Things you need to know about the mtp act
In 1971, the increasing cases of maternal morbidity due to unsafe abortions, and the idea that abortions could be used as a method of population control motivated the government to enact the medical termination of pregnancy act. But what does the law really say? to what extent is abortion a reproductive right in india?
Here are the facts you need to know about the indian law on abortion:
1. Access to abortions is legal in india
? medical termination of pregnancy has been legal in india under certain conditions since the passage of the act in 1971. India became one of the first few countries to actually legalise abortions beyond just life-threatening situations. Pretty cool, right?
However, a survey conducted in 2007 by the ministry of health and family welfare suggests that only 22.9% of men, and 28% of women were aware that medical abortions are possible and available! a large number of people still remain unaware that by law, they have the right to access abortions.
2. Although abortions are legal, there are certain conditions to be kept in mind…
While abortions are legal in india, the law as it stands today does not allow termination of pregnancy on the request of a woman. In india, abortions are legal up to 12 weeks with approval from one service provider and beyond 12 weeks to 20 weeks requires the approval of two service providers.
There are some other conditions listed in the act: you can get an abortion if the service provider is able to assess that there is a risk to the woman’s life, a threat to a women's physical and mental health (including contraceptive failure for married women), or risks the child if born to be “seriously handicapped”. Frankly, the conditions are pretty inclusive and whatever the situation, the service provider is your friend.
3. Medical abortions and surgical abortions? yes, there are two types!
Medical abortion is a common terminology for abortions induced by the use of pills. An abortion within the first 10 weeks of pregnancy in india can be legally performed using a combination of 2 pills. These pills are available in a combi-pack and are to be taken in the span of 3 days. Medical abortion is completely safe, non-invasive, non-surgical and - as you may have already guessed - a much preferred method of seeking abortion for majority women. These pills should be prescribed to you by a medical practitioner or an obgyn licensed to perform abortions as per the mtp act. Therefore, be quick and consult your ob-gyn! do not do the mistake of consuming these pills yourself as they can give rise to complications which may sometimes be really serious.
A surgical abortion on the other hand ends a pregnancy by removing the foetus and placenta from the uterus using either electric or manual vacuum aspiration. Although these terms sound very technical, advancements in technology have made these procedures completely safe! your doctor is your best guide so do consult them. Just make sure you get quality service in a safe environment from a trained doctor. 3 magic words - quality, safe and trained.
4. You don’t need parental or spousal consent if you’re an adult.
At times like these, you can thank the universe for being an adult! as an adult person and when it comes to seeking safe abortion access in india, you do not need anyone else’s permission. The act recognises the personhood of a woman and respects the rights of an adult person in india by maintaining confidentiality.
5. The mtp act is separate from the law on gender biased sex selection.
And there are 2 separate laws for these 2 unrelated issues! makes sense yet?
Safe abortion access is an issue of reproductive and sexual rights where a woman makes choices and decisions regarding her body and life. On the other hand, gender biased sex selection is an issue of deep rooted gender based discrimination against women and girls in the patriarchal indian society which needs to be targeted at it’s root. The first is regulated by the medical termination of pregnancy act, 1991 and the second by the pcpndt act, 1994.
We are not making this up! if you read the 2 laws, then you will find that mtp act has no mention of gender biased sex selection and pcpndt does not mention access to safe abortion anywhere. See?
Now that we understand that the two are separate from one another, let’s become advocates and stop this overlapping of the 2 issues and stigmatising safe abortion access. Because if we don’t then women may end up losing their lives for nothing.
Have a look at this document by the national health mission highlights areas of possible conflation between the two acts. It gives guidelines to stakeholders so that the pcpndt act and messaging against sex-selective abortion do not hinder access.
6. The law and how it relates to single unmarried women
The conditions mentioned in the mtp act also covers single unmarried adult women. Except for one clause reserved for married women which is abortion because of contraceptive failure. For all other reasons listed above, single women can access abortions. It is mostly because of the stigma associated with being a single woman that some service providers stigmatise abortions being sought by them, leading women to feeling humiliated or deterring them from accessing safe abortion services.
Looking down at the manhood and discovering it has developed penis bumps is never a pleasant surprise for a guy. The presence of bumps signals a new worry about his penis health, although often the bumps don't correlate with a significant health issue. Penis bumps can come in a wide range of shapes and sizes, so it's no surprise that they can be caused by many different things. One of the causes many men don't think about is hives - so learning more about hives prepares a guy for dealing with them.
What are hives?
Hives is the common name used to describe a condition that is medically known as urticarial. They present as welts on the skin. Some can be small and others can be relatively large. In some instances, they are raised slightly, which gives them a bump-like look; in other instances, they may more closely resemble a rash. Often one welt will "bleed" into another, making the two appear as one large welt.
