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Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Tips

All About Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

MBBS, MS - ENT
ENT Specialist, Delhi
All About Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is among the common causes of vertigo. It is the sudden sensation of the spinning of your head which occurs with the change of position of your head. It is a disorder of the inner ear. It occurs when calcium carbonate crystals accumulate in large numbers in any one of the ear canals and stimulate abnormal fluid movement in the inner ear. This sends false signals of head movement to the brain. This can also crop up post head injury. Rolling over the bed or quick head movements like when sitting up in bed can also trigger this condition. 

The common symptoms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo are as follows:

  1. Vomiting and nausea
  2. Vertigo blurred vision
  3. Intense dizziness 
  4. Loss of balance 

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo may be treated in the following manner:

  1. Medication to get relief from the spinning of your head. 
  2. Epley's Maneuver involves transportation of the calcium particles to a different part of the ear which will no longer cause any problems. 
  3. Brandt-Daroff exercises. 
  4. Sometimes watchful waiting can help a person to recover without having to undergo any other treatment but it is a long process and often involves risk factors. 
  5. Surgery: This option is used rarely when other treatments fail. 

A very important thing to remember is that vertigo can lead to falls and driving should be avoided. The patient will need support during an episode to avoid injuries. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ENT specialist.

3006 people found this helpful

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)!

MD - Acupuncture, Diploma In Accupuncture, Advanced Diploma In Accupuncture
Acupuncturist, Delhi
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)!

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is the disorder that causes vertigo, which is the false sensation of head’s spinning. The patient with BPPV may feel minor to severe faintness. BPPV may be caused by the incorrect position of the patient’s head. It is most felt when the patient moves head in either direction, lays down, or gets up from the bed especially in the morning.

BPPV is the disorder of the inner ears in which the crystals of calcium carbonate (known as ear rocks or otoconia) are accumulated and turned into the gel. This gel is then migrated into the semi-circular canals, which are normally filled with fluid. This fluid is generally unaffected by the gravity because of its lightweight.

With the migration, the accumulated gel tends to move down with the effect of gravity and bounces up again with any physical movement of the head and other factors. This results in its interference with the normal fluid movement within the canals that are used for the sensation of head motion.

Because of this interference and fluid movement, the nerves at the canal of the patient’s inner ear are excited and send false signals to the brain related to head rotation. In normal cases, this fluid is rested stationary within the canals. These false signals generate information in the brain that does not match with those sent by the second ear and eyes.

This mismatch of the generated information from multiple sources confuses the brain, which may make you feel spinning. This spinning is medically termed as vertigo, which may last up to a minute from its occurrence. Note that some patients would have a normal feel between every two vertigo invocations.

However, some of them may have a constant feeling of light head spinning sensation between two major spins of vertigo. Note that the dizziness caused by BPPV would not impact the hearing ability of the patient. It would also not make the patient difficult to speak. In case you have any of such additional symptoms, you must discuss with your physician immediately.

The occurrence of BPPV is seen mainly in the adults and is very rare in the children. However, it may impact individuals of any age group. The most cases of this disease are reported in the elderly people. Most of the patients with BPPV may feel the surroundings spinning while getting up from the bed in the morning.

However, the same symptom may also be associated with other disorders such as a migraine, trauma, ear infection, diabetes, intubation caused by lying in bed for a long period, osteoporosis, reduced blood flow, and more. It may also be associated with the incorrect posture of sleep. So, you must consult your doctor immediately when such symptoms arise in your body.

 

Symptoms of BPPV
The various symptoms of BPPV may include:

-  Dizziness

-  Vertigo in which the patient may feel the surrounding moving or spinning, especially while getting up in the morning

-  Disbalancing while getting up from sitting

-  Continual nausea and vomiting for over several weeks

-  Nystagmus in which the eye movements of the patient appear abnormal

 

Note that these symptoms may appear or disappear in between. It may happen that the patient is relieved from the symptoms for several months. But those may recur with lesser to severe intensity. Along with the symptoms listed above, some patients may observe the following symptoms in the extreme conditions:

-  Severe and intolerable headache

-  Fever

-  Double vision

-  Vision loss

-  Loss of hearing

-  Difficulty in speaking

-  Weakness in the legs or arms

-  Unconsciousness

-  Difficulty in walking

-  Tingling sensations in the brain, ear or other parts of the body

-  Numbness

 

