I am Dr. Tanvi Mayur Patel, Endocrinologist. Today I will talk about PCOS or PCOD. How common is this problem? Out of 100 women, nearly 30-45% of the women are having PCOS. At what age this disease occurs? This occurs mainly at the reproductive age group. How will you come to know whether you have a PCOS? I am going to share a couple of symptoms and if you have any of these symptoms, it is more likely that you are suffering from PCOD. If you have hair loss or thinning, excess of hair growth over upper lips or over the side of your chin, infertility issue in married ladies or if you have irregular periods where you are getting periods once in a 2-3 months, a lot of difficulty in losing weight or gaining weight, darkening over side of the neck, these all indicates that you are PCOD patient. How do we diagnose this problem? When we diagnose based on your first symptoms, then we also do an ultrasound of your pelvis wherein we see your ovaries have tiny immature follicles which termed as a cyst. If it is diagnosed as PCOD then it has to be treated.
Now is this problem a serious. Does the answer depend on what level you are talking about? If you are talking about immediate complication, the answer is no. But over a long period of time, it may add major complications. You may end up to get obesity. You may get type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, your thyroid level may get disturbed. You can have a high cholesterol level. All this can happen over a long period of time. It may also affect your fertility. Many women may suffer from infertility. Now the next question to whom do I consult? WHich Dr should I go to do? PCOS is an endocrine hormonal problem. So, the ideal Dr is an endocrinologist. Now the PCOS is of 2 types. Primary in which the problem mainly lies in the ovary of your reproductive system. And secondary can happen because of certain other problems.
There can be the problem of prolactin hormone which is secreted by the gland and located in your brain. There can be a problem with the thyroid gland or with the adrenal gland which is located in the top of your kidney. So, if you have a problem with these disorders, you can have a secondary PCOS. Now about the treatment plan. It depends on your age and what is your future expectation from the treatment. First and foremost plan of the treatment changes in your lifestyle. Make sure you eat healthy and a balanced diet. You start doing physical activity. Do any kind of exercises for 45-60 minutes in a day.
Try to reduce stress. Stress plays a very important role in developing PCOS. Do meditation, yoga. Avoid smoking and alcohol. Now, these are lifestyle changes. Now about medical treatment. If you have irregular periods, not married and not planning for pregnancy, so the common treatment is oral contraceptive pills. Nowadays various pills are available which will not only normalize your hormonal level but also the menstrual cycle. If you have a lot of hair growth over your chin or have the problem of hirsutism then, in this case, you will be prescribed a anti-male hormone. Since the insulin resistance is the main cause of the PCOS, this medication work for this. If you are planning for the fertility then in that case you need to be treated with the help of the endocrinologist and fertility specialist. PCOS woman can also achieve a pregnancy. If you have any query, you can consult me through Lybrate.