Stuttering is a type of speech disorder wherein, a person speaks slower than normal. It is quite common in the age group of 3 to 8. The relationship between stress and stuttering has been pondered over for decades now. A lot of people seem to believe that stress and stuttering are co-related. On the contrary, recent studies show that stress is more of a consequence rather than a cause of stuttering. If you take the first theory into consideration, then according to that, children would be the greatest victims of anxiety and stress. But it is seen that the level of stress increases proportionately with the increase in age.
Social anxiety in teenagers increases due to stuttering, when they come across individuals who can speak in a normal pace. This in turn can crush their self confidence and lead them to isolate themselves from social groups and people in general. Hence, it is important to deal with stuttering in the early ages or as and when it occurs.
Sometimes stuttering can develop due to physical or mental trauma. Most people with stuttering do not seek therapy for it because they might not think of it to be too severe. Little do they realise that a simple process of speech therapy can help them overcome this disability and rejuvenate their level of self-confidence.
It has also come to light, that people with relapse in stuttering post therapy has shown a three-fold increase in anxiety levels than normal. Hence we cannot ignore the strong relationship between stress and stuttering. So from the above evidence, it is safe to conclude that social anxiety or stress develops as a result of chronic stuttering.
How to deal with stress related to stuttering?
Seeking help is a great start to tackle your disability. If your stuttering is prominent enough to warrant therapy, you must seek professional help for the same. You must also learn to control your anxiety by dismissing any anxious thought or make sincere efforts in controlling physical anxiety.
You can also try to increase your social skills by participating in events, such as public speaking that can reduce your stress levels and make yourself more confident about yourself. One must also remember that a person is defined by what he does rather than what he says. So never let a minor disability come in the way of your self worth!
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Speech and language problem in children
A language disorder is an impairment that makes it hard for someone to find the right words and form clear sentences when speaking. It can also make it difficult to understand what another person says. A child may have difficulty understanding what others say, may struggle to put thoughts into words, or both.
You may notice that your child’s vocabulary is very basic and his sentences are short, ungrammatical and incomplete. While his peers chat and tell jokes, your child may have trouble following the conversation and miss the jokes. He also may speak in two-word sentences and have trouble answering even simple questions.
They aren’t simply “late talkers.” without treatment, their communication problems will continue and may lead to emotional issues and academic struggles.
Types of language disorders:
What are the symptoms kids have?
Kids with receptive language issues may have trouble understanding what other people say. They could also have difficulty following simple directions and organizing information they hear. Receptive language issues can be hard to spot in very young children.
Expressive language issues can be easier to identify early. This is because kids with expressive language issues may be late to start talking and not speak until age 2. At age 3, they may be talking but hard to understand, and the problems persist into preschool. Some kids, for instance, might understand the stories read to them but not be able to describe them even in a simple way.
Here are other signs of expressive language issues:
What skills are affected by language disorders?
Language disorders can affect kids in a number of ways, both socially and academically. Here are some examples.
* social skills: understanding what others are saying and expressing themselves through words helps children form relationships. When kids can’t communicate clearly, they may struggle to make friends and be part of a social group. They may prefer to be alone and become shy or distant. They might also become the target of bullies or act aggressively because they can’t resolve problems verbally.
* academic struggles: some research suggests that children with language disorders also have reading issues. Some kids also struggle with writing because of their limited vocabulary and poor grasp of grammar.
Here are some signs that your child might have a receptive language delay:
Here are some signs of expressive language delay:
The first step in evaluating the problem is by seeking an evaluation from a speech-language pathologist (also called a speech therapist). Only a speech therapist can help the kids as well as parents to overcome this problem.
In developed countries like US it is mandatory to check hearing of each and every newborn within 48 hours of birth. But currently there are no mandatory rules or regulations for Newborn Hearing Screening in India and hence the identification of hearing loss is mostly at later ages.
As with other skills and milestones, the age at which kids learn language and start talking can very. Many babies happily babble" mama" and" dada" well before their first birthday, and most toddlers can say about 20 words by the time they're 18 months old. But what if a 2-year-old isn't really talking yet or only puts two words together?
Knowing what's" normal" and what's not in speech and language development can help parents figure out if there's cause for concern or if their child is right on schedule.
How are speech and language different?
Speech is the verbal expression of language and includes articulation (the way sounds and words are formed).
Language is the entire system of giving and getting information in a meaningful way. It's understanding and being understood through communication — verbal, nonverbal, and written.
What are speech or language delays?
Speech and language problems differ, but often overlap. For example:
A child with a language delay might pronounce words well but only be able to put two words together.
A child with a speech delay might use words and phrases to express ideas but be difficult to understand.
When do kids develop speech and language skills?
The stages of speech and language development are the same for all kids, but the age at which kids develop them can vary a lot.
During routine speech therapist/ doctors look to see if kids have reached developmental milestones at these ages:
Before 12 months
By the first birthday, babies should be using their voices to relate to their environment. Cooing and babbling are early stages of speech development. At around 9 months, babies begin to string sounds together, use different tones of speech, and say words like" mama" and" dada" (without really understanding what those words mean).
