Common Specialities
{{speciality.keyWord}}
Common Issues
{{issue.keyWord}}
Common Treatments
{{treatment.keyWord}}

Rotavirus Tips

Dr. Sajeev Kumar 89% (28275 ratings)
C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
DIARRHOEA PREVENTION -LIFE SAVING

To reduce subsequent episodes of diarrhea, malnutrition, and delays in physical and mental development.

Recommendations
Exclusive breastfeeding until age six months

Continued breastfeeding with complementary foods until two years of age.
Complementary feeding may be considered in younger infants if growth is inadequate.
The consumption of safe food and water.
After every loose stool give ORS/boiled sugar-salt solution or rice water or any
homemade made clean solution to prevent death from dehydration.

Water brought to a rolling boil for at least five minutes is optimal for preparing food and drinks for young children.
Hand Washing after defecating, disposing of a child's stool, and before preparing meals.
The use of latrines; these should be located more than 10 meters and downhill from drinking water sources.
Rota virus accounts for majority of diarrhoea in children. Rotavirus vaccine can prevent diarrhoea from this common,deadly virus

Vaccination - Why It Is Important For Everyone?

Dr. Bharti Sharma 83% (62 ratings)
MBBS, DCP
Pathologist, Faridabad
Vaccination - Why It Is Important For Everyone?

The immune system is extremely important in an individual's system. A strong immune system helps to combat the invasion of foreign particles and consequently resists the diseases.  Vaccination in such a context becomes imperative as it strengthens an individual's immunity. In vaccination, antigens or germs are given in very small doses. They stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies to fight against that particular infection. Vaccinations are provided to both children and adults to protect them from a number of diseases.  However, different vaccinations are provided in different ages according to the susceptibility to diseases.

Some of the vaccinations that are provided to newborns are:

1. Hepatitis B vaccine: This vaccination is given in order to prevent the child from having Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B is a liver disease that if persists can lead to liver failure or even liver cancer. This vaccine must be injected immediately after the birth of the baby. The first dose must be followed by administering a second dose within a span of a month or two. 

2. Rotavirus Vaccine (RV): This vaccine, taken orally, prevents the infant from Rotavirus. This virus causes vomiting and diarrhea in children that often leads to severe dehydration. This vaccine is administered within two to four months of the baby's birth. Sometimes, on doctor's prescription a second dose may be necessary in the sixth month. 

3. Acellular Pertussis Vaccine and Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids: This is a combination of various vaccines that protects the child from tetanus and diphtheria. Newborns are extremely prone to diphtheria that causes fatal illness and sometimes even deaths in children. This vaccination thereby, is extremely important and must be administered within two or four months and must be followed up with secondary doses later under the doctor's supervision. Vaccinations do not end with childhood. In many cases adults too need to be vaccinated against certain diseases. Some of them are:

  • Hepatitis A Vaccine: You can get this vaccination if there is any risk of you suffering from Hepatitis A. Much like Hepatitis B, Hepatitis A too is an acute liver disease. This is extremely fatal and is seldom accompanied by any symptoms. 
  • Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: This is a sexually transmitted virus that causes cervical dysplasia in women and men.  The apt age for both men and women for this vaccination differs. Women who are twenty six years of age or younger and men below or at the age of twenty one are most suitable for this vaccination. 

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4885 people found this helpful

Chronic Diarrhoea - What Causes It?

MBBS, MD-Medicine, DNB-Gatroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Gurgaon
Chronic Diarrhoea - What Causes It?

Chronic Diarrhoea is a condition that results in watery or loose stools. While most diarrhoea subsides within a few days time, the chronic ones persist up to a couple of weeks. Some common symptoms that can help to identify chronic diarrhoea include bloating, nausea, fever, blood in the stool, abdominal cramps etc. Here is a brief look at the possible causes of chronic diarrhoea:

What are the possible causes of chronic diarrhoea?
Parasites and bacteria: Parasites and bacteria are often transmitted from contaminated food and water. Certain parasites such as the cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia can lead to chronic diarrhoea. Some common bacteria include Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Shigella, and Salmonella. In the more developed countries, diarrhoea is often referred to as the traveller’s syndrome. Diarrhoea can also result from a course of antibiotics due to an infection from Clostridium difficile.

