surgery, the incision is closed with stitches. The whole procedure usually takes 30-60 minutes depending upon the severity of endometriosis.

Why is laparoscopy done?

If the endometriosis pain has returned after a hormone therapy
If there is a growing endometriotic cyst
If the scar tissue found on the pelvic wall poses a threat on fertility
If the endometriosis interferes with other organs such as the bladder etc.
If the pain during menses ( dysmenorrhoea) refuses to subside
Duration of hospital stay:
Operations such as these are usually conducted at the outpatient facility owing to their less risky nature. A patient need not spent more than a day in the hospital. Rarely in severe cases of endometriosis overnight hospitalisation may also be required. One can successfully return to normal work within 1 week of the surgery.

Post-surgical recovery: Once the laparoscopy is done, the next steps of treatment are decided based on the patient's age and severity of endometriosis. Few hormonal medicines are advised according to the desire for fertility etc. If a patient is over and above 35 years of age, the risk of miscarriages double. Since the quality of egg declines by the year, it makes sense to undergo infertility treatment such as the in vitro fertilization, intake of fertility drugs, insemination etc. If, however, the patient is below 35 years of age, makes sense to conceive naturally first and consult a doctor simultaneously. A routine check-up post-laparoscopic surgery on alternate six months for a year will keep any risks at bay.
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Appendicitis - What Should You Know?

Multi Speciality, Pune
Appendicitis - What Should You Know?
Even Roald Dahl faked having appendicitis in his famous book, but, what exactly is appendicitis? Wouldn t it be a little interesting, to say the least, to find out what causes it and what treatment a person can expect to undergo in the case of getting it?

Quite simply, appendicitis is the name of the condition when the appendix swells up. Under normal circumstances, it is about three and a half inches in length. The ironic part about this is the fact that though appendicitis may cause tremendous pain and warrants surgery, no doctor is really aware of the reason why the appendix exists, in the first place! As a matter of fact, it is fully possible to live without an appendix and many people have not experienced any health problems after having their appendix removed.

While the appendix does not serve any properly defined function, this really does not mean that appendicitis is something that is not all that serious. In fact, if there is an explosion of the appendix, a person can die without very strong levels of medication in a time-bound manner!

So, what is the cause behind this scary prospect? Simply said, when the appendix gets blocked, the result is appendicitis. What blocks it? Well, it could be cancer, a foreign body or even stool! That being said, it is to be kept in mind that this is not the only reason as to why appendicitis exists. If there is an infection in the body, in response to it, the appendix may end up getting inflamed.

With the exception of a very small minority of cases in which very strong antibiotics are made use of in order to treat appendicitis, a surgery to remove the appendix is usually a given case scenario when a person has appendicitis. As a matter of fact, it is treated as an emergency and the doctors go ahead and start the treatment as soon as possible to avoid the possibility of the rupture of the appendix.

It usually takes about two or three weeks before a person can get back to normal activities though some gentle movement can be undertaken within about twelve hours since the end of the operation. There are two types of surgery. If a laparoscopic surgery is being performed, the recovery is relatively straightforward but if an open surgery is performed, the recovery can take more time and would require a greater amount of care.
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Laparoscopic Hernia Surgery - Know More!

Multi Speciality, Nagpur
Laparoscopic Hernia Surgery - Know More!
A hernia occurs because of an internal weakening of the abdominal layer, resulting in tearing. The inner most layer of the abdomen forms a sac and pushes the weakening area. This results in the abdomen tissue being slipped into the sac, causing pain and other health problems. It can occur to both men and women. Apart from natural weakness of the abdomen, a hernia can get triggered from heavy weight lifting, constant coughing, gaining weight and from irregular bowel movement. 80percent of hernia cases originate near the groin.

What are the symptoms?
Some of the common symptoms of a hernia include:

Feeling of fullness even without eating a thing
Sharp pain while lifting weight
Burning sensation
Dull ache near the groin area
Bulge near the groin area
How is a laparoscopic hernia performed?
This mode of surgery uses a telescope-like instrument known as the laparoscope. With the help of a small incision, the laparoscope is inserted at the belly button. Since the procedure is performed withanaesthesia, it isessential for a doctor to do a routine medical check-up that evaluates the general health of the patient, past medical history, EKG, blood work etc.

Usually, the patient doesn t feel a thing while the surgery is performed. A video camera is connected to the instrument to get a detailed inside view of a hernia and the area that needs to be repaired. Before this, the abdomen is inflated with the help of carbon monoxide. A mesh is placed inside the abdomen to fix the defects of the abdominal wall and strengthen the weakened tissue of the abdomen. Once the procedure is done, the incisions that are made in the abdomen is closed with the help of surgical tapes. The mark of incision disappears within a month.

