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Traumatic Brain Injury (Tbi) Tips

Understanding The Traumatic Brain Injury Better!

Dr. Satyajit Das 89% (79 ratings)
DNB NEUROSURGERY, M.B.B.S.
Neurosurgeon, Durgapur
Understanding The Traumatic Brain Injury Better!

Traumatic brain injury (brain injury triggered by an external event such as a fall or a road accident) can be quite a harrowing experience for the patient and their loved ones. While most people recover from the injury, the duration and extent of recovery may vary from individual to individual.

Some patients may simply suffer from a temporary amnesia, while others may remain comatose for months. The recovery time and extent of neurological deficits in traumatic brain injury is determined by the severity and location of the brain injury. The traumatic brain injury can be

Open or closed

  • Open injury: There is an opening up of the skin and other layers leading to direct contamination of the brain from external debris and the risk of brain infection is high in such a case.
  • Closed injury: here, the brain is not contaminated, but the impact may cause various degrees of injury to parts of the brain.

Primary or secondary injury:

Primary injury: it is damage caused to the brain at the time of the injury. The damage can be

  • A crack or fracture in the skull.
  • Bleeding into the layers between skull and brain, like a EDH (Extra Dural Hematoma), SDH (Subdural Hematoma) or SAH (Sub-Arachnoid hemorrhage). These are potential emergencies, especially an EDH, where timely Neurosurgical intervention can decide between life and death.
  • Due to violent shaking of the brain inside the skull cavity, there can be a damages to the entire brain including the axons and neurons without any visible hemorrhage on CT scans (Diffuse Axonal Injury). The outcome can be quiet unpredictable. It is dangerous if the brain starts swelling up excessively after a DAI.
  • A person can also suffer from brain hemorrhages and contusions within the brain matter. Large contusions may need surgical evacuation to control brain pressure. Smaller ones are treated without surgery. Deep seated contusions towards the centre of the brain cause more morbidity even if small in size.

The secondary brain injury may develop gradually (within few hours or days from the primary brain injury), further aggravating the brain tissues. This is brought about by inflammation, altered blood supply, high brain pressure, brain edema or swelling, and programmed cell death. Sometimes, even though the primary insult is small, patients may succumb due to secondary injuries which are highly unpredictable and difficult to treat.

Estimating the extent of the brain damage

The damage inflicted to the brain is assessed by the combined assessment of the following:

1. The mode of injury, especially velocity of impact.

2. How long the person has been unconscious.

3. How bad are the visible external injuries. Is it an open or closed injury?

4. Whether there was any convulsions, vomiting, ear or nose bleeding?

5. Assessment of eye opening, verbal response and movement. This is assessed and recorded by the GCS (Glasgow coma scale).A score of 15 implies the person is fully conscious, a score of 9 indicates the person is in a semi-alert state, while a score of 3 indicates a deep state of coma.

6. Brain imaging through CT or MRI. This gives a more direct information about the physical damages to the brain, and guides the decision about Neurosurgical intervention.

Treatment of traumatic brain injury:

  • Medical : medicines are administered to control brain pressure and limit the secondary injuries. It also attempts to control events like convulsions and infections.
  • Surgical: surgery becomes necessary when there are depressed fractures impinging into the brain, or large hematoma or brain swelling causing rise of brain pressure or a shift of the brain to one side. Other indications are uncontrolled CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) leakage from nose. Sometimes shunts need to be put to drain out CSF in hydrocephalus (accumulation of excess water in the brain ventricles). During surgery, parts of the skull may need to be removed (Craniectomy) temporarily to allow brain expansion and control brain pressure.
  • Accessory surgeries: smaller procedures like a tracheostomy (bypass of the windpipe) or PEG (stomach tube) may need to be done for long term care in comatose patients.
  • Rehabilitation: tireless care by nursing and physiotherapy are necessary to help patients recover faster and avoid complications like bed sore, deep vein thrombosis, spasticity and weakness of limbs.
  • Recovery: Recovery from traumatic brain injury may be time taking (weeks, months to even years). In addition to the initial treatment and medications, patients may need Brain Injury Rehabilitation. The rehabilitation aims at enabling the person to lead a normal life as early as possible. There are medications, activities, and exercises to improve one's cognitive power.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3541 people found this helpful

Does Surgery Help In Treating A Traumatic Injury?