  1. Viruses: Some of the common viruses that can lead to chronic diarrhoea include viral hepatitis, Norwalk virus, and cytomegalovirus. A certain virus known as the Rotavirus can lead to an acute childhood diarrhoea.
  2. Medication: Certain medication is known to be the culprit when it comes to causing diarrhoea. Antibiotics, for instance, tend to equally destroy both the good and the bad bacteria thereby disturbing the bacterial balance of the intestine leading to chronic diarrhoea. Certain other drugs related to cancer, antacids containing magnesium etc can also lead to chronic diarrhoea.
  3. Artificial Sweeteners: Certain artificial sweeteners are known to be causing chronic diarrhoea. Compounds such as Mannitol, Fructose etc found in certain sugar-free products or chewing gum can lead to chronic diarrhoea in otherwise healthy people. It is, therefore, advised not to consume too many artificial sweeteners in excess at one go.
  4. Intolerance of lactose: Lactose is a type of sugar that is mostly found in dairy products. People who find it difficult digesting this compound often tend to suffer from diarrhoea when they consume dairy products. Our body produces an enzyme to digest lactose. However, this enzyme tends to rapidly feds away from the body with age. Lesser the amount of this enzyme, greater is the chance of lactose intolerance leading to an increased risk of chronic diarrhoea.
  5. Surgery: There are surgeries that can begin the onset of chronic diarrhoea. Certain procedures such as the gallbladder removal surgery and abdominal surgery run a high risk of chronic diarrhoea.
  6. Fructose: For people who find it hard to digest fructose can suffer from chronic diarrhoea. Fructose is a naturally occurring sweetener found in honey, fruits etc and is often added to beverages to enhance the taste.
  7. Certain digestive disorders: Certain other situations such as celiac disease, microscopic colitis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis irritable bowel syndrome etc can lead to chronic diarrhoea.  In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
1926 people found this helpful

Vaccination for Newborns and Adults

Dr. B.M Lava 89% (8479 ratings)
Diploma in Child Health (DCH), MBBS
General Physician, Bangalore
Vaccination for Newborns and Adults

The immune system is extremely important in an individual's system. A strong immune system helps to combat the invasion of foreign particles and consequently resists the diseases.  Vaccination in such a context becomes imperative as it strengthens an individual's immunity. In vaccination, antigens or germs are given in very small doses. They stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies to fight against that particular infection. Vaccinations are provided to both children and adults to protect them from a number of diseases.  However, different vaccinations are provided in different ages according to the susceptibility to diseases.

Some of the vaccinations that are provided to newborns are:

1. Hepatitis B vaccine: This vaccination is given in order to prevent the child from having Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B is a liver disease that if persists can lead to liver failure or even liver cancer. This vaccine must be injected immediately after the birth of the baby. The first dose must be followed by administering a second dose within a span of a month or two. 

2. Rotavirus Vaccine (RV): This vaccine, taken orally, prevents the infant from Rotavirus. This virus causes vomiting and diarrhea in children that often leads to severe dehydration. This vaccine is administered within two to four months of the baby's birth. Sometimes, on doctor's prescription a second dose may be necessary in the sixth month. 

