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Sepsis in Newborns Tips

Vaccination for Newborns and Adults

Dr. B.M Lava 89% (8479 ratings)
Diploma in Child Health (DCH), MBBS
General Physician, Bangalore
Vaccination for Newborns and Adults

The immune system is extremely important in an individual's system. A strong immune system helps to combat the invasion of foreign particles and consequently resists the diseases.  Vaccination in such a context becomes imperative as it strengthens an individual's immunity. In vaccination, antigens or germs are given in very small doses. They stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies to fight against that particular infection. Vaccinations are provided to both children and adults to protect them from a number of diseases.  However, different vaccinations are provided in different ages according to the susceptibility to diseases.

Some of the vaccinations that are provided to newborns are:

1. Hepatitis B vaccine: This vaccination is given in order to prevent the child from having Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B is a liver disease that if persists can lead to liver failure or even liver cancer. This vaccine must be injected immediately after the birth of the baby. The first dose must be followed by administering a second dose within a span of a month or two. 

2. Rotavirus Vaccine (RV): This vaccine, taken orally, prevents the infant from Rotavirus. This virus causes vomiting and diarrhea in children that often leads to severe dehydration. This vaccine is administered within two to four months of the baby's birth. Sometimes, on doctor's prescription a second dose may be necessary in the sixth month. 

3. Acellular Pertussis Vaccine and Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids: This is a combination of various vaccines that protects the child from tetanus and diphtheria. Newborns are extremely prone to diphtheria that causes fatal illness and sometimes even deaths in children. This vaccination thereby, is extremely important and must be administered within two or four months and must be followed up with secondary doses later under the doctor's supervision. Vaccinations do not end with childhood. In many cases adults too need to be vaccinated against certain diseases. Some of them are:

  • Hepatitis A Vaccine: You can get this vaccination if there is any risk of you suffering from Hepatitis A. Much like Hepatitis B, Hepatitis A too is an acute liver disease. This is extremely fatal and is seldom accompanied by any symptoms. 
  • Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: This is a sexually transmitted virus that causes cervical dysplasia in women and men.  The apt age for both men and women for this vaccination differs. Women who are twenty six years of age or younger and men below or at the age of twenty one are most suitable for this vaccination. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
3494 people found this helpful

Dr. Ramakanth Reddy 94% (155 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Common Skin Problems in Newborns

Mongolian Spot

This is extremely common in Indian babies. This appears as a blue-grey patch on the buttocks or the lower back. The patch can be quite large in size. They look unsightly, but apart from the cosmetic appearance, they do not cause any problems. Often parents confuse it with a bruise and see a dermatologist when it doesn?t settle down. This can be safely ignored and it may either disappear or become smaller with age.

Dr. Vipul Shah 86% (16 ratings)
MD , Peditrics
Pediatrician, Ahmedabad
Give exclusive breast milk till six months of age to your child avoid bottle feeding it may lead to so many complications such as it may lead to diarrhea sepsis dental problems ear infection chances of aspirations so and on

Dr. Ramakanth Reddy 94% (155 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Common Skin Problems in Newborns

Toxic Erythema

Although the name sounds scary, this is a self-limiting problem requiring no long term medical attention. This usually appears as red blotches with a central white spot. It can occur anywhere and often involves the entire body. 

The most important factor to keep in mind is the baby?s general health. If the baby has no fever, stays alert and active, responds to the mother, feeds normally, and wets and soils the nappy as usual, then there is no need to be alarmed. However, if the baby stops feeding, stops crying or looks groggy all the time, then he or she needs to be assessed by a child specialist.

Dr. Ramakanth Reddy 94% (155 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Common Skin Problems in Newborns

Eczema

This is very common after the baby has turned about 2-3 months of age or even slightly later. This appears as a red area with itching on the cheeks or the chest area. These babies usually have very dry skin, and it is also not uncommon for one of the parents to have eczema. This form is called atopic eczema. The severity of the eczema is very variable, but the vast majority grow out of the eczema by the time they reach 15 years of age. This tends to be a persistent problem and needs to be managed on a regular basis.

The most important factor to keep in mind is to use a gentle soap and a pH neutral moisturiser all over the body. The soap and moisturiser needs to be continued for years and the dermatologist may prescribe a steroid or anti-inflammatory creams for brief periods during a flare up.

Dr. Mool Chand Gupta 91% (35709 ratings)
MD - Pulmonary, DTCD
Pulmonologist, Faridabad
INFANT AND MATERNAL MORTALITY.
Infant mortality is still very high in India.
40% infant mortality occurs in first 30 days of birth.
50% of these death can be prevented by simple measure like cleanliness,hand hyegine, preventing hypothermia and breast feeding, which require just public education and awareness.
Important causes of maternal mortality are anaemia,preeclapsia,eclapsia.sepsis and post partumhaemorrage.
These can be prevented by early institutional care,early registration for pregnancy care and institutional delivery.
4 people found this helpful

Tips To Prevent Infections After A Splenectomy!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Hyderabad
Tips To Prevent Infections After A Splenectomy!

The spleen is a very important organ of the human body. A splenectomy is the process of removing the spleen from the human body. The spleen is a very small, fist-sized organ which is located under the rib cage, close to the stomach. The basic function of the spleen is removing the damaged or dead red blood cells. It also removes any kind of bacteria present in the bloodstream that can cause infections. When the spleen is removed, there are chances of infection that can be life-threatening if not treated. It is always better to prevent infections as soon as you see the symptoms.