Dr. Ajay Kumar Gupta 89% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS
General Surgeon, Faridabad
Does Surgery Help In Treating A Traumatic Injury?

A traumatic injury refers to a serious brain injury that affects all the aspects of a person including his or her personality. This may be the result of a severe fall, a car accident, firearms etc. Unlike an injury to the arm or leg, no two traumatic injuries have the same effect. These injuries also do not heal like other injuries.

There are many different kinds of treatment options available for traumatic injuries. Initially, treatment aims at stabilizing the individual and assessing the scope of the injury. Acute treatment is used to minimize secondary injuries. In many cases, surgery is also required to prevent secondary injuries and to help maintain a steady flow of oxygenated blood to the brain. This relieves the internal swelling and pressure. It also minimized additional damage to brain tissue. Most patients also need rehabilitative care to get back to their normal life.

Surgical treatment is usually advised in the case of a traumatic head injury. However, in the case of internal brain injuries, this may not be the first preference. In such cases, an intracranial pressure monitoring device or a bolt is implanted to monitor pressure levels in the brain. Only then surgery may be required to drain bleeding in the skull cavity and to repair the torn tissues. Blood clots or hematomas will also need to be removed surgically. Sometimes, surgery may also be required to create a window in the skull so as to relieve internal pressure.

In severe cases, if there is extensive tissue damage, the damaged portion of the brain may be surgically removed. This creates space for the healthy brain tissue to heal. In the case of an open brain injury, surgery is the first course of treatment. In such cases, the doctor’s first sim is usually to repair the fractured skull and remove damaged tissue. This minimizes pressure on the brain and also helps prevent secondary infections and injuries.

These surgeries are generally performed while the patient is under general anaesthesia. Recovering from a traumatic brain injury takes time and hospitalization is usually required for a few weeks. Once the injury has healed considerably, rehabilitation is then required to relearn basic skills. This may begin as an inpatient procedure and later be transferred to an outpatient exercise. The duration and type of rehabilitation required vary from case to case and depends on the type and severity of the injury.

2572 people found this helpful

Traumatic Brain Injury - How Physiotherapy Can Help In Recovery?

Master of Physiotherapy (MPT-Neuro), Bachelor of physiotherapy(BPT)
Physiotherapist, Ahmedabad
Traumatic Brain Injury - How Physiotherapy Can Help In Recovery?

When a sudden bump, blow, or jolt occurs to the brain, it results in a traumatic brain injury. According to the area involved in the traumatic brain injury, the patient may lose his consciousness, or he may lose the function of any part of the body. In the first few weeks following a traumatic brain injury, rapid recovery occurs but slows down over the following years. Hence, in order to gain rapid recovery, physiotherapy treatment should be started immediately.

Why physiotherapy is helpful in traumatic brain injury?

Along with the proper medication, physiotherapy assists in rapid recovery of the patient in the following ways:

  • It improves balance and co-ordination, thereby, decreasing the risk of fall.

  • It increases the ability to move in the bed, sit, stand, or to do activities for daily living.

  • It reduces muscle spasms, pain, and stiffness in cases of muscle involvement with traumatic brain injury.

  • It increases strength of the paralyzed (non-functioning, weakened muscles) limbs in cases of paralysis which occur after traumatic brain injury.

Continuous and persistent practice of physiotherapy ultimately results in independence and increased quality of life.

What therapies are included in physiotherapy for patients with traumatic brain injury?

The therapy needs to be followed on a daily basis under a proper guidance of a physiotherapist. It includes following methods:

  • Sensory stimulation: It includes application of specific stimuli, such as tactile (touch), proprioceptive, vestibular, auditory, visual, or olfactory stimuli. It is given in comatose patients. It acts by stimulating the brain and improving stimulus transmission, and it results in overall a rapid and better recovery.

  • Respiratory therapy: It is given to ICU patients. The main aim of this therapy is to promote ventilation, to improve oxygen saturation, and to improve thoracic mobility.