3. Acellular Pertussis Vaccine and Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids: This is a combination of various vaccines that protects the child from tetanus and diphtheria. Newborns are extremely prone to diphtheria that causes fatal illness and sometimes even deaths in children. This vaccination thereby, is extremely important and must be administered within two or four months and must be followed up with secondary doses later under the doctor's supervision. Vaccinations do not end with childhood. In many cases adults too need to be vaccinated against certain diseases. Some of them are:

  • Hepatitis A Vaccine: You can get this vaccination if there is any risk of you suffering from Hepatitis A. Much like Hepatitis B, Hepatitis A too is an acute liver disease. This is extremely fatal and is seldom accompanied by any symptoms. 
  • Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: This is a sexually transmitted virus that causes cervical dysplasia in women and men.  The apt age for both men and women for this vaccination differs. Women who are twenty six years of age or younger and men below or at the age of twenty one are most suitable for this vaccination. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
3494 people found this helpful

DIARRHOEA in infants

Dr. Pranali 88% (166 ratings)
Homeopath,
DIARRHOEA in infants

Infants Topic Diarrhoea

 

When if one frequently passes watery stool that have no lumps in them look out for other symptoms of diarrhoea. These can include vomiting, fever, and sometimes blood or mucus in your baby's stool


 

Newborns pass stool freq, so you may worry that your baby has diarrhoea when in fact one pass stool that are normal for her age.

Also, how often your baby does a stool will depend on whether she's being breast or formula-fed.


 

Here are more signs of normal motion:

  1. The stool of breastfed newborn babies is usually yellowish and on the soft or liquid side. Your baby may fill nappy up to five times daily.

  2. Sometimes a breastfed baby will pass motion during or immediately after each breastfeeding session. This happens because as her stomach fills up, the milk stimulates her entire intestinal tract, prompting a bowel movement.


 

Within a month, most breastfed babies do one or two poos a day.


Causes of diarrhoea?

The most common cause of diarrhoea is a virus called rotavirus

Rotavirus causes an infection of the gut called gastroenteritis. The infection damages the inner lining of your baby's intestine, allowing fluid to leak and food to pass through without any nutrients being absorbed. In some cases, rotavirus can lead to a serious bowel infection and dehydration.


 

A vaccine against rotavirus will be offered as part of your baby's routine immunisations when she is eight weeks and again when she is 12 weeks.


 

Diarrhoea can also be caused by:

  1. Allergies (find out more about milk allergy and intolerance and food allergies)

  2. Antibiotics

  3. Food poisoning

  4. Enzyme deficiencies, although these are rare


 

How should care during baby's diarrhoea?

  1. Make sure that your baby drinks plenty of fluids to help ease her symptoms and prevent dehydration.

  2. If your baby is taking breast or formula feeds best than

  3. You can try your baby with sips of oral rehydration solution (ors) a few times an hour.

  4. An ors helps to replace the fluids and salts your baby loses because of the diarrhoea. Keep giving water and usual breastfeeds

  5. Don’t give her fruit juices, glucose drinks and fizzy drinks. Unabsorbed sugar draws water into the intestine and can make diarrhoea worse

  6. Don’t give your baby anti-diarrhoeal medicine. It must not be given to children under 12 years old, as it could cause serious side-effects

  7. To prevent your baby passing on her diarrhoea to other children, keep her away from childcare or nursery until at least 48 hours after her last diaeroohea


 

Breastfed babies less likely to get diarrhoea?

Yes. Certain elements in breastmilk can inhibit the growth of the germs that cause diarrhoea


 

Should stop giving solid foods in diaerrohea?

  1. No. If your child is six months or older, unless she is vomiting frequently, you can still give her solids.

  2. You could try foods such as bananas, rice, apple puree, and dry toast if your baby has recently started solids.

  3. For an older toddler you could try small amounts of chicken and starchy foods, such as mashed potatoes and pasta.

  4. But don't worry doesn't want to eat. It's more important that drinks to avoid dehydration


 

When should call the doctor?

Diarrhoea can be worrying if it lasts for more than a few hours, but it will usually clear up on its own. If your child has loose, watery stools for more than a couple of days, call your doctor


 

The biggest concern with diarrhoea is fluid loss, so don't delay in showing your pedatiaric if your baby shows these signs:

  1. Dry skin or lips

  2. Listlessness

  3. Tearless crying

  4. A sunken fontanelle

  5. Discoloured hands and feet

  6. Strong yellow motion

  7. Fewer wet nappies than usual


 

Shows the following secondary symptoms:

  1. Vomiting which lasts more than 24 hours

  2. Fever that lasts longer than 24 hours

  3. Refusal to drink

  4. Blood in motion

  5. A swollen tummy


 

How to decrease baby’s discomfort?

