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Reconstructive Surgery Health Feed

Penetrating Keratoplasty - All About It!

Penetrating Keratoplasty - All About It!

Ulcers and perforations of cornea are some very serious clinical conditions, which threaten vision rapidly and progressively, and disintegrate the eye globe. They need to be taken care of immediately to prevent irreparable damage to the eyes. In spite of the advanced medical research and practice, severe injuries, infections, and diseases of cornea can lead to serious corneal perforations, which require surgery necessarily as the ultimate solution.

Urgent reconstructive surgery might be necessary to avoid consecutive endophthalmitis, formation of synechiae (anterior and posterior), and secondary glaucoma to prevent spread of pathogens toward posterior pole of eye globe. This surgery is also performed to avoid other severe complications including inflammation. The approach of performing surgery to retain corneal integrity depends on localization, size, state of internal globe tissue, and depth and severity of corneal tissue damage. The state of inflammation and causative infection influences the choice and sequence of surgeries. Urgent Penetrating Keratoplasty, Total Penetrating Keratoplasty, and Corneal or Corneo Scleral Patch Graft, or combination of surgical approaches, also called ‘Keratoprosthesis’, which are performed only for end-stage, progressive corneal
pathology, or the last-chance medical treatment.

Ramon Castroviejo, in 1951, described Penetrating Keratoplasty as a method to replace a larger diseased cornea and sclera lying adjacent to it with donor tissue. The goal of Penetrating Keratoplasty is tectonic repair of large corneal perforations to restore the integrity of the eye globe and correcting or resolving many other conditions of the eye simultaneously.

When to Perform Penetrating Keratoplasty 
Penetrating Keratoplasty is performed for perforated cornea in the following cases:

● Corneal degenerations.
● Keratoconus and ectasias.
● Corneal dystrophies including Fuchs endothelial dystrophy.
● Viral keratitis.
● Noninfectious ulcerative keratitis.
● Post infectious keratitis.
● Microbial keratitis including Fungal and Bacterial keratitis.
● Chemical injuries.
● Congenital opacities.
● Refractive indications.
● Mechanical trauma.
● Regraft unrelated to allograft rejection.
● Regraft related to allograft rejection.

Surgical Procedure
Surgical procedure involves the following steps:

● Preparation of donor tissue is the first step. A corneal button slightly larger than the host corneal opening helps in reducing post-surgical excessive corneal flattening, reducing risk of secondary glaucoma, and enhancing closure of wound.
● Afterwards, host cornea is trephined; viscoelastic is filled into the anterior chamber followed by placement of donor tissue on the endothelial side down of recipient's eye.
● Cornea is then sutured in place, interruptedly or continuously. Interrupted sutures are preferred in inflamed, vascularized, or thinned corneas and in paediatric cases.
● Penetrating Keratoplasty might be performed in combination with cataract surgery, glaucoma surgery, retinal surgery. and secondary intraocular lens implantation.

Take Away 
Penetrating Keratoplasty is the true and last-chance medical treatment to treat large corneal perforations. It is the only ophthalmologic surgical procedure which restores ocular integrity, and at the same time takes care of infections, inflammations, and necrotic tissue. Such a holistic approach minimizes the risk of endophthalmitis and prevents the spread of disease to the globe of the eye. It also improves the probability
of graft survival and has a good potential to improve visual acuity. Penetrating Keratoplasty is an effective surgical process. However, it is always advisable to consult an experienced and skilled surgeon before opting for this method.

1221 people found this helpful

Reconstructive Surgery For Cleft Palate - Know More About It!

Reconstructive Surgery For Cleft Palate - Know More About It!

A cleft palate and cleft lip are among the most common congenital birth defects. These conditions can occur individually or together and vary in severity and the side of the face affected. A cleft palate not only mars the beauty of a child, but can also lead to serious health problems associated with speech and food intake.

A cleft palate can be diagnosed in the 17th week of pregnancy with the help of an ultrasound. This condition develops when components of the upper lip and ceiling of the mouth fail to develop normally. A cleft palate can affect children of all races equally but an isolated cleft palate is more common amongst female babies than male babies.

In most cases, a cleft palate can be surgically reconstructed within the first year of a baby’s birth. This not only improves the child’s appearance, but also improves his or her ability to breath, eat, speak and hear. A cleft palate reconstruction surgery is performed under anaesthesia. To begin reconstructing the ceiling of the mouth, incisions are made on either side of the cleft. A specialised flap technique is used to reposition muscles and tissues in the palate so as to bridge the gap. This is then stitched close with removable or absorbable sutures.