Before 12 months of age, babies also should be paying attention to sound and starting to recognize names of common objects (bottle, binky, etc.). Babies who watch intently but don't react to sound could be showing signs of hearing loss
By 12 to 15 months
Kids this age should have a wide range of speech sounds in their babbling (like p, b, m, d, or n), begin to imitate sounds and words they hear, and often say one or more words (not including" mama" and" dada"). Nouns usually come first, like" baby" and" ball" they also should be able to understand and follow simple one-step directions (" please give me the toy" etc.).
From 18 to 24 months
Most (but not all) toddlers can say about 20 words by 18 months and 50 or more words by the time they turn 2. By age 2, kids are starting to combine two words to make simple sentences, such as" baby crying" or" daddy big" a 2-year-old should be able to identify common objects (in person and in pictures); point to eyes, ears, or nose when asked; and follow two-step commands (" please pick up the toy and give it to me" for example).
From 2 to 3 years
Parents often see huge gains in their child's speech. A toddler's vocabulary should increase (to too many words to count) and he or she should routinely combine three or more words into sentences.
Comprehension also should increase — by age 3, a child should begin to understand what it means to" put it on the table" or" put it under the bed" kids also should begin to identify colors and understand descriptive concepts (big versus little, for example).
What are the signs of a speech or language delay?
A baby who doesn't respond to sound or who isn't vocalizing should be seen by a doctor right away. But often, it's hard for parents to know if their child is just taking a little longer to reach a speech or language milestone, or if there's a problem that needs medical attention.
Here are some things to watch for. Call your doctor if your child:
By 12 months: isn't using gestures, such as pointing or waving bye-bye
By 18 months: prefers gestures over vocalizations to communicate
By 18 months: has trouble imitating sounds
Has trouble understanding simple verbal requests
By 2 years: can only imitate speech or actions and doesn't produce words or phrases spontaneously
By 2 years: says only certain sounds or words repeatedly and can't use oral language to communicate more than his or her immediate needs
By 2 years: can't follow simple directions
By 2 years: has an unusual tone of voice (such as raspy or nasal sounding)
Is more difficult to understand than expected for his or her age:
Parents and regular caregivers should understand about half of a child's speech at 2 years and about three quarters at 3 years.
By 4 years old, a child should be mostly understood, even by people who don't know the child.
What causes speech or language delays?
A speech delay in an otherwise normally developing child might be due to an oral impairment, like problems with the tongue or palate (the roof of the mouth). And a short frenulum (the fold beneath the tongue) can limit tongue movement for speech production.
Many kids with speech delays have oral-motor problems. These happen when there's a problem in the areas of the brain responsible for speech, making it hard to coordinate the lips, tongue, and jaw to produce speech sounds. These kids also might have other oral-motor problems, such as feeding difficulties.
Hearing problems are also commonly related to delayed speech. That's why an audiologistshould test a child's hearing whenever there's a speech concern. Kids who have trouble hearing may have trouble articulating as well as understanding, imitating, and using language.
Ear infection especially, chronic infection, can affect hearing. Simple ear infections that have been treated, though, should not affect speech. And, as long as there is normal hearing in at least one ear, speech and language will develop normally.
How are speech or language delays diagnosed?
If you or your doctor think that your child might have a problem, it's important to get an early evaluation by a speech_ language therapistyou can find a speech-language pathologist on your own, or ask your health care provider to refer you to one.
The speech-language pathologist will evaluate your child's speech and language skills within the context of total development. The pathologist will do standardized tests and look for milestones in speech and language development.
The speech-language pathologist will also assess:
What your child understands (called receptive language)
What your child can say (called expressive language)
If your child is attempting to communicate in other ways, such as pointing, head shaking, gesturing, etc.
Sound development and clarity of speech
Your child's oral-motor status (how the mouth, tongue, palate, etc, work together for speech as well as eating and swallowing)
Based on the test results, the speech-language pathologist might recommend speech therapy for your child.
How does speech therapy help?
The speech therapist will work with your child to improve speech and language skills, and show you what to do at home to help your child.
What can parents do?
Parental involvement is an important part of helping kids who have a speech or language problem.
Here are a few ways to encourage speech development at home:
Spend a lot of time communicating with your child. Even during infancy — talk, sing, and encourage imitation of sounds and gestures.
Read to your child. Start reading when your child is a baby. Look for age-appropriate soft or board books or picture books that encourage kids to look while you name the pictures. Try starting with a classic book (such as pat the bunny, in which your child imitates the patting motion) or books with textures that kids can touch. Later, let your child point to recognizable pictures and try to name them. Then move on to nursery rhymes, which have rhythmic appeal. Progress to predictable books (such as brown bear, brown bear, what do you see?) that let kids anticipate what happens. Your little one may even start to memorize favorite stories.
Use everyday situations. To reinforce your child's speech and language, talk your way through the day. For example, name foods at the grocery store, explain what you're doing as you cook a meal or clean a room, point out objects around the house, and as you drive, point out sounds you hear. Ask questions and acknowledge your child's responses (even when they're hard to understand). Keep things simple, but avoid" baby talk"
Recognizing and treating speech and language delays early on is the best approach. With proper therapy and time, your child will be better able to communicate with you and the rest of the world.