Cuddle and comfort as much as possible, and keep her dry. Use care and tenderness when changing nappies since it's easy for a baby's bottom to become sore with diarrhoea. Use a barrier cream to prevent irritation if the diarrhoea lasts more than a day.


 

How prevent baby from getting diarrhoea again?

Proper hygiene can help reduce the chance of diarrhoea, because the germs that cause it can be easily passed from hand to mouth. So wash your hands thoroughly with soap after handling soiled nappies or using the toilet.

43 people found this helpful

Diarrhea - Types, Causes,Symptoms And More!

MBBS
Internal Medicine Specialist, Delhi
Diarrhea -  Types, Causes,Symptoms And More!

Diarrhea

Diarrhea is a common health problem. It can begin from being a mild, temporary condition and develop into a potential life-threatening problem.

There are about 2 billion diarrhea cases recorded every year across the world, with approximately 1.9 million cases of death of children of age below 5 years, typically in developing countries.

Diarrhea means getting loose, watery stools three or more times in a day. Usually it lasts for a couple of days. Diarrhea can either be acute or chronic. When it lasts for more than a few days, it is acute diarrhea. This could be a sign of a bigger problem. Chronic diarrhea lasts for around four weeks – which may be a symptom of a serious disease. It usually results from an intestinal problem or disorder, like celiac disease or Crohn’s disease.

There are some people who pass stools very often, but that is not diarrhea as they are of normal consistency. Likewise, breastfed infants also pass loose, pale stools. This is also not diarrhea.

Types of Diarrhea:

- Microscopic colitis: This type of diarrhea majorly affects the elderly people, causing trouble most often during the night time. It can continue for a long time and may not go away completely in some cases.

- Mal-absorptive and Mal-digestive diarrhea: Sometimes, non-absorption of food nutrients can cause mal-absorptive diarrhea. While non-functioning of the digestive system leads to mal-digestive diarrhea, such as Celiac disease.

- Chronic infections: A persistent use of antibiotics or parasitic infection during travel can lead to chronic diarrhea.

- Drug-induced diarrhea: this type of diarrhea is induced by certain laxatives and other medications or antibiotics.

- Endocrine causes: hormonal factors also cause diarrhea, for instance, in the case of Addison disease and carcinoid tumors.

- Neoplastic diarrhea: this type of diarrhea is linked with different forms of gut cancers.

Causes of Diarrhea

Diarrhea may result from a variety of conditions or circumstances. Main causes of diarrhea are:

- a food allergy or intolerance, for example: lactose intolerance

- a medication reaction

- a viral infection

- a bacterial infection

- infection in the gastrointestinal tract 

- a parasitic infection

- gallbladder or stomach operation

Research studies by Mayo Clinic say that Rotavirus is a major factor that causes childhood diarrhea. Other bacterial infections caused by Salmonella or Escherichia coli, may also result in diarrhea.

Irritable bowel disorder or inflammatory bowel syndrome may also sometimes cause chronic diarrhea. If you are experiencing regular and severe diarrhea, it could mean you are suffering from a functional bowel disorder or an internal intestinal problem.

Symptoms of diarrhea

Diarrhea may have various signs or symptoms. You might get one of these or a combination of many symptoms. The symptoms occur depending on the underlying cause. Mostly, you may experience the following signs:

- motion sickness

- stomach pain

- cramps

- bloating

- dehydration

- a fever

- stools with blood stains

- regular urges to clear your bowels

- stools in a big volume

Consult your physician if you have symptoms like any of the above.

