FNAC is a short form of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology. The technique is an inexpensive, simple and quick way to sample extraneous lumps and masses that could be found in the neck, breasts, etc. The sample is collected by inserting a fine gauge needle into the suspected mass that is later studied under the microscope. It’s as mentioned above involves a simple surgical procedure. The test primarily helps diagnose the presence of inflammatory conditions and also cancer. Unlike the open surgical biopsy is much simpler, quicker and safer. There is very little likelihood of any complications after the test.
Other things that would be checked before the test starts are
The method is used for several types of testing Chorionic Villus Sampling, Body fluid sampling, Breasts abscess, breasts cysts and for seromas, this is done with the help of ultrasound-guided aspiration. The Fine Needle Aspiration cytology helps in detecting breast cancer and test swellings for lymphoma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, TB, Toxoplasmosis, granulomatous lymphadenitis, etc. It also helps study the cytological changes undergoing in a patient.
In case of superficial mass lying closer to skin numbing is not done. However, when the mass to be studied lies inside a local anesthetic is applied. After applying a sanitizer on the skin a sterile towel is kept over the area where the biopsy is to be done. The needle is inserted into the lump or the swelling and the suspected tissue is sucked through it using aspiration technique. The procedure could be repeated several times for effective sampling of the mass or the lump. X-rays may be used in case the mass is not identified otherwise.