Vitamin and trace element deficiencies
Fat soluble vitamins
Vitamin a (retinol)
• Found in dairy produce, eggs, fish oils, and liver.
Vitamin d (cholecalciferol)
• Found in fish liver oils, dairy produce, and undergoes metabolism at the kidneys and the skin using uv light.
Vitamin e (alpha-tocopherol)
• Widely distributed, green vegetables, and vegetable oils.
• Deficiency causes hemolytic anemia (premature infants) and gross ataxia.
Vitamin k (k 1 = phylloquinine k 2 = menaquinone)
• Widely distributed but particularly in green vegetables. Synthesized by intestinal bacteria.
• Found in cereals, peas, beans, yeast, and whole-wheat fl our. It is an essential factor in carbohydrate metabolism and transketolation reactions.
Vitamin b 2 (ribofl avin)
• Deficiency gives angular stomatitis (fissuring and inflammation at the corners of the mouth), inflamed oral mucous membranes, seborrhoeic dermatitis, and peripheral neuropatmhy. Drugs (e. G, isoniazid, hydralazine, penicillamine) and is also seen in alcoholism and pregnancy.
Vitamin b 12 (cyanocobalamin)
• Causes of a deficiency are numerous and include partial or total gastrectomy, crohn’s disease, ileal resection, jejunal diverticulae, blind loop syndrome, and tapeworm.
Vitamin b 9 (folic acid)
• Deficiency can be caused by poor diet, malabsorption states, coeliac disease, crohn’s disease, gastrectomy, drugs (e. G, methotrexate, phenytoin), excessive utilization (E.G, leukemia, malignancy, inflammatory disease).
• Consequences of deficiency include megaloblastic anemia, and glossitis.
• Deficiency results in hypochromic and microcytic anemia, wilson’s disease, impaired bone mineralization, menks’ kinky hair syndrome (growth failure, mental defi ciency, bone lesions, brittle hair, anemia).
• Usually caused by copper malabsorption.
Zinc deficiency causes achondromatosis enterpathica (infants develop growth retardation, hair loss, severe diarrhea, candida and bacterial infections), impaired wound healing, skin ulcers, alopecia, night blindness, confusion, apathy, and depression.
Vitamin b 3 (niacin)
• Found in fish, liver, nuts, and whole-wheat flour.
• Deficiency causes pellagra): dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia.
Vitamin b 6 (pyridoxine)
• Widespread distribution, also synthesized from tryptophan.
• Deficiency causes peripheral neuropathy, convulsions, and sideroblastic anemia. Deficiency may be provoked by a number of commonly used.