  • Therapies for prevention of contracture: Contractures mean that there is a loss of joint mobility. Hence, for the prevention of the contracture, active or passive movement of the joint or stretching exercises is generally advised.

  • Use of a serial cast: Serial casting is widely used to reduce stiff muscles and to improve the range of motion. They are changed in an interval of 4 to 7 days.

  • Mobilization: Mobilization therapies, such as bringing the patient into an upright seated position at the edge of the bed, outside the bed, or to a standing position are advised to improve the mobility of the patient.

  • Training for self-care: Training for improving the activities of self-care and the activities of daily living (ADL) is generally taught to the patients with sensory, motor, or cognitive dysfunction. 

  • Use of tools: Various tools, such as walking aids and supports are generally advised to improve and maintain the balance of the patient.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

5477 people found this helpful

What To Expect Post A Brain Injury?

M.Ch - Neuro Surgery, DNB (Orthopedics)
Neurosurgeon, Hyderabad
What To Expect Post A Brain Injury?

The very thought of injury to the brain itself is traumatizing. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) refers to destruction or damage of brain tissues because of a car crash, sudden fall, assault, gunshot wound, etc. Brain damage occurs due to a blow to the injured person's head, which whips the head backward and forward or from one side to the other. In a car crash, specific areas like the temporal and frontal lobes of the brain seem to get damaged. Many individuals wish to know about post brain injury effects as they hold a certain misconception about this particular matter.

Be aware of what can be expected post a brain injury

Two kinds of effects are usually observed immediately after a TBI. The tissues of the injured individual's brain might react to trauma as well as lead to tissue damage along with a comprehensive series of physiological and biochemical responses. Certain things that were once safely housed in the cells might flood the brain after injury. Such process results in further destroying and damaging of brain cells and is termed as secondary cell death.

The other type of effect is actually noticed in the injured person's functioning. People with extremely severe injuries may lose consciousness during the period of trauma. The state of unconsciousness might last from a fraction of minutes to many weeks or several months. Lengthy loss of consciousness is better known as coma. Negative respiration changes and motor functions may also be produced just after few days of the trauma. Individuals with severe injuries may never regain consciousness, but others who will come to the conscious state may undergo certain neurologically-based signs like aggression, irritability, etc.

Just after few weeks of a brain injury, the healthy functioning of brain tissues are slightly affected due to bleeding, swelling as well as a change in brain chemistry. The eyes of an injured person might stay closed post injury, and he or she may not exhibit any positive signals of awareness. Slowly, with the decrease of swelling as well as blood flow along with an improvement of brain chemistry, the functioning of the brain tends to improve gradually.

Also, with proper treatment, the injured individual might seem to open his eyes slowly. Besides this, a sleep and wake cycle might also begin, and he or she may start to follow commands,provide a response to the members of the family and speak.

In certain cases, a person may also enter into the minimally conscious state. This means he or she will stay partially conscious and also understand the source of visual and sound stimulation. Such a person can show signs of vocalization at times as well as an outburst of emotions. Later, during recovery stages, an individual can also develop various physical and brain functions, and may regain the ability to respond gradually.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1998 people found this helpful

What You Need To Know About Brain Injury?

Dr. Haresh Sampathkumar 90% (47 ratings)
MD - Brain Injury Medicine, MD - Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, MD - Internal Medicine
PMR (Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation) Specialist, Chennai

TYPES

  • Traumatic Brain Injury - Happens due to trauma 
  • Anoxic/Hypoxic brain injury - Happens due to decreased blood or oxygen supply to the brain. 
  • Ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident (commonly referred to as stroke) - Happens due to clots occluding the blood vessels in the brain or due to bleeding of blood vessels in the brain  
  • Brain tumors and metastasis (spreading of cancer) to the brain 
  • Vascular malformations of the brain such as Arteriovenous malformation, aneurysm etc - 
  • Brain infections
  • Autoimmune conditions such as  Multiple Sclerosis and auto-immune encephalitis - 
  • Toxic/metabolic causes such as post transplantation, sepsis, liver failure and kidney failure
  • Basically any injury or illness that affects your brain function for a prolonged period of time causing temporary or permanant damage 

