In simpler terms, pigmentation is the colour of the skin. Change in normal skin colour is referred to as hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation. The substance that gives colour to the skin, body, and eyes is melanin. The pigment-producing cells when damaged or unhealthy, either produce excess or insufficient melanin, and this results in skin pigmentation. While certain conditions of skin pigmentation have no cure, many others can be considerably improved. Hypopigmentation conditions due to albinism have no cure. Persons with this condition are also prone to skin cancer and sun damage, so protecting themselves from sun's exposure with a good sunscreen is highly essential. Vitiligo is an autoimmune disorder that causes hypopigmentation. The discolouration of the skin, often, on the face, can be cured to an extent with corticosteroid creams. Skin is darkened in the case of hyperpigmentation and this is completely curable. There is a wide range of treatment options possible for this condition. Hormonal imbalances due to pregnancy or menopause may cause dark patches on the face. A few visits to a dermatologist or a beauty parlour will suffice to improve the condition. Ageing and excessive exposure to the sun may also cause hyperpigmentation. This, too, can be improved by treatments like Microdermabrasion, Laser, and Chemical Peels or with the use of Hydroquinone creams. Trauma on the skin due to illness, inflammation, allergies, or injuries also cause hyperpigmentation. And skin repairs itself back to normal in most cases. If not, a visit to a dermatologist may prove useful.
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