The urologic system includes all problems related to the urinary system including the kidneys, bladder, ureters, urethra, and the prostate. These problems could range from trauma, injury, inflammation, infections, and muscular problems like overactive bladder, prostate hypertrophy, sexual disorders (candidiasis, erectile dysfunction, etc.), tumors or overgrowths, infections of any part along the entire tract, and even erectile dysfunction.
Let us quickly look at the most common ones kidney stones, urinary tract infections, prostate enlargement, erectile dysfunction, and vaginal candidiasis.
- Kidney stones: These are calcium deposits, which can seat themselves in any part of the kidney and sometimes even in the ureter. These can cause significant sharp, shooting pain in the back of the abdomen. The pain is almost diagnostic, and while small stones may pass on their own, others may require shock wave lithotripsy to break the bigger ones into smaller ones, which can then pass on their own through urine. Dietary modifications may also be required to prevent the formation of stones, as most people tend to have recurrence of stones.
- Prostate hypertrophy: One of the most common problems faced by ageing men is benign prostatic enlargement (BPH). There would be a constant urge to urinate, simultaneous difficulty initiating a stream and a feeling of incomplete emptying. These happen more at night, and diagnosis is very easy, any elderly male who shows these symptoms is almost diagnostic of BPH. This requires a standard surgical procedure known as transurethral resection of the prostate, which is a same-day surgery and quite non-complicated.
- Urinary tract infections: This is one of the most common infections, which can be acquired from the use of public bathrooms and unhygienic bathroom practices. There is chance for infection of the entire tract starting from the urethra to the ureter, the bladder, and the kidney. These run the course of any infection. Treatment is usually with a course of oral antibiotics along with symptomatic treatment of the other symptoms like fever, muscle ache, etc. In very rare cases, systemic antibiotics may be required.
- Erectile dysfunction: One of the most common, but undisclosed male sexual problem is erectile dysfunction. There is inability of the male to achieve and/or sustain an erection, sufficient to have a satisfactory sexual intercourse. This has both physical and psychological reasons, and may also be due to hormonal imbalance. Very often, a discussion with a counselor would be required to treat the couple, as involving the partner is very important.
- Vaginal candidiasis: The normal vaginal flora is very rich with the fungi Candida, and when immunity is low, candidiasis develops. There could be symptoms like foul-smelling discharge, itching, and redness. A course of topical antifungal agents is usually effective in treating this condition.
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