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Approximately 5% of the total population has one or the other types of ear defects. Protruding ear and external ear microtia are the two most frequently encountered congenital ear problems in plastic surgery. The protruding ears condition is commonly treated by many practitioners, while the latter has become the area of just a few surgeons. Most of this discussion focuses on prominent ears because of their common eventuality. Otoplasty has encountered many essential developments, with a wide variety of techniques being presented in the surgical literature. Congenital ear microtia and atresia are treated in very few centres by the surgeons with an eminent and prominent reputation and similarly some centres excel in craniofacial osteotomy surgery. Heredity plays a role in many deformities of the external ear.
EPIDEMIOLOGY- No case has been available on the prevalence of protruding or prominent ears.
ETIOLOGY- Most embryologic studies of the ear focus on the development of the 6 ear hillocks. These hillocks develop around the fundus of the preliminary branchial groove in 38 days of gestation. As the groove closes and the first and second arches come together, the first ear is formed by in 50 of gestation. The first 3 hillocks arise from the first branchial arch and the second 3 from the second branchial arch. The absence of hillocks 2-5 produces a frequent and typical microtia.
Most parents, while emotionally distressed when their baby is born with a portion of the external auricle missing or severely distorted, are unconcerned about protruding ears at birth.
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