Causes of BPPV
Age is a crucial factor that increases your chances of getting BPPV. It is often seen that the individuals of age over 50 years are most likely to get BPPV since the muscles of their inner ear may become weaker at that age. There may also be other causes of BPPV. Some of those are mentioned below:

-  Keeping head in a fixed posture for a long duration either on a dentist chair, salon and more

-  Performing the exercises that require high-speed movements of the head

-  Bike riding on a rough track

-  Various types of disorders of inner ear like Meniere’s disease

-  Resting on the bed for long duration for any reason, like hospitalization, prolonged rest over the weekend, working on a laptop for long while lying on the bed

-  Due to migraine

 

Prevention from BPPV-
Since BPPV may be caused by multiple reasons including the old age, it is very hard to prevent it completely. However, there are the multiple ways through which you may prevent it from happening to a good extent. Some of those are mentioned below:

-  Avoid doing exercises that may involve frequent and severe head movements.

-  Prevent yourself from any possibility of head injury. Wear a helmet while riding a bicycle, bike, and other sports.

-  Avoid lying on the bed for long hours.

-  Avoid prolonged steady head placement when awake.

-  Meditate on a regular basis.

-  Maintain hygiene in your surroundings to avoid the chances of infection in your ears.

-  Have a balanced sleep.

-  Exercise every day.

-  Don’t tip your head back for long hours to watch TV or to talk to your correspondents.

-  Take care of your immune system and adopt the habits that would keep it strong.

-  Avoid frequent head movements in case you are already a patient of BPPV. This may worsen your symptoms.

 

How BPPV is diagnosed?
If you observe even the mild symptoms of BPPV (mentioned above) for over a week, visit your doctor immediately. The physician would ask the patient several questions related to the symptoms. For instance:

-  When is the dizziness felt most during a day?

-  From how long the symptoms are observed?

-  Do you have a continual temptation of vomiting?

-  How are you normally relieved from the symptoms?

-  For how long at a stretch are the symptoms observed?

-  Do you have any other disease or disorders related to the ears or the brain?

-  Are you a patient of a migraine?

The doctor would also assess the complete medical history of the patient of the past several years. The eye movement of the patient would also be checked for the occurrence of nystagmus. The patient would also be asked to lay down on a table with the head tilted back. This test would help the physician in understanding if the patient has irregular control in eye movement.

It may also be observed if the symptoms occur most with the movement of eyes or head in a particular direction. Post collection of all this information, the physician may also prescribe the patient to undergo an infrared goggle test.

In case the doctor finds it difficult to identify the actual reason for those symptoms, the patient may be prescribed to get one of the following investigations done:

-  Video Nystagmography (VNG) or Electro Nystagmography (ENG) in which the abnormal movement of eyes is detected if any. In the ENG test, electrodes are used and in VNG, small cameras are used to assess if the dizziness is because of some inner ear disease. This is calculated by the measurement of irregular eye movement by placing the patient’s head in multiple positions.

-  Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), in which magnetic fields and radio waves capture multiple images of the patient’s head or other parts of the body from different directions. Such images could be assessed to diagnose the condition of the dizziness and the possible reasons associated with it.

 

Treatment of BPPV
There are some chances that the symptoms of BPPV may disappear on their own in few weeks to months. However, to get rid of the symptoms sooner, the doctor would provide the treatment for the repositioning of the head movements. This therapy is called as canalith repositioning.

In canalith repositioning, the mispositioned canaliths due to the gel developed from the crystals of calcium carbonate that move from the fluid-filled semi-circular canals of the inner ear, are repositioned. This prevents the nerves of the canal of the patient’s inner ear by sending false signals to the brain related to head rotation. Along with this process, the doctor may also recommend the patient to avoid some particular head position for several weeks to months, which may trigger the symptoms again.

For the first few sessions of canalith repositioning, you are required to visit the therapy centre. Post then, the doctor may teach you the canalith repositioning procedure, which you could practice on your own at home if required. Post such a session, you may be required to take rest for at least 10-15 minutes so that the crystals of calcium carbonate are resettled in the canals of the inner ear.