SYMPTOMS

Usually individuals affected by these conditions can have a number of symptoms directly related to the brain injury such as

  • One-sided or both sided weakness and numbness of the arms and legs
  • Pain and tightness of the arms and legs
  • Difficulty with speech
  • Impaired consciousness (i.e. impaired arousal)
  • Cognitive impairment such as memory problems, slow thinking skills, problems with attention
  • Changes in their behavior such as aggression
  • Changes in their mood such as depression and anxiety
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Bladder and bowel incontinence
  • Visual problem
  • Hearing problem

MEDICAL COMPLICATIONS

There are medical complications that can be noted a few weeks or months after a brain injury. Some common ones include

  • Pneumonia
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Deep vein thrombosis – blood clot in the veins of your arms and legs
  • Pulmonary embolus – blood clot in your lungs
  • Pressure ulcers
  • Heterotopic ossification – a condition which causes stiffness of your joints
  • Seizures
  • Post-stroke shoulder pain – shoulder pain in the weak arm
  • Spasticity – tightness of the muscles of the affected arm and leg
  • Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity – a condition which causes fluctuations in your blood pressure, heart rate, and also causes abnormal stiffness of the arms and legs
  • Headache
  • Hydrocephalus – a condition where fluid builds up in your brain

HOW REHABILITATION CAN HELP?

A comprehensive, interdisciplinary team approach (i.e. care being provided by various disciplines in a coordinated fashion) with   Physician (Physiatrist), Physiotherapist, Occupational Therapist,  Speech and Language Therapist, Neuropsychologist,  Nutritionist and a  Nurse can help reduce your symptoms directly related to the injury as well as prevent and treat common medical complications post brain injury. Not all patients will require all services and usually, a combination of these services is required for an individual patient. 

PHYSICIAN (PHYSIATRIST)

Patients can be evaluated by the Physician first to determine the nature and severity of the medical condition then come up with a treatment plan that best suits them. Depending on the patient’s symptoms and medical complications (listed above), the treatment plan will include recommending therapy services, prescribing medications and performing injections. Medications are commonly  prescribed for medical complications as well as to reduce symptoms directly related to brain injury such as arm and leg weakness, muscle tightness, speech impairment, mood and behavior issues, cognitive impairment and impaired arousal. The physician  performs injections such as tendon injections, joint injections for joint or muscle pain as well as Botulinum toxin (commonly referred as Botox injections) and nerve block injections to help relieve muscle and tendon tightness.

PHYSIOTHERAPIST

A Physiotherapist will  focus on various physical exercises to improve weakness in the arms and legs, improve their walking and balance and to reduce muscle tightness. They might use physical modalities to reduce pain and inflammation, muscle and tendon tightness and prevent muscle atrophy. They can also fit you with an orthosis to reduce muscle tightness as well as improve your walking and arm function.

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST

An Occupational Therapist will focus on various physical activities required for daily living for patients with severe physical and/or cognitive impairment and also teach cognitive exercises thereby compensating the cognitive deficits.  Visual Training exercises are provided to individuals with visual impairment due to the neurological problem. The final phase of treatment involves patient training for successful community integration (education, employment etc).

SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGIST

A Speech Language Pathologist (commonly referred to as a Speech and Language Therapist), will evaluate the patient’s speech, communication and swallowing skills.  The treatment plan is broken down after an initial evaluation. The program will vary depending on the extent of the injury, the stage of recovery, and the individual’s particular areas of difficulty. Specific retraining and compensatory exercises are taught to improve the above skills. However, the major focus is on helping the individual gain back his/her quality of life.

NEUROPSYCHOLOGIST

A Neuropsychologist evaluates  patients  with depression and anxiety, that is commonly seen after any major  life-changing illness or injury and guides them through the process of rehabilitation  thereby improving their quality of life through motivation and counseling.  Performing an in-depth cognitive assessment and planning cognitive re-training exercises and compensatory strategies is also a major treatment aspect of a Neuropsychologist.

NUTRITIONIST

Malnutrition or undernourishment is a common problem in this population. For optimal recovery,  a Nutritionist recommends an appropriate intake of nutrition.