Dressings or bandages may be placed over the sutures after surgery. It is essential to prevent your child from sucking his or her thumb or putting anything in the mouth that could hamper recovery. Pain medication may also be prescribed to help your child deal with the discomfort. Over the following few weeks, the swelling will subside and incisions will heal. It is also important to protect your child from sun exposure at this time to prevent the formation of jagged scars.

While a single surgery is often enough to repair a cleft palate, treatment for the same may continue into adolescence. Sometimes this can also extend into adulthood. In some cases, further plastic surgery may be required as the child grows to improve appearances and functioning of the palate.

Hymen - Mind-Boggling Facts About It!

Hymen - Mind-Boggling Facts About It!

Contrary to what most girls have been led to believe about the hymen being a flat tissue that covers the vagina and is ripped during penetrative sex, the truth is that hymen is a fringe of tissue around the vaginal opening. It is not an intact tissue draping across the vaginal wall because, without any outlet for the menstrual blood, girls would get periods only after they lose their virginity.

Here are a few mind-boggling facts about the hymen.

1. Just like labia, every woman's hymen varies in colour, size and shapes. 
2. It is elastic and stretchy in most cases. Vaginal delivery makes the hymen less visible by smoothening and stretching it.
3. Despite popular belief, the pain women experience when they have sex for the first time is not due to your hymen breaking but because your vaginal muscles are too tense and/or you're going at it too rough and fast without adequate lubrication.
4. Simple exercises such as walking, riding bicycles, doing splits as well as horseback riding may rip your hymen long before you have had intercourse. 
5. Hymens should not be perceived as the indicator of sexual activity because they are extremely stretchy and stay with you your entire life. Even sexually active people have hymens. 
6. If you do not resort to any sexual activity (including penetration during masturbation), the hymen returns to its default position in your vulva. 
7. Very few women have an imperforate hymen in which the opening is too small for penetration whether by tampons, fingers, sex toys or an erect penis. A simple surgery needs to be conducted in such a case where parts of the hymen are snipped away. 
8. There is a growth in hymenoplasty, also known as hymen reconstruction surgery, in the past few years because hymen is viewed as an indicator of virginity and there have been cases of annulment, public humiliation, torture and even death because they believe that the hymen is not intact due to sexual activity; therefore making hymenoplasty an effective solution. 
9. Although, not an indicator of the amount of sexual activities performed, one must seek immediate medical attention after being sexually assaulted because it can be examined to prove sexual abuse.
 

Hymnoplasty - Know Procedures Of It!

Hymnoplasty - Know Procedures Of It!

Hymnoplasty is also known as hymen surgery. It is a surgical procedure where the hymen within the vagina is restored. The Hymen is a membrane covering the vaginal opening, which can be torn when a woman engages in coitus for the first time or it could be damaged due to other factors such as heavy lifting, exercise, cycling, swimming among many other activities. Hymnoplasty involves putting back the hymen’s torn edges to make it look like the hymen is intact.

Why do women want hymen reconstruction?
A woman would want a hymen reconstruction surgery for a number of reasons. They are:

  1. Religious reasons: In certain cultures, a woman’s hymen is inspected to make sure she has not engaged in coitus in the past. Virginity is valued highly is such places and if the woman is not a virgin, she may have to face social or even legal ramifications.
  2. In case of rape or sexual assault victims: In some cases, a rape victim may undergo this surgery to empower herself and feel mentally peaceful.
  3. Hymen related injuries: Certain factors like heavy exercise or sexual intercourse can cause rupture of the hymen which may cause bleeding, infections or other complications. A woman may want to rectify this with the help of this surgery.

The procedure
The entire surgical process lasts for about 45-60 minutes. The surgery is carried out in an outpatient setting under general anesthesia. The torn skin membranes are rejoined using dissolvable stiches so that scaring is minimal.

This procedure can be carried out in three ways
1. Joining the torn edges with stiches.
2. An artificial membrane is placed in the area whose function is to behave like an artificial hymen. This hymen however, does not have any blood supply, so a capsule that contains blood can be placed with it.
3. A flap is taken from the vaginal lining, which is used to create a functional hymen with proper blood supply.
4. You can return to your work in about 2-3 days after the surgery. However, the entire healing process takes around two months.