In some rare situations where the symptoms are extreme and could not be relieved by the canalith repositioning procedure, the patient may be recommended a surgery with which the inner ear’s bone is plugged to prevent the movement of calcium carbonate crystals within the fluid-filled semi-circular canals. This effectively stops the symptoms of dizziness. Such type of surgery is effective with the success rate of around 90%. But in some rare cases, there is the risk of loss of hearing for the patient.

Other than these treatments, there are certain precautions that the patients of BPPV should take. Those are mentioned below:

-  Keep memorising your symptoms and be extra careful about balancing while getting up from your bed. The patients with BPPV are more prone to lose their balance, which may result in them to face injuries.

-  Try to be seated whenever you have a feeling of dizziness. In case you are standing and could not see some nearby seat, just take the support of some wall or any stable object.

-  Keep some lights turned on in your bedroom in the night, so that you would not face many difficulties in getting up in between if required.

-  Keep visiting your doctor periodically unless your symptoms are subsided.

-  Do not lay with the head tilted back, if you are already suffering from the symptoms of BPPV.

-  Avoid laying or sleeping towards the affected side of the head where symptoms are felt the most. Use two pillows while sleeping to ensure this.

-  Even when the symptoms are disappeared, those may recur. Prepare your mindset for that.

-  While waking up in the morning, lift the head very slowly and sit on the bed for a few minutes before standing up.

-  Avoid bending down for picking up something.

 

Complications
Although BPPV is not a fatal disease by its own, its symptoms may cause you to face complicated problems if not taken care of or treated on time. It often happens that the patients with BPPV collapse on the floor due to dizziness, which may cause them severe fatal injuries. It is very important for them to bring the practice to their habit of sitting down or holding some stationary object whenever they observe dizziness. Else than that, BPPV may cause the patient to have an uncomfortable feeling. If it lasts for long, the patient may suffer from depression.

Another related complication is associated with the surgery in which the inner ear’s bone is plugged to prevent the movement of calcium carbonate crystals within the fluid-filled semi-circular canals. This surgery is carried out with an attempt to eliminate the symptoms of dizziness caused by BPPV. However, in some rare cases, this surgery may cause loss of hearing.

 

Myths
Myth #1:
Children may not suffer from BPPV

It has been seen that elderly individuals are more likely to be affected by BPPV. However, individuals of any age (including children) may suffer from this disorder. Some children may not be able to express the problems that they would be facing. So, in case your kids collapse by their own on a frequent basis, it is must for you to take them to a paediatrician.

Myth #2: BPPV is caused only by a migraine

A migraine is one of the causes because of which BPPV may occur. However, there are multiple other factors associated with this disorder.

Myth #3: BPPV is always healed by its own

It is not necessary that BPPV is healed by its own every time. If the symptoms are severe, you must get a proper treatment before facing any injury due to the associated dizziness.

 

 

1 person found this helpful

Signs You Might Be Suffering From Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

MBBS, Master of Surgery ENT
ENT Specialist, Faridabad
Signs You Might Be Suffering From Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is among the common causes of vertigo. It is the sudden sensation of the spinning of your head which occurs with the change of position of your head. It is a disorder of the inner ear. It occurs when calcium carbonate crystals accumulate in large numbers in any one of the ear canals and stimulate abnormal fluid movement in the inner ear. This sends false signals of head movement to the brain. This can also crop up post head injury. Rolling over the bed or quick head movements like when sitting up in bed can also trigger this condition. 

The common symptoms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo are as follows:

  1. Vomiting and nausea
  2. Vertigo Blurred vision
  3. Intense dizziness 
  4. Loss of balance 

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo may be treated in the following manner:

  1. Medication to get relief from the spinning of your head. 
  2. Epley's Maneuver involves transportation of the calcium particles to a different part of the ear which will no longer cause any problems. 
  3. Brandt-Daroff exercises. 
  4. Sometimes watchful waiting can help a person to recover without having to undergo any other treatment but it is a long process and often involves risk factors. 
  5. Surgery: This option is used rarely when other treatments fail. 

A very important thing to remember is that vertigo can lead to falls and driving should be avoided. The patient will need support during an episode to avoid injuries.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3318 people found this helpful

Nocturnal emission - Good or Bad

BASM, MD, MS (Counseling & Psychotherapy), MSc - Psychology, Certificate in Clinical psychology of children and Young People, Certificate in Psychological First Aid, Certificate in Positive Psychology, Positive Psychiatry and Mental Health
Psychologist, Palakkad
Nocturnal emission - Good or Bad
Dreaming about sexual intercourse and nocturnal emission are very common in adolescents and young adults. Body produces semen whenever it is sexually excited or aroused. The semen thus produced is stored inside the body. Remember, the semen is a waste product.