Dehydration and diarrhea

Diarrhea leads to loss of fluids in the body due to which there is a risk of dehydration. If treatment is not given on time, diarrhea can have other side effects and major dehydration. Dehydration occurs when you experience symptoms such as:

- extreme tiredness and fatigue

- dry mucous tissues

- pulsating heart rate

- headache

- nausea

- dry throat and amplified thirst 

- lesser frequencies of urine

- mouth dryness

Consult your doctor immediately if your symptoms do not go away and your diarrhea is causing increased dehydration.

Who gets diarrhea?

Diarrhea can occur to people of all ages.

People travelling to developing countries have the risk of getting traveler's diarrhea. This condition occurs due to consumption of contaminated food or water.

Diarrhea in babies and young children

Diarrhea may be a small problem for an adult but when it affects at a very young age, for example an infant, it causes severe dehydration and may be fatal. 

Immediately visit your pediatrician or take emergency help when you notice the following symptoms in your child:

- no urination or very less urination

- dry mouth

- irritability

- weakness

- no tears while crying

- sunken eyes

- dry skin

- sunken fontanel

- sleepiness

- irritability

Seek instant help if any of the following symptoms are observed in your child:

- Diarrhea lasts for more than 24 hours.

- Your child has fever of 102°F or higher.

- The child passes stools that contain traces of blood or pus.

- Stools are black and sticky.

Diagnosis of diarrhea

A doctor will conduct a physical examination and study your medical history while investigating the cause of your diarrhea. A laboratory test may also be done to scan urine and blood samples.

There are other tests that your doctor may conduct to diagnose the cause of diarrhea and its side effects:

- Fasting tests to check if there is any food intolerance or insensitivity that is causing diarrhea.

- A culture test of stool to check for possible infections of bacteria, parasites, or other viral infections.

- Imaging tests to check for intestinal inflammation or other structural disorders.

- a colonoscopy to examine the colon for symptoms of intestinal disease

- a sigmoidoscopy to examine the rectum and lower part of colon for symptoms of intestinal infection

Treatment for diarrhea

Since diarrhea leads to loss of fluids in the body, the treatment for diarrhea is done by inducing a lot of fluids in the body. It can be done through drinking plenty of water or electrolyte replacement beverages, juices, health and energy drinks, etc. In chronic cases of diarrhea, fluids may be induced by intravenous therapy. If your doctor finds a bacterial infection, you might be asked to take antibiotics for some time.

Your doctor will start your treatment depending on:

- how sever your diarrhea is and whether there are any related conditions

- the frequency of the diarrhea

- how dehydrated you are

- your normal health

- your past medical history

- your current age

- your tolerance towards various medical procedures or drugs

- chances of improvement of your health condition

Prevention of Diarrhea

Though the exact cause of diarrhea may vary among different people, there are measures that you can take to avoid it:

- Diarrhea from food contamination can be prevented by cleaning the kitchen and food preparation areas regularly and keeping proper hygiene.

- Taking food immediately after cooking instead of taking food stored for too long.

- Leftovers should be properly refrigerated.

- Frozen food should be defrosted in a refrigerator.

How to prevent traveler’s diarrhea?

Follow the below steps while traveling, especially to a developing nation:

- You may want to ask your doctor if you can begin an antibiotic treatment before you leave. This will greatly reduce your risk of developing traveler’s diarrhea.

- Avoid tap water, ice cubes, and fresh produce that have probably been washed with tap water while you’re on vacation.

- Drink bottled water only while on vacation.

- Eat cooked food only while on vacation.

Risk factors:

- Age factor: Diarrhea in children of age three years or less can be risky, as they are more prone to dehydration. Infants are at a greater risk. Even older people are at risk of getting dehydrated through diarrhea.

- Environmental factors: Poor hygiene and unclean environment can spread the disease fast 

Medications: heavy use of antibiotics and drugs and aggravate the condition of the disease

- Co morbidities: People with Diabetes, kidney abnormalities, and intussusceptions are also at greater risk of being dehydrated due to occurrence of Diarrhea.