Risks
The procedure carries some risks that you should be aware of, they are –
1. Bleeding: Some bleeding is normal after the procedure, but any prolonged case of bleeding may indicate a complication.
2. InfectionLike all surgeries, you may have infections in the concerned area. The doctor may prescribe antibiotics to deal with these infections.
3. Narrowing of the vaginal opening: In some cases, the vaginal opening can become narrow after the procedure. This however, can be resolved without the need for any treatment as it may become wider on its own over time.

1398 people found this helpful

Facial Surgery - How To Prepare Yourself For It?

Facial Surgery - How To Prepare Yourself For It?

Facial surgery can be opted by people for a number of reasons, and these include being born with facial impairments like cleft lip, birthmark or other birth defects, the effects of aging, sun damage or other facial traumas that are noticeable on the face as well as a sense of general dissatisfaction with your facial features. Depending on these factors, facial plastic surgery can be divided into two categories - reconstructive and cosmetic.

Reconstructive plastic surgery is performed for correcting conditions that may be present from birth, including birthmarks on the face, cleft lip and palate, protruding ears and a crooked smile. Conditions resulting from accidents, traumas or burns are also corrected by this type of surgery.

Cosmetic facial plastic surgery is performed to enhance the visual appearance of facial structures and features which include facelifts, eye lifts, rhinoplasty, cheek and chin implants and liposuction.

If you are planning to get a facial surgery done, there are certain things you need to do to prepare yourself for it. These are:

1. Schedule a surgery when you are healthy

If you are planning for either of the surgeries, try to schedule it during a period of relatively good health. Your immune system will have the best chance towards a speedy recovery. Scheduling the surgery at the year-end is ideal when you can take a few days off with paid vacation time.

2. Get enough essential nutrients

Your diet, before and after the surgery should be rich in vitamin A, vitamin C, zinc, copper and selenium. They help the wound to heal quickly and in building your immunity, thereby reducing the chances of an infection. You can recover from more comprehensive procedures like tummy tuck, facelift or liposuction by including the requisite nutrients in your diet.

3. Protein intake

Calories and protein are the two most healing elements. Extra protein will help to build new tissue and blood vessels, repair injured tissue and increase production of cells that heal the wound. Choose high-quality protein sources like fish, poultry, beans, legumes and meat.

4. Stay hydrated

Consuming 6-8 glasses on the day prior to the surgery is very important to help cleanse and hydrate the body. Since fluid intake is reduced on the day of surgery, water intake is especially important prior to the surgery. To avoid complications during surgery, ensure that you do not drink anything after midnight the night prior to your surgery unless advised by your surgeon.

3798 people found this helpful

Hymenoplasty - Why Is It Required?

Hymenoplasty - Why Is It Required?

Hymenoplasty is also known as hymen surgery. It is a surgical procedure where the hymen within the vagina is restored. The Hymen is a membrane covering the vaginal opening, which can be torn when a woman engages in coitus for the first time or it could be damaged due to other factors such as heavy lifting, exercise, cycling, swimming among many other activities. Hymenoplasty involves putting back the hymen’s torn edges to make it look like the hymen is intact.

Why do women want hymen reconstruction?

A woman would want a hymen reconstruction surgery for a number of reasons. They are:

  1. Religious reasons: In certain cultures, a woman’s hymen is inspected to make sure she has not engaged in coitus in the past. Virginity is valued highly is such places and if the woman is not a virgin, she may have to face social or even legal ramifications.
  2. In case of rape or sexual assault victims: In some cases, a rape victim may undergo this surgery to empower herself and feel mentally peaceful.
  3. Hymen related injuries: Certain factors like heavy exercise or sexual intercourse can cause rupture of the hymen which may cause bleeding, infections or other complications. A woman may want to rectify this with the help of this surgery.

The procedure

The entire surgical process lasts for about 45-60 minutes. The surgery is carried out in an outpatient setting under general anesthesia. The torn skin membranes are rejoined using dissolvable stitches so that scaring is minimal.

This procedure can be carried out in three ways

1. Joining the torn edges with stitches.
2. An artificial membrane is placed in the area whose function is to behave as an artificial hymen. This hymen, however, does not have any blood supply, so a capsule that contains blood can be placed with it.
3. A flap is taken from the vaginal lining, which is used to create a functional hymen with proper blood supply.
4. You can return to your work in about 2-3 days after the surgery. However, the entire healing process takes around two months.

Risks

The procedure carries some risks that you should be aware of, they are –

1. Bleeding: Some bleeding is normal after the procedure, but any prolonged case of bleeding may indicate a complication.
2. InfectionLike all surgeries, you may have infections in the concerned area. The doctor may prescribe antibiotics to deal with these infections.
3. Narrowing of the vaginal opening: In some cases, the vaginal opening can become narrow after the procedure. This however, can be resolved without the need for any treatment as it may become wider on its own over time.