REHABILITATION NURSE

A Rehabilitation Nurse  trains patients with central nervous system injury to manage their bowel and bladder independently.  Performing and training wound care management for patients with pressure ulcers are also handled by a Rehabilitation Nurse.

EXPECTATIONS OF RECOVERY

Depending on the severity and chronicity (time duration since injury/illness) of the injury/illness, your recovery time may differ. Complete neurological recovery is often possible if the injury is mild to moderate. In the case of a moderate to severe injury, a complete neurological recovery may not be possible and therefore the goal will be to help you be as independent as possible and integrate you into the community despite your physical and/or cognitive limitation. If the injury is too severe, then the goal would be to improve your quality of life by helping you be as independent as possible with your day to day living, decrease pain and prevent complications.

1 person found this helpful

Brain Damage: 5 Most Common Causes!

MBBS, Cerebrovascular and Micro neurosurgery fellowship, MS - General Surgery, MCh Neurosurgery
Neurosurgeon, Jaipur
Brain Damage: 5 Most Common Causes!

Regardless of whether the cause is a tumor, trauma, stroke or any other illness, any injury which inflicts damage on your brain cells is considered to be a brain damage. 

There are two types of brain damage, both of which interfere with the standard functioning of the brain. 
They are:

  1. Acquired brain injury (ABI): Either resulting from a tumor or a neurological illness, for instance a stroke, this type of brain injury originates from the cellular level and is commonly linked with brain pressure.
  2. Traumatic brain injury (TBI): It results from any damage imparted to the skull usually from an external and physical force like a blow to the head or a head accident, which in turn damages the brain.

How severe the brain damage is depends largely on the type of brain injury. Mild brain injuries are temporary, causing headaches, memory lapses, nausea and confusion. On the other hand, severe brain injuries cause cognitive, physical and behavioral impairments which are often life-changing and permanent.

Causes:
Acquired brain injuries may be caused by:

  1. Poisoning
  2. Being exposed to toxic substances
  3. Choking, strangulation or drowning
  4. Heart attacks
  5. Infections
  6. Stroke
  7. Tumors
  8. Neurological illnesses
  9. Aneurysms
  10. Illegal drug abuse

Traumatic brain injuries are usually caused by:

  1. Car accidents
  2. Sports injuries
  3. Physical violence
  4. Head blows
  5. Falls and other mishaps

Symptoms:

Whether acquired or traumatic, symptoms of brain damage can be classified under four major groups:

1.  Cognitive symptoms generally include

  • Having a hard time processing information or expressing thoughts
  • Difficulty in understanding others or abstract concepts
  • Indecisiveness
  • Memory loss
  • Short attention spans

2.  Physical symptoms generally include

3.  Perceptual symptoms generally include

  • Spatial disorientation
  • Smell and taste disorders
  • Heightened pain sensitivity
  • Changes in hearing, seeing, or touch sensations
  • Unable to perceive time
  • Balance problems

4.  Emotional or behavioral symptoms generally include

  • Decreased stress tolerance
  • Heightened or flattened reactions or emotions
  • Aggressiveness
  • Sluggishness
  • Impatience and irritability
  • Self-denial. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurosurgeon.
2962 people found this helpful

Causes and Symptoms of Brain Damage

Dr. Manish Vaish 86% (77 ratings)
IFAANS, DNB (Neurosurgery), MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Ghaziabad
Causes and Symptoms of Brain Damage

Regardless of whether the cause is a tumor, trauma, stroke or any other illness, any injury which inflicts damage on your brain cells is considered to be a brain damage. 

There are two types of brain damage, both of which interfere with the standard functioning of the brain. 
They are:

  1. Acquired brain injury (ABI): Either resulting from a tumor or a neurological illness, for instance a stroke, this type of brain injury originates from the cellular level and is commonly linked with brain pressure.
  2. Traumatic brain injury (TBI): It results from any damage imparted to the skull usually from an external and physical force like a blow to the head or a head accident, which in turn damages the brain.

How severe the brain damage is depends largely on the type of brain injury. Mild brain injuries are temporary, causing headaches, memory lapses, nausea and confusion. On the other hand, severe brain injuries cause cognitive, physical and behavioral impairments which are often life-changing and permanent.

