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Glaucoma - Know The Types

Written and reviewed by
MD - Ophthalmology, MBBS
Ophthalmologist, Navi Mumbai  •  17years experience
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I am Dr. Pavan Lohiya. Today we are going to speak about glaucoma. Glaucoma normally is a very silent steal, very slowly gradually steal the vision. So normally we don't come to know about vision loss because of the very slow process. So normally it occurs after the age of 40 but it can start even at an early age. So, what is glaucoma and why it is important? So, glaucoma normally we have very good vision in the centre but slowly we will use our peripheral vision and in last we'll have just centre tunnel vision and at that time it may become very difficult to reverse it back. We can prevent it but there is no cure for glaucoma. So, we need to identify at the early stage so we can start treatment to prevent the progression of glaucoma. So, what are the symptoms of this glaucoma? Normally 80 to 90% will not have any problem or any pain or very few cases we have eye pain, headache and so normally after the age of 40, we should have routine check-up. In routine check-up, your ophthalmologist can detect if you have any glaucoma or not. If there is glaucoma, normally ophthalmologist can detect a rise in eye pressure or peripheral there are changes in the optic nerve or peripheral changes in parametric test.

So, if you are detected with early stages in glaucoma, your ophthalmologist can start some treatment in the form of drops or in the form of laser or in very few cases you may need surgery also with advanced stages. But in early stage most of the time we can prevent it with drops. So, there are 2 major types of glaucoma: when is angle closure glaucoma and one is open angle glaucoma. In angle closure glaucoma, angles become very narrow and we may need to do small laser procedure that will prevent the progression of glaucoma. In open-angle glaucoma the angles are not filtrating properly so we need to start drops; that drops will prevent the rise in the eye pressure. So, glaucoma progression will stop. And in very few cases, pressure maybe normal still we have to decrease your eye pressure to prevent further progression in glaucomatous field defect. So how will we detect it normally?

Your ophthalmologist will do some parametric test and optic nerve scan to detect whether there is any change in the optic nerve or change in the perimetry that is visual filters. If there any changes, you have to start some glaucoma test, you have to start treatment, you need regular follow up. So normally in glaucoma we can prevent it but it's very difficult to reverse it back. So the message will be to have a good check up at the age of 40, so we can detect it early, so we can prevent it. In advanced stages, you may need aggressive treatment, you may need surgery and most of the time it will be permanent damage. So better to start, better to prevent it at early stage. If you have any query you can contact me on lybrate.


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