4300 people found this helpful

In Depth About Arthroplasty Surgery!

In Depth About Arthroplasty Surgery!

Arthroplasty is a surgery that realigns or reconstructs a dysfunctional joint which relieves pain and restores your range of motion. This surgery is done generally when medical treatment fails to improve the dysfunctional joint. It is done when you face severe joint pain and stiffness.

This surgery involves:
- Shoulder replacement
- Knee replacement
Hip replacement
- Reverse total shoulder replacement
-Elbow replacement
-Ankle replacement
- Finger replacement

How can this be done?

  1. Joint Resection: Under this method, the space in between the bone and socket is increased to improve the range of the motion. This is done by removing a portion of the bone from the stiffened joint. The gap is eventually filled with scar tissues and the joint space narrows down.
  2. Interpositional Reconstruction: Under this method, a prosthetic disk is added in between the two bones forming the joint and the joints are reshaped. The prosthesis used can be made out of plastic or metal.

Benefits of Arthroplasty-

  1. Reduces Pain: On undergoing this surgery about 90% of the people feel relief from joint pains. The affected portion or the damaged portion is either removed (the bone or cartilage causing pain) and replaced with prosthetics.
  2. Improves Functioning of Joint: It is usually observed, that after arthroplasty, people walk and move their joints easily. You will experience a stark improvement in the functioning of your joints.
  3. Improves Quality of Life: The quality of life improves when all your body parts are active. Now you can do all your work on your own without being dependent on others.

Risks of Arthroplasty-

2600 people found this helpful

Facial Reconstruction Surgery - How To Prepare?

Facial Reconstruction Surgery - How To Prepare?

Facial surgery can be opted by people for a number of reasons, and these include being born with facial impairments like cleft lip, birthmark or other birth defects, the effects of aging, sun damage or other facial traumas that are noticeable on the face as well as a sense of general dissatisfaction with your facial features. Depending on these factors, facial plastic surgery can be divided into two categories - reconstructive and cosmetic.

Reconstructive plastic surgery is performed for correcting conditions that may be present from birth, including birthmarks on the face, cleft lip and palate, protruding ears and a crooked smile. Conditions resulting from accidents, traumas or burns are also corrected by this type of surgery.
Cosmetic facial plastic surgery is performed to enhance visual appearance of facial structures and features which include facelifts, eye lifts, rhinoplasty, cheek and chin implants and liposuction.

If you are planning to get a facial surgery done, there are certain things you need to do to prepare yourself for it. These are:
1. Schedule a surgery when you are healthy

If you are planning for either of the surgeries, try to schedule it during a period of relatively good health. Your immune system will have the best chance towards a speedy recovery. Scheduling the surgery at the year-end is ideal when you can take a few days off with paid vacation time.

2. Get enough essential nutrients
Your diet, before and after the surgery should be rich in vitamin A, vitamin C, zinc, copper and selenium. They help the wound to heal quickly and in building your immunity, thereby reducing the chances of an infection. You can recover from more comprehensive procedures like tummy tuck, facelift or liposuction by including the requisite nutrients in your diet.

3. Protein intake
Calories and protein are the two most healing elements. Extra protein will help to build new tissue and blood vessels, repair injured tissue and increase production of cells that heal the wound. Choose high quality protein sources like fish, poultry, beans, legumes and meat.

4. Stay hydrated
Consuming 6-8 glasses on the day prior to the surgery is very important to help cleanse and hydrate the body. Since fluid intake is reduced on the day of surgery, water intake is especially important prior to the surgery. To avoid complications during surgery, ensure that you do not drink anything after midnight the night prior to your surgery, unless advised by your surgeon.

1920 people found this helpful

Where Is Reconstructive Surgery Applicable?

Where Is Reconstructive Surgery Applicable?

Reconstructive surgeries are means to usually correct a deformity within the body, which is either congenital (since birth and formed in the womb) or acquired. Reconstructive surgeries are used to correct problems caused by accidents and injuries as well as correcting deformities. It is a large umbrella term and includes plastic surgery to correct certain defects. However, it may or may not include elements of cosmetic surgery. Reconstructive surgery primarily aims to restore utilitarian functions but doesn’t always necessarily have a cosmetic angle. 