Benefits of Laparoscopic Hernia Surgery
The benefits of laparoscopic surgery are quite evident.

A lot of tiny incisions are made rather than making a large incision in the abdominal area. This ensures speedy recovery and a short stay at the hospital.
The pain is significantly less compared to the conventional surgery.
The cost of a laparoscopic surgery is lesser
Lastly, a speedy recovery can ensure that a person can return to work within a few days after the surgery is performed.
What to expect after the surgery
Doctors often suggest a week of complete rest after the surgery. The healing time can vary from person to person. A surgeon typically prescribes antibiotics and pain medications to cope up with the wound and pain. It must be ensured that these medicines are taken on time. A revisit to the surgeon might be required after a couple of weeks to assess the recovery.
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Laparoscopic Surgery - What Should You Know?

Multi Speciality, Nagpur
Laparoscopic Surgery - What Should You Know?
Laparoscopic Surgery, also known as Keyhole Surgery, is a minimally invasive technique in which operations are performed through small incisions made far from the location. Laparoscopic Surgery has many advantages over traditional open surgery procedures. It is reliable, risk-free and reduces the chances of huge pain and haemorrhaging. Smaller incisions are made while performing this operation which enables a faster recovery.

How is it performed?
Laparoscopic Surgery is performed with the help of an instrument called Laparoscope. It has a thin tube-like structure and is extensively long. The camera at the front of a laparoscope is inserted into the body through a hole that allows doctors to perform surgery by watching real-time video on the TV screen and it is much more convenient than open surgery.

Reasons Behind Performing Laparoscopic Surgery
Abdominal Problems are usually solved by using techniques such as MRI, CT scan, and Ultrasound technology. If these fail to provide enough information, then laparoscopic surgery is performed for a better diagnosis of the condition. It can also be performed in a case when the doctors need a sample of tissue from a part of the abdomen. Laparoscopic surgery is famous and most preferred in Bariatric Surgery and Gallbladder Removal. This minimally invasive technique is widely common for weight loss.

Laparoscopic Surgery is safe and trusted by many surgeons worldwide, and it can be performed on patients who have undergone laparoscopy surgery beforehand as well. The only thing that is needed to be kept in mind is that the keyhole is to be made should be from a different site. Laparoscopic Surgery allows the patient to start having food normally after a couple of days of the surgery. It reduces hospital costs as minimal days are spent in the hospital, and it helps the patient to continue with their normal life early.

The Organs it can be used for -
The laparoscopic surgery can be used for many organs including the appendix as well as the gall bladder, the pelvic region and the reproductive organs, the small and large intestines, the spleen, the stomach, the liver and the pancreas.

Types of Laparoscopic Surgeries -

Hand-assist laparoscopy: Hand Access Devices are new Laparoscopic devices which help the doctor perform various functions having their hand inside the surgical location. Such hand-assist surgeries are called the hand-assist laparoscopy and are used in surgeries like colon removal and kidney removal.
Robot-Assisted Surgery: This is the most commonly used laparoscopic technique which surgeons perform in a less invasive way. This computer-based system is known as the Da Vinci system. The surgeon performs this type of surgery with the help of two masters which are similar to joysticks. These masters control the two arm-like instruments which they insert into the body.
Preparing for Laparoscopic Surgery: There are no such preparations that are required to be taken before laparoscopic surgery as your doctor might help you out with everything. If you are taking any prescribed medicine, your doctor must know about it. Before laparoscopic surgery, blood test, urinalysis, ECG, and other required tests might be advised by your doctor. It is best not to eat or drink anything 8 hours before laparoscopy.

Advantages of Laparoscopic Surgeries -
In comparison to traditional, large surgery, laparoscopy is much more comfortable and is less painful as well. The small incision takes less amount of time to heal, therefore the patient is allowed to get back to his/her regular activities much sooner. Patients who go through laparoscopic surgeries spend less time in the hospital and get discharged on the same or the next day as well.

Laparoscopic surgeries help in reducing the risk of bleeding during the surgery as the incision is relatively very small than the ones made during traditional surgery. The amount of blood loss is minimal in such a case and therefore the need for blood transfusion is also decreased, significantly.

Another important factor which can be counted in is that, with the help of laparoscopic surgeries the risk of exposing the internal organs to contamination is also reduced. This allows the chance of post-operative infection risks to diminish as well.
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