Karyotyping examination is used to examine the chromosomes in the cells sample. The report helps doctors to verify if any genetic problem may be the cause of a disease or disorder patient is suffering from. Chromosomes are like memory chips, that carry genetic information of the body. Chromosomes number and appearance varies from species to species. A karyotype contains information of number, shape and size of the chromosomes in the organism. A scientist follows these steps to study karyotype: Collects cells from the individual Induce cells to divide On chromosomes being easy to view, stop phase is done in metaphase of cell division Stain chromosomes so they are more visible View cell under microscope
The preparation required depends on the type of blood sample your doctor takes for Karyotyping. There are many ways samples are taken, like: Blood sample Bone Marrow Biopsy, this process is done by taking samples of the spongy tissue inside a particular bone Amniocentesis test that involves taking amniotic fluid sample from the uterus These tests can at times carry complications with them, but these are rare cases. If you are getting a blood sample or bone marrow biopsy done, chances are of infection or bleeding issues. While, amniocentesis has the risk of miscarriage. Those undergoing chemotherapy, can have their tests skewed as chemotherapy can enter into the chromosomes and appear in the report image.
Karyotyping is used to verify any genetic disorder that can be cause of any disease or disorder you have. Let's say, a woman is having a premature ovarian failure due to a chromosomes defect, a karyotype can verify this issue. The test is also helpful in identifying if patient is suffering from Philadelphia chromosome. If this chromosome is found, possibilities are patient may be diagnosed with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). If you have any tension of your unborn being born with any genetic disorder, you can get your babies karyotype test done. This test helps you to know if your unborn baby will be born with a birth defect like, Klinefelter syndrome. In Klinefelter syndrome, a boy has two X chromosomes by birth.
Being a multi utility test, Karyotyping is performed on almost any tissue, like: Blood Bone Marrow Amniotic Fluid Tissue taken from organs developed during pregnancy that feed the un-born Once the sample is taken, it's placed on a dish designed for testing and left in the laboratory to grow. After some time new cells are taken and stained. The lab technician with the help of s microscope determines the shape, size and number of the chromosomes in the cell sample. The stained sample is then photographed to see the alignment of chromosomes. This procedure is known as Karyotyping.