Why do you need a Splenectomy?
There can be many reasons for the removal of the spleen from your body such as –

  • In case, the spleen is damaged due to an accident, injury or in the process of an abdomen surgery.
  • For treating some medical conditions such as lymphomas or leukemias.
  • Overactivity of your spleen.
  • In case any abnormalities found in the red blood cells of the body.
  • Collagen vascular diseases
  • In some rare cases, a person may be born without a spleen.

Sepsis:
The infection that is caused due to the removal of the spleen is called sepsis. This is a life-threatening condition where the bacteria that causes the infection keeps on spreading to the entire body and bloodstream. It is going to impact the normal functioning of the human body. Symptoms of sepsis include high fever, shivering, headache, confusion, drowsiness, severe pain in the abdominal area and increased heartbeat. But all this starts with a simple respiratory problem such as a respiratory tract infection.

Tips to prevent infections after a Splenectomy:
If you have had a splenectomy, then it is very important for you to take certain precautions such as:

  • You need to take certain vaccines such as HIB, pneumococcal or meningococcal and they will reduce the risk of getting an infection after the removal of the spleen.
  • You will have to take some additional doses of the above vaccines in order to maintain the effect on your body.
  • You need to take antibiotics on a daily basis to prevent a sepsis infection.
  • The first stage or symptoms start with chills or fever and hence you should make sure to maintain a set of antibiotics. Start taking them as soon as you see these symptoms.
  • If you are travelling to another country, then make sure you carry the antibiotics with you. If you notice any kind of symptoms, you need to take the medicine immediately.

You need to discuss the above-listed points with your doctor, especially if you require more information about how to prevent infection after the spleen is removed. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3161 people found this helpful

Dr. Sajeev Kumar 88% (28384 ratings)
C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
Handling a Newborn
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If you haven't spent a lot of time around newborns, their fragility may be intimidating. Here are a few basics to remember:

Wash your hands (or use a hand sanitizer) before handling your baby. Newborns don't have a strong immune system yet, so they are susceptible to infection. Make sure that everyone who handles your baby has clean hands.
Be careful to support your baby's head and neck. Cradle the head when carrying your baby and support the head when carrying the baby upright or when you lay your baby down.
Be careful not to shake your newborn, whether in play or in frustration. Shaking that is vigorous can cause bleeding in the brain and even death. If you need to wake your infant, don't do it by shaking — instead, tickle your baby's feet or blow gently on a cheek.
Make sure your baby is securely fastened into the carrier, stroller, or car seat. Limit any activity that could be too rough or bouncy.
Remember that your newborn is not ready for rough play, such as being jiggled on the knee or thrown in the air.
8 people found this helpful

Dr. Sajeev Kumar 88% (28384 ratings)
C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
Fever does not mean presence of infection. There are many situations where there may be fever without infection and hence needs no antibiotics.
Sepsis is a clinical syndrome, which results from the disregulation of inflammatory response to an infection. The temperature is between 36°C to 38.30°C. Heart rate is often more than 90 per minute.
Symptomatic inflammatory response syndrome means a clinical syndrome, which results from disregulated inflammatory response to any infections such as inflammation of the pancreas, inflammation of the vessels, clot formations in the veins.
Many antibiotics can cause fever; unless they are discontinued, fever will not subside.
Hyperthermia is a condition with elevated body temperature but it is not called fever. Examples are exposure to heat or heat stroke and in response to anesthetic drugs and anti?psychotic drugs.
Hyperthermia may not respond to anti?fever drugs.
When fever is more than 41.5°C, it is acute hyperpyrexia.
Hyperpyrexia is usually seen in patients with severe infections but it may also occur in brain hemorrhage. It responds to anti?fever drugs.
High temperature without infection is found in condition of hyperfunctioning of thyroid gland.
Recreational drugs such as Ecstasy can also cause fever without any infection.
Mild fever can also occur after exertion.
1 person found this helpful

Dr. Sajeev Kumar 88% (28384 ratings)
C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
FEVER -NOT ALWAYS INFECTION
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Fever does not always mean presence of infection. There are many situations where fever may occur without any infection and hence needs no antibiotics.
Sepsis is a clinical syndrome, which results from the dysregulation of inflammatory response to an infection. The temperature is between 36°C to 38.30°C. Heart rate is often more than 90 per minute.
Symptomatic inflammatory response syndrome means a clinical syndrome, which results from dysregulated inflammatory response to any infections such as inflammation of the pancreas, inflammation of the vessels, clot formations in the veins.
Many antibiotics can cause fever; unless they are discontinued, fever will not subside.
Hyperthermia is a condition with elevated body temperature but it is not called fever. Examples are exposure to heat or heat stroke and in response to anesthetic drugs and anti–psychotic drugs.
Hyperthermia may not respond to anti–fever drugs.
When fever is more than 41.5°C, it is acute hyperpyrexia.
Hyperpyrexia is usually seen in patients with severe infections but it may also occur in brain hemorrhage. It responds to anti–fever drugs.
High temperature without infection is found in condition of hyperfunctioning of the thyroid gland.
Recreational drugs such as Ecstasy can also cause fever without any infection.
Mild fever can also occur after exertion.
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