I am Dr. Sumit Wadhwa, Internal Medicine Specialist. Today I will tell you about adult immunization. As you all know that vaccinations are quite an effective method. In contagious diseases like measles, muns, chickenpox, rubella, diphtheria. Similarly, in healthy adults also require regular vaccination as you all know around 50-70k adults are dying each year because of influenza and pneumonia-related complications. These vaccinations work throughout life. How do vaccines work? The immune system plays an important role in the prevention of any illness and infection. When a person comes in contact with a certain substance like bacteria, water, the immune system is stimulated and produces certain proteins called antibodies which finds the infection. The immune system also plays an important role in preventing future occurrence of infection. If a person gets exposed to the same organism, the immune system produces more antibodies which destroy the organism. Such as in the case, a patient has an infection in childhood, he is less lightly to have the second infection. The vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce specific antibodies against the infection. 2 types of immunizations are available: Active and passive. Active vaccines are also called live vaccines because they use a weak form of bacteria. Some of the bacteria also cause infection by producing toxins. Passive vaccines are for temporary relief.
Coming to the risks of vaccinations. Most of the vaccines are given to have a long record of being safe and have an effective way of preventing disease. Thus, the benefits of vaccination are much greater than the potential risk involved. Vaccination also reduces the chances of developing the disease in the family, in fact in the community also. Most of the vaccines are given in intra-muscular root. SOme vaccination is also given by the oral root or through the nasal root. Major side-effects, although they are minor only, may include fever, pain at the side of the injection. Live virus vaccines like NMR vaccines should be avoided with person weakened immune system such as HI/AIDS, pregnancy woman, a person who has perceived blood transmission recently. High-risk candidates for adult immunization such as nursing home residents, living in army camps or in hostels, people who are traveling to different countries, people associated with healthcare facilities. Now, we will discuss some common vaccinations which are given to adults. First is pneumonia which is a serious infection of the lungs especially in older adults. For this 2 types of vaccinations are available. People aged less than 2 years or more than 65 years and have a medical condition for lungs, heart, liver, kidney, diabetes mellitus, people with chronic alcohol abuse.
Next is influenza vaccination. It is a common viral condition which is highly contagious and occurs worldwide especially during the winter season. Fatal infection can occur in elder and children leading to hospitalization and death. Group of vaccinations is children more than 6 months to 4 years of age. Adults more than 15 years of age. People with chronic heart and lung condition. Influenza vaccination can be given by 2 roots. Next is the diphtheria-tetanus vaccine. It is usually given to all adults after 10 years. Adults more than 65 years of age Should be given 2 doses of vaccine, especially who is contact with children with less than 1 year of age. Next is the MMR vaccine. It protects from measles, mun, and rubella which is usually transmitted by droplet infection such as coughing and sneezing. Most of the children are given MMR vaccine, however, one has not been vaccinated during his childhood and not sure of it.
Vaccination can be verified by a blood test. MMR should be recommended to adults if one doesn't have sufficient immunity. Next is varicella vaccination. Varicella is a highly contagious disease caused by varicella zoster virus which results in a rash which takes around 10-14 days to recover. People can be vaccinated by 2 doses of vaccine given another part. Next is hepatitis-B. It causes a serious infection of the liver which can lead to progressive liver damage and sometimes, result in liver cancer. Hepatitis-B vaccination is now a part of the national immunization and given to all children at birth. In adults, who have not been vaccinated in their childhood, 3 doses of the vaccine can be given over 6 months especially in case of the healthcare provider. Next is hepatitis-A. It is a common infection, commonly seen in kids and young adults but sometimes it may result in progressive jaundice.
Common indications for vaccination for hepatitis-A are people who are traveling to countries where it is common, people with chronic liver disease. Last is the HPV vaccine. It is a virus which causes 99% of all cases of genital warts and genital cancer. It is usually recommended for children and young adults during 9-26 years of age. For people less than 15 years, 2 doses of vaccines are recommended 6 months apart. For people 15 to 26 years of age, doses are given. It prevents most of the cases of human papilloma. In case, you have any query, you can consult me through Lybrate.