Where is Reconstructive Surgery applicable? 
Surgeries to correct the functionality as well the appearance of feet and hands: These may include webbed fingers and toes, removal of an extra finger or toe, or corrective surgeries on your hand from other disorder such as carpal tunnel syndrome

  1. Correcting functionality and the look of an area after tumor removal: Cancerous tumors may require the removal of larger sections of tissue surrounding the tumor. This will result in an unsightly appearance or even balancing issues in the body. Reconstructive surgery aims to correct this and can be done on any part of the body. 
  2. Breast Reduction or Reconstruction: Women who undergo mastectomy and have breasts removed, either partially or fully, undergo surgery to reconstruct breasts. Some women who tend to have large breasts and thus suffer from back and neck pain, undergo this surgery to reduce the breast size and thus, improve the quality of life. 
  3. Burn Victims: Burn victims often require the most amount of reconstructive surgery, which also becomes a necessity to avoid further infection from wound exposure. This is possibly one of the areas where reconstructive surgery is used most widely. 
  4. Accident Victims: Areas of the body severely affected by accidents can be corrected with reconstructive surgery. Grafting and replacement are also used in such cases to reconstruct damaged areas. 
  5. Correcting Congenital Defects: Some congenital defects, such as a child born with a cleft lip, are prime candidates for reconstructive surgery. These have functionality issues as well as cosmetic reasons entwined together. Examples of other disorders corrected by reconstructive surgeries are cleft palette and a deviation in the nasal septum which may cause breathing problems

Who performs Reconstructive Surgery? 
Plastic as well as Cosmetic Surgeons may be required to perform reconstructive surgery, depending on the requirement. However, in most cases, it is the plastic surgeon who performs the corrective surgery to return function and utility to the affected area of the body. 

Evaluation 
Unlike Cosmetic Procedures, it is your doctor who determines what is viable and possible and what would be the proper requirement in case you require reconstructive surgery. Unlike cosmetic surgery wherein you get to chose how you look in order to get the right aesthetic, reconstructive surgery deals with a more utilitarian and corrective approach.

4285 people found this helpful

Reconstructive Surgeries - Know Utility Of Them!

Reconstructive Surgeries - Know Utility Of Them!

Reconstructive surgeries are means to usually correct a deformity within the body, which is either congenital (since birth and formed in the womb) or acquired. Reconstructive surgeries are used to correct problems caused by accidents and injuries as well as correcting deformities. It is a large umbrella term and includes plastic surgery to correct certain defects. However, it may or may not include elements of cosmetic surgery. Reconstructive surgery primarily aims to restore utilitarian functions but doesn’t always necessarily have a cosmetic angle.

Where is reconstructive surgery applicable?

  1. Surgeries to correct the functionality as well the appearance of feet and hands: These may include webbed fingers and toes, removal of an extra finger or toe, or corrective surgeries on your hand from other disorder such as carpal tunnel syndrome.
  2. Correcting functionality and the look of an area after tumor removal: Cancerous tumors may require the removal of larger sections of tissue surrounding the tumor. This will result in an unsightly appearance or even balancing issues in the body. Reconstructive surgery aims to correct this and can be done on any part of the body.
  3. Breast reduction or reconstruction: Women who undergo mastectomy and have breasts removed, either partially or fully, undergo surgery to reconstruct breasts. Some women who tend to have large breasts and thus suffer from back and neck pain, undergo this surgery to reduce the breast size and thus, improve the quality of life.
  4. Burn victims: Burn victims often require the most amount of reconstructive surgery, which also becomes a necessity to avoid further infection from wound exposure. This is possibly one of the areas where reconstructive surgery is used most widely.
  5. Accident victims: Areas of the body severely affected by accidents can be corrected with reconstructive surgery. Grafting and replacement are also used in such cases to reconstruct damaged areas.
  6. Correcting congenital defects: Some congenital defects, such as a child born with a cleft lip, are prime candidates for reconstructive surgery. These have functionality issues as well as cosmetic reasons entwined together. Examples of other disorders corrected by reconstructive surgeries are cleft palette and a deviation in the nasal septum which may cause breathing problems.

Who performs reconstructive surgery?
Plastic, as well as cosmetic surgeons, may be required to perform reconstructive surgery, depending on the requirement. However, in most cases, it is the plastic surgeon who performs the corrective surgery to return function and utility to the affected area of the body.

Evaluation
Unlike cosmetic procedures, it is your doctor who determines what is viable and possible and what would be the proper requirement in case you require reconstructive surgery. Unlike cosmetic surgery wherein you get to choose how you look in order to get the right aesthetic, reconstructive surgery deals with a more utilitarian and corrective approach.

3153 people found this helpful
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