Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a condition in which a number of fluid filled sacs or cysts grow in the ovaries. This leads to an imbalance in the reproductive hormones of the woman, causing an increase in male hormones, especially testosterone. These cysts are immature follicles which fail to rupture and release the containing egg inside during the menstrual cycle. This lack of ovulation leads to altered levels of estrogen, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, which in turn causes disruptions in the menstrual cycle leading to irregular or absent periods.
Some of the most common symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome are:
PCOS disrupts the normal levels of hormones like estrogen and progesterone in the body and increases the levels of androgens or male hormones in the body. This leads to irregular and unpredictable periods, which make it difficult for women to get pregnant. Also, imbalance in hormones can lead to the uterine lining not being formed properly, which prevents implantation.
Problems with ovulation
Hormonal imbalances prevent the eggs contained in the ovary from maturing and being released into the fallopian tubes. As a result, they remain as immature follicles inside the ovaries instead of being available for fertilisation by male sperm. This makes it difficult to get pregnant.
Women with PCOS not only have problems getting pregnant, but may suffer from greater risk of complications during pregnancy such as miscarriages, premature births, high blood pressure during pregnancy, and multiple births.
Even though PCOS can have negative effects on the fertility of a woman, it can be treated and controlled using medication and lifestyle changes including diet and exercise. Further, infertility treatments can also help in cases where PCOS medication does not resolve the problem. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!