I am Dr. Neelima Mantri, Gynaecologist. Today I will talk about PCOS. It is a very common problem. Many girls and young women are suffering from PCOS. How does it present? The common symptom is an irregular cycle. The cycles are delayed for 1-2 months or even more. And when they are there, they are heavy. Patient passes clots. They may be painful or painless. And it gradually keeps on increasing. Another symptom is seen, the patient may develop acne. The patient may have facial hair. Hair is around the chin, upper lips and near the breast, buttocks. These are the symptoms which would be seen. The common symptom is infertility. Pregnancy really becomes an issue and the patient needs assistance from a gynecologist. In the later stage, diabetes could be seen. Sometimes endometrial cancers are also seen. So, it is not a disease which can be treated and got rid off. It is a disease which sticks to the woman through her entire productive life and with medications it can be controlled. But not treated. So, let's see how it happens.
It happens because of female internal hormone produces like male hormones. That is the reason she is not able to have an egg to rupture. The 2nd cause of PCOS is insulin resistance which is also seen in patients with diabetes. The body is not able to respond to the insulin and that is the reason patient puts on weight. Obesity is very common in PCOS. Now how does one can get diagnosed? It can be diagnosed with one out of 3 factors. One factor is clinical like acne, obesity, androgenic hair type, irregular cycles. 2nd is with sonography. Sonography will show ovaries which are increased in size and has cysts which are PCOS. And a 3rd part is with blood tests. So, blood tests show male type hormonal pattern. And the female pattern will not be seen. Now, what is the treatment? Apart from medicines, the backbone of treatment is exercise and weight loss means diet modification. So, basically, lifestyle modification is very important in the treatment of PCOS. The patient really needs to cut down on her weight, calories and if this is achieved, the patent may not need medicines to maintain cycles and get her infertility cured.
Yes, medications are also available like hormonal pills, contraceptive pills which can take care of this disease. Also, sometimes insulin sensitizers are used for this. But if exercise and diet are not taken care of or not controlled, these medicines do not work 100%. And after stopping medicines, symptoms may come back. So, lifestyle modification is very important in the management of PCOS. When exercises and lifestyle are not being followed, the patient may need surgery by laparoscopy which takes care of this cyst. So, friends, stay fit, eat healthy and workout regularly. This is the message which PCOS Dr would like to give so that you can stay away from PCOS.