Myths:

1.    “BRAT Formula (banana, rice, apple sauce and tea) can alone cure Diarrhea”

Fact: This diet does work in calming the stomach and producing a relaxing effect due to light food components. However, the body needs all the essential nutrients like minerals and vitamins to restore its original health. So, after using BRAT formula the 1st day, you should start adding wholesome ingredients like fat and protein to get back to your original health.

2. "Diarrhea is just one of the many symptoms of the common Influenza ":

Fact: Influenza rarely cause diarrhea; its major symptoms are fever and pain. It is a respiratory disease affecting the lungs. Diarrhea may be caused by the stomach flu, not the common flu.

3. "We should totally avoid whole fat in our food to get rid of Diarrhea":

Fact: Fat is hard to digest and can be a lot of load to the stomach, but that does not mean you should completely remove it from your diet.

Fat is an important ingredient of your diet and also helps in easing the symptoms of diarrhea. All you need to take care of is to take it in appropriate amounts.

4.    "Teething leads to diarrhea in toddlers":

The truth: Diarrhea is caused due to impurities and contamination in the surroundings. A child in the teething phase generally takes every object in his mouth to soothe his teething procedure. In this process, he /she gets many impurities transferred as the objects may be dirty and unhygienic; this could lead to a stomach infection and diarrhea. So, always consult a doctor if your teething child is experiencing diarrhea.

6. "Avoid fluids because it will make your diarrhea worse":

Fact: This is the biggest mistake that people do their body and health and it can be fatal. If you are suffering from diarrhea, you are already losing a lot of fluids from your body which makes you dehydrated. Water has important minerals and vitamins that the body needs to function properly. So, it is even more important to consume increasing amounts of water and other fluids to regain the lost nutrients and keep your body hydrated.

7. "Drink caffeinated drinks and beverages during the period of diarrhea":

Fact: People think taking caffeinated drinks will relax their stomach for a while and curb their need to visiting the toilet frequently. This is completely false. In fact, beverages like tea and coffee and other foods having caffeine content are diuretic and can further worsen your digestive health and aggravate your diarrhea occurrences.

FAQS:

1. How will I know if my symptoms are of Diarrhea? 

Diarrhoea is a disorder related to the abnormal functioning of intestines, which causes excess fecal evacuations, due to increased motility in the colon. It could be due to underlying dysenteric disorders, GI tumors, inflammatory bowel syndrome, and lactose intolerance. In plain words, when you experience excess passage of watery stools that lasts for more than a day, it could be diarrhea. This may lead to your body getting dehydrated   because frequent watery stools flush out important body salts and fluids and make you weak.

2. Is diarrhea dangerous?

Yes! If not treated on time, it could lead to your body getting very dehydrated due to loss of fluids and body salts which are important to balance the body and keep it functioning normally. Dehydration can be severe and sometimes fatal.

3. What is dehydration? 

When you lose excess water and body salts due to diarrhea, it is called dehydration. Water is very important to maintain the body balance and keep it functioning normally. If water content in body gets too low, it makes you weak and unable to perform normal routine as your body also loses electrolytes along with other fluids. These are essential salts that provide minerals and vitamins to the body and keep it running. Dehydration can be caused through:

- excess urination

- vomiting 

- diarrhea

- sweating

4. What cause dehydration? 

Diarrhea followed by vomiting and loos of body fluids can cause dehydration.

You may also become dehydrated if you drink less water and have bad eating habits.

Certain medications that are diuretic also lead to loss of fluid in the body. The following people are more at risk of being dehydrated:

- Infants

- the elderly people

- People suffering from fever or any other illness

- People living in hot weather

5. How can I prevent diarrhea?

Maintaining proper hygiene and cleanliness at your home and in your surroundings will prevent you from getting the disease. Wash your hands before eating and keep your kitchen and food area clean. Store food items in clean places and never leave your food uncovered.

Drink clean purified water, and avoid street foods that may be contaminated.

Icon

Book appointment with top doctors for Rotavirus treatment

View fees, clinic timings and reviews