Causes:
Acquired brain injuries may be caused by:

  1. Poisoning
  2. Being exposed to toxic substances
  3. Choking, strangulation or drowning
  4. Heart attacks
  5. Infections
  6. Stroke
  7. Tumors
  8. Neurological illnesses
  9. Aneurysms
  10. Illegal drug abuse

Traumatic brain injuries are usually caused by:

  1. Car accidents
  2. Sports injuries
  3. Physical violence
  4. Head blows
  5. Falls and other mishaps

Symptoms:
Whether acquired or traumatic, symptoms of brain damage can be classified under four major groups:

1.  Cognitive symptoms generally include

  • Having a hard time processing information or expressing thoughts
  • Difficulty in understanding others or abstract concepts
  • Indecisiveness
  • Memory loss
  • Short attention spans

2.  Physical symptoms generally include

3.  Perceptual symptoms generally include

  • Spatial disorientation
  • Smell and taste disorders
  • Heightened pain sensitivity
  • Changes in hearing, seeing, or touch sensations
  • Unable to perceive time
  • Balance problems

4.  Emotional or behavioral symptoms generally include

  • Decreased stress tolerance
  • Heightened or flattened reactions or emotions
  • Aggressiveness
  • Sluggishness
  • Impatience and irritability
  • Self-denial
3239 people found this helpful

Early Stages Of Recovery Of Brain Tissue After Injury!

Dr. Deepak Kumar 86% (26 ratings)
M. Ch (Neuro Surgery), MS - General Surgery, MBBS
Neurologist, Gurgaon
Early Stages Of Recovery Of Brain Tissue After Injury!

The tissue in the brain does not heal in the same way as the tissues in the rest of the body. A traumatic incident such as an accident involving the head, a fall or a gunshot can damage and destroy brain tissue. The extent of this damage depends on the force exerted on the head. Recovering from such accidents can take anywhere from a few months to a few years. No two people recover in the same way and hence it is difficult to set a universal timetable to this recovery. Some people make a full recovery and go back to living their normal lifestyle while others may need help throughout their lives.

  • In the first few weeks after the injury, the tissues inside the brain are likely to be swollen and the patient may have internal bleeding. As a result, the person may be in a coma and unaware of the happening around him or her. In this state, the patient will not be responsive to external stimuli of any kind and will be unable to communicate with others.
  • As the swelling subsides, the brain tissue functioning will improve. Though the patient’s eyes may still remain closed, he or she may begin to show signs of responsive behavior. With time, he or she may open their eyes and they may begin to experience irregular sleep-wake cycles. At the point, the patient may be said to be in a vegetative state.After some time, the person may also begin to respond to family members and display an ability to follow simple commands. This is known as a minimally conscious stage.
  • Caregivers will need to be very patient with the person as at this stage as inconsistent behavior is very common. The person may appear nervous and restless and may often feel frustrated with his or her inability to do things they were able to before the accident. Some days could be very productive while on others, the person may not be able to pay attention to commands or complete actions that they could do on the previous day. The patient may also turn aggressive or overreact to stimuli.
  • These first few stages of recovery usually happen within six months of the accident. Between six months and two years from the accident, the brain will slowly regain its functionality. Improvements slow down after two years but may still continue for many years. It is important to remember that the rate of recovery varies from person to person.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2063 people found this helpful

Brain Damage - Types, Causes and Symptoms

Dr. Satyajit Das 89% (79 ratings)
DNB NEUROSURGERY, M.B.B.S.
Neurosurgeon, Durgapur
Brain Damage - Types, Causes and Symptoms

Regardless of whether the cause is a tumor, trauma, stroke or any other illness, any injury which inflicts damage on your brain cells is considered to be a brain damage. 

There are two types of brain damage, both of which interfere with the standard functioning of the brain. 
They are:

  1. Acquired brain injury (ABI): Either resulting from a tumor or a neurological illness, for instance a stroke, this type of brain injury originates from the cellular level and is commonly linked with brain pressure.
  2. Traumatic brain injury (TBI): It results from any damage imparted to the skull usually from an external and physical force like a blow to the head or a head accident, which in turn damages the brain.