Hives are usually circular in shape. Often, especially with larger welts, they will be a deep red around the perimeter and a paler red in the center. Hives usually itch, causing discomfort; when they appear as penis bumps, it can be embarrassing for a man, as he often is caught scratching "down there."
Individual hives don't usually last long, often fading away in 24 hours - but they are usually replaced by new hives. It is not unusual for a case of acute hives to last as long as six weeks, with old hives fading and new ones replacing them. If a bout of hives continues beyond 6 weeks, it is considered a chronic case.
What causes hives?
Hives are basically an allergic reaction on the skin. Some "trigger" sends a signal to the body to release histamines to fight the trigger. This reaction causes the hives to form. Therefore, if a guy knows what his hives triggers are, he can take steps to avoid those triggers and thereby prevent hives from occurring.
Unfortunately, sometimes determining exactly what the trigger is can be challenging, mainly because many things are associated with triggering hives. Some of the more common causes include:
- Pets. Many dogs, cats and other animals shed dander, which may be a hives trigger.
- Insect bites and stings.
- Viral or fungal infections.
- Certain foods, including shellfish, nuts, milk, chocolate, berries, eggs, soy, citrus fruits, etc.
- Exposure to the sun.
- Certain chemicals (including some in soaps or laundry detergents).
With such a wide range, narrowing down a trigger may take a lot of time. Working with a doctor is advised. They will likely recommend that a person keeps a comprehensive journal of all the foods, medicines, etc. that he takes and any exposures he may have to potential triggers. The journal will include, as close as possible, the time when a person may have been exposed to a trigger, so that a link can be theorized if hives occur soon after. (Hives may occur within minutes, but sometimes may take about two hours to show up).
Once hives triggers are identified, a person can take steps to avoid those triggers. He also can learn what treatments he can use to help deal with the symptoms of hives.
As mentioned, penis bumps caused by hives tend to itch greatly. Regular use of a first rate penis health crème (health professionals recommend Man1 Man Oil, which is clinically proven mild and safe for skin) can help alleviate this. A crème that contains a combination of a high-end emollient (like Shea butter) and a natural hydrator (like vitamin E) will provide moisture that can help soothe itching. It also helps if the crème contains alpha lipoic acid, a powerful antioxidant which strengthens penis skin by fighting free radicals.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition wherein the body doesn’t metabolise sugar properly. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, is responsible for carrying the sugar or glucose, from the bloodstream to the individual cells. When the pancreas fails to produce insulin, glucose builds up in your bloodstream and enters your urine. Homeopathy focuses on the overall health of the individual. Homeopathic medicines for diabetes include:
1. Abroma Augusta: This homeopathic medicine is best for diabetics who have weak muscles, increased appetites and frequent urination.
2. Phosphorus: If symptoms include weak vision, Phosphorus is the best remedy for it.
3. Syzygium Jambolanum: This is one of the best homeopathic remedies for diabetes mellitus. It acts efficiently and promptly in lowering sugar levels.
4. Phosphoric acid: If you feel exhausted or weak all the time, either physically or mentally, then Phosphoric acid is beneficial. Weak memory, forgetfulness and numb feet are also treated with Phosphoric acid.
5. Gymnema Sylvestre: Sometimes, diabetics drastically lose weight and have low energy levels. Gymnema Sylvestre is an excellent remedy for such symptoms.
Sometimes one or more homeopathic medicines may be combined to treat symptoms. Some common combinations include:
1. Lachesis, Arnica, Belladonna and Phosphorus are combined in a treatment to treat retinopathy, which is damage to the eyes caused by diabetes.
2. Serum Anguillae, Arsenic Album and Lycopodium are used together to treat kidney damage (nephropathy) in diabetics.
3. Helonias, Sulphur and Phosphoric acid are taken to deal with neuropathy or nerve problems such as numbness in feet and hands.
4. Syzygium Jambolanum is combined with Secale Cornutum to treat skin ulcers, which is a common problem among diabetics.
5. For people suffering from constipation due to diabetes, Natrum Sulph, Defloratum and Carlsbad are the best medicines.
6. To improve weak memory, Phosphoric acid, Nux Vom and Kali Phos are the best remedies for diabetics.
7. Sometimes diabetics complain of extreme, incapacitating weakness. To improve energy and boost overall health, Carbo Veg, Phosphoric acid, Phosphorus and Arsenic Album are recommended.
Bad breath is a dental problem which could also emanate due to poor digestion. It can also be experienced as a side effect of other ailments as well as medications. Smoking and bad diet may lead to this and it usually becomes a matter of low self-esteem as time goes by. Homeopathy is one of the most natural forms of medication, treatment and wellness when it comes to such problems that affect the lifestyle of the patient. These medicines usually combine very small doses of naturally found elements so as to cure an ailment or condition. Yet, it is important to remember that one must get a prescription for these medicines from a professional medical practitioner.
Read on to know more about the types of homeopathic remedies available for bad breath.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!