The body needs to throw the stored semen out. If the person do not indulge in sexual intercourse or masturbation, body finds its own way to throw the semen out. The methodology the body usually adopts are nocturnal ejaculation (night fall) or droplets through urine. Therefore the nocturnal emission is quite natural and therefore is not harmful for body and mind.
101 people found this helpful

Penis Pain From Nocturnal Erections

Dr. Vinod Raina 88% (6195 ratings)
MD - General Medicine
Sexologist, Delhi
Penis Pain From Nocturnal Erections

Penis Pain From Nocturnal Erections

Aside from people with fetishes in this area, no one really enjoys feelings of pain, and men especially tend to avoid anything that causes penis pain. Fortunately, careful attention to good penis health often reduces the chances of unwanted penis pain, but there are always exceptions. Certainly, accidents involving the penis and a zipper can happen, for example. But some men experience a different kind of penis pain, one which is related to the erections they experience over the course of the night.

SRPEs

In recent years, scientists and researchers have identified a condition known as sleep related painful erections, or SRPEs for short. Doctors at a clinic in the Netherlands conducted a retrospective study that looked at men who visited the clinic between the years 1996 and 2015 and were diagnosed as having SRPEs. They excluded men who presented with evidence of other conditions which might account for their painful erections. For example, men who were diagnosed with Peyronie's disease, which is often marked by penis pain during erections, and some intact men whose penis pain was related to a swollen glans and/or too-tight foreskin were not counted.

So what are the characteristics of SRPEs? Basically, a man who was considered to have SRPE if he experienced erections while he slept that were so painful that they woke him from his sleep. (Most of the time, such erections occur during the rapid eye movement, or REM, portion of sleep.) But the erect penis pain should be limited to sleeping hours; if a man has pain-free erections during the day, he generally is excluded from classification of having SRPE.

The study

The study looked at 24 men who fit the criteria. The average time between the onset of the problem and the time they sought help at the clinic was 2 ½ years, indicating that there is some squeamishness about admitting to having this problem. This is not necessarily unusual when it comes to penis health issues, unfortunately.

The number of painful erections experienced in the course of a night ranged from 1 to 10, with the median number being 3. In 45% of the men, the erection lasted less than 15 minutes; only in 18% did it last for an hour. Testosterone levels did not appear to be higher than normal.

In addition to penis pain, the men tended to report fatigue due to poor sleep.

Treatments

Much is still being learned about SRPE, and doctors are still determining what might be the best treatment method. Many men with SRPE find that urinating or walking around after waking up will cause the erection to fade.

In terms of preventive treatment, the study found that a particular muscle relaxer seemed to offer significant help, decreasing or eliminating SRPEs in a significant number of the men. However, it does appear that this treatment is effective only while being taken; after discontinuing treatment, SRPEs often return. And there are side effects to the medication which may discourage some men from using it on a continuing basis.

Other medications were used on some patients, with varying results. A larger prospective study is needed to better examine the treatment options and learn more about the pros and cons of each one.

Penis pain comes from many sources other than nocturnal erections, of course. Often, daily application of a first rate penis health crème (health professionals recommend Man 1 Man Oil, which is clinically proven mild and safe for skin) can help alleviate some of that pain. Find a crème that includes both a high-end emollient (like Shea butter) and a natural hydrator (such as vitamin E), as keeping penis skin moisturized can often help soothe soreness. The chosen crème should also include pantothenic acid (aka vitamin B5), a vital nutrient required for cell metabolism and maintenance of healthy tissue.

Nocturnal Leg Cramps

Dr. Ojas Potdar 95% (1340 ratings)
DNB GENERAL SURGERY, MBBS
General Surgeon, Mumbai
Nocturnal Leg Cramps

Is there anything I can do on my own to feel better? — yes. Things you can try include:

●riding a stationary bike for a few minutes before bed – if you normally get little exercise, this might help.

●doing stretching exercises

●wearing shoes with firm support, especially at the back of your foot around your heel

●keeping bed covers loose at the foot of your bed and not tucked in

●drinking plenty of water, especially if you take diuretics. (do this only if your doctor or nurse has not told you to limit the amount of water you drink.)