How severe the brain damage is depends largely on the type of brain injury. Mild brain injuries are temporary, causing headaches, memory lapses, nausea and confusion. On the other hand, severe brain injuries cause cognitive, physical and behavioral impairments which are often life-changing and permanent.

Causes:
Acquired brain injuries may be caused by:

  1. Poisoning
  2. Being exposed to toxic substances
  3. Choking, strangulation or drowning
  4. Heart attacks
  5. Infections
  6. Stroke
  7. Tumors
  8. Neurological illnesses
  9. Aneurysms
  10. Illegal drug abuse

Traumatic brain injuries are usually caused by:

  1. Car accidents
  2. Sports injuries
  3. Physical violence
  4. Head blows
  5. Falls and other mishaps

Symptoms:
Whether acquired or traumatic, symptoms of brain damage can be classified under four major groups:

1.  Cognitive symptoms generally include

  • Having a hard time processing information or expressing thoughts
  • Difficulty in understanding others or abstract concepts
  • Indecisiveness
  • Memory loss
  • Short attention spans

2.  Physical symptoms generally include

3.  Perceptual symptoms generally include

  • Spatial disorientation
  • Smell and taste disorders
  • Heightened pain sensitivity
  • Changes in hearing, seeing, or touch sensations
  • Unable to perceive time
  • Balance problems

4.  Emotional or behavioral symptoms generally include

  • Decreased stress tolerance
  • Heightened or flattened reactions or emotions
  • Aggressiveness
  • Sluggishness
  • Impatience and irritability
  • Self-denial

    If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a neurosurgeon.

2770 people found this helpful

Brain Damage - Causes & Symptoms Of It!

Dr. Vineet Varghese 86% (50 ratings)
MBBS, DNB - General Surgery, DNB- Neurosurgery
Neurosurgeon, Delhi
Brain Damage - Causes & Symptoms Of It!

Regardless of whether the cause is a tumor, trauma, stroke or any other illness, any injury which inflicts damage on your brain cells is considered to be a brain damage. 

There are two types of brain damage, both of which interfere with the standard functioning of the brain. 
They are:

  1. Acquired brain injury (ABI): Either resulting from a tumor or a neurological illness, for instance a stroke, this type of brain injury originates from the cellular level and is commonly linked with brain pressure.
  2. Traumatic brain injury (TBI): It results from any damage imparted to the skull usually from an external and physical force like a blow to the head or a head accident, which in turn damages the brain.

How severe the brain damage is depends largely on the type of brain injury. Mild brain injuries are temporary, causing headaches, memory lapses, nausea and confusion. On the other hand, severe brain injuries cause cognitive, physical and behavioral impairments which are often life-changing and permanent.

Causes:
Acquired brain injuries may be caused by:

  1. Poisoning
  2. Being exposed to toxic substances
  3. Choking, strangulation or drowning
  4. Heart attacks
  5. Infections
  6. Stroke
  7. Tumors
  8. Neurological illnesses
  9. Aneurysms
  10. Illegal drug abuse

Traumatic brain injuries are usually caused by:

  1. Car accidents
  2. Sports injuries
  3. Physical violence
  4. Head blows
  5. Falls and other mishaps

Symptoms:
Whether acquired or traumatic, symptoms of brain damage can be classified under four major groups:

1.  Cognitive symptoms generally include

  • Having a hard time processing information or expressing thoughts
  • Difficulty in understanding others or abstract concepts
  • Indecisiveness
  • Memory loss
  • Short attention spans

2.  Physical symptoms generally include

3.  Perceptual symptoms generally include

  • Spatial disorientation
  • Smell and taste disorders
  • Heightened pain sensitivity
  • Changes in hearing, seeing, or touch sensations
  • Unable to perceive time
  • Balance problems

4.  Emotional or behavioral symptoms generally include

  • Decreased stress tolerance
  • Heightened or flattened reactions or emotions
  • Aggressiveness
  • Sluggishness
  • Impatience and irritability
  • Self-denial
1768 people found this helpful
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