●limiting the amount of alcohol and caffeine you drink

●staying cool when you exercise, and not exercising in very hot weather or hot rooms

If you get a cramp, slowly stretch the cramped muscle. To prevent more cramps, you can try:

●walking around or jiggling your leg or foot

●lying down with your legs and feet up

●taking a hot shower with water spraying on the cramp for 5 minutes, or taking a warm bath

●rubbing the cramp with ice wrapped in a towel

Should I see a doctor or nurse? — see a doctor or nurse if:

●you wake up several times a night with leg cramps

●your cramps keep you from getting enough sleep

●your cramps are very painful

●you have cramps in other parts of your body, such as your upper back or belly

Are there tests I should have? — probably not. Your doctor or nurse will talk with you about your symptoms and do an exam to find out what could be causing your nighttime leg cramps. Depending on your symptoms and exam, you might also need some blood tests.

How are nighttime leg cramps treated? — treatment is different for everyone. Most people have to try a few different things before they find a treatment that helps them.

Treatment options include:

●making lifestyle changes – for example, exercising differently, doing stretching exercises, wearing shoes with good support, or drinking enough fluids

●taking supplements – supplements are pills, capsules, liquids, or tablets with minerals or vitamins your body needs. Tell your doctor or nurse about any minerals, vitamins, or herbal medicines you already take.


●stopping any medicines you take that could cause cramps. But do not stop taking any medicine unless your doctor or nurse says it is ok.

●medicines - taking prescription medicines that improve sleep, relax muscles, calm overactive nerves, or help in other ways. Doctors and nurses prescribe medicines for nocturnal leg cramps only when other types of treatment do not work.

What if my child gets nocturnal leg cramps? — nocturnal leg cramps are common in children. Talk to your child's doctor or nurse if your child:

●has leg cramps often

●cannot sleep well because of leg cramps

Nocturnal leg cramps can run in families. Tell your doctor or nurse if someone else in your family also has nocturnal leg cramps.

What are nocturnal (nighttime) leg cramps? — nighttime leg cramps cause pain and sudden muscle tightness in the legs, feet, or both. The cramps can wake you up from sleep. They can last for many minutes or just a few seconds.

Nighttime leg cramps are common in both adults and children. But as people get older, they are more likely to get them. About half of people older than 50 get nighttime leg cramps.

What causes nighttime leg cramps? — most nighttime leg cramps do not have a cause that doctors can find. When doctors do find causes, the causes can include:

●having a leg or foot structure that is different from normal – for example, having flat feet or a knee that bends in the wrong direction

●sitting in an awkward position or sitting too long in one position

●standing or walking a lot on concrete floors

●changes in your body's fluid balance

this can happen if you:

•take medicines called diuretics (also called" water pills")

•are on dialysis (a kind of treatment for kidney disease)

•sweat too much

●exercising

●having certain conditions – for example, parkinson disease, diabetes, or low thyroid

●being pregnant – some pregnant women do not have enough of the mineral magnesium in their blood. This can cause leg cramps.

●taking certain medicines

1 person found this helpful

Nocturnal Emissionis And Homoeopathy

Dr. Himani Negi 94% (20646 ratings)
BHMS
Homeopath, Chennai
Nocturnal Emissionis And Homoeopathy

Nocturnal emissionis defined as the involuntary ejaculation of semen during a night without sexual intercourse allied with sexual dreams. Furthermore, nocturnal emission is commonly known as" nightfall" or" wet dream. Nightfall or nocturnal emissions are simply a reaction of reproductive system to chuck out the excessively produced fluid in it and male’s reproductive organ ejaculates this excess fluid when he is sleeping.
Homeopathy is one of the most popular holistic systems of medicine. The selection of remedy is based upon the theory of individualization and symptoms similarity by using holistic approach. This is the only way through which a state of complete health can be regained by removing all the sign and symptoms from which the patient is suffering. The aim of homeopathy is not only to treat night emission but to address its underlying cause and individual susceptibility. As far as therapeutic medication is concerned, several remedies are available to treat night emission that can be selected on the basis of cause, sensations and modalities of the complaints.

4 people found this helpful

NIGHTFALL / NOCTURNAL EMISSION AND HOMOEOPATHIC TREATMENT

Dr. Rushali Angchekar 94% (60843 ratings)
BHMS
Homeopath, Sindhudurg
NIGHTFALL / NOCTURNAL EMISSION AND HOMOEOPATHIC TREATMENT
Nocturnal emission or night fall is a term applied to the involuntary discharge of semen during sleep.
In the beginning such discharges take place by an amorous and sexual dream and consequently erection is attained fully and semen is discharged. Once this disease is not cured, such discharges take place quite frequently even without dreams and erection. If night emission takes place quite frequently it should not be ignored.
Nocturnal Emission is a one kind of problematic condition, which harasses the males at some point in their life. However, if this therapeutic condition gets worse over the time, then it can harm affected person in both ways, psychologically and physically. Furthermore, nocturnal emission is commonly known as "Nightfall" or "Wet dream". Nightfall or nocturnal emissions are simply a reaction of reproductive system to chuck out the excessively produced fluid in it and male’s reproductive organ ejaculates this excess fluid when he is sleeping.
The following precautions are advised to check frequent night emission:
· Do not sleep on the back
· Do not use milk at night
· Avoid overeating
· Take your night meal at least before 3 hours before going to bed
· Excessive spices, wine, eggs, meat and other stimulating things should be avoided.
· Plenty vegetables, fruits should be taken
· Tea, curd, betel should be avoided
· Food should be chewed thoroughly
· Avoid taking much fluid after dinner
· Intake water frequently during day time.
· Void urine prior to going to bed.
· Get up early in the morning since such discharges occur in the morning hours
· Excessive horse riding and cycling should be avoided
· Deep breathing and long walk in healthy atmosphere should be done
· Amorous thoughts and discussions should be avoided
· Daily and light exercise should be done
· Clean the genitals daily.
· Moderate diet should be taken

HOMOEOPATHY prove best and safe method of treatment in order to cure night emission. Consult for permanent cure - Dr Rushali Angchekar
Vaibhavi homoeo clinic
rushaliangchekar1@gmail.com
4 people found this helpful

Sex power Enhancer, Nocturnal Emissions (Swapandosh), Loss of Libido, Premature Ejaculation

Dr. Rajesh Choda 95% (7296 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Zirakpur
Sex power Enhancer, Nocturnal Emissions (Swapandosh), Loss of Libido, Premature Ejaculation
It is mentioned in bhaishjaya ratnawali - an esteemed ayurveda reference book that:

Seedless dried dates and long pepper are boiled in milk. Upon residual milk product its fried in clarified butter. Dried grapes, white and black musli, cloves, jaiphal, javitri, tejpatra, bala herb, kesar, calcined bang, iron and mica and pistachios, almonds, chironji, walnut, gambhari flowers are mixed in directed proportionsproportions and procedures.

This is specially used in winter.

Uses:
It increases sex power and checks nocturnal emissions. Equally beneficial for gents and ladies because of weakness in shukra dhatu (semen) and rajodosh (m. C. Related problems) respectively. It's also used for healthy persons.

Note:
Please get prepared from authentic source or get from us. We have only premium quality made of best quality ingredients.
1 person found this helpful

Hemoptysis: What Should You Follow For Prevention?

MD - Pulmonary, DTCD
Pulmonologist, Faridabad
Hemoptysis: What Should You Follow For Prevention?

A cough is probably one of the most common respiratory diseases that people suffer from. In most cases, it is nothing to worry about and can be cured with cough suppressants and salt water gargles. However, coughing of blood is a serious problem. The coughing up of blood that originates from below the level of the larynx is known as hemoptysis. This can vary in terms of severity depending on the amount of blood being expelled. This disease is a common condition, but on an average, less than 5% of hemoptysis cases are life threatening.

Hemoptysis rarely affects children. The symptoms of this condition include:
Sudden onset of a cough with bloody phlegm

  1. Fever
  2. Anorexia and weight loss
  3. Dyspnoea
  4. Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea
  5. Fatigue

Chest painMedical attention should be sought in cases where this condition recurs often, if it lasts for longer than a fortnight or if the volume of blood expectorated is more than 30ml per day. The various tools that help in the diagnosis of this condition are:

  • Chest radiography: This imaging modality helps lateralize bleeding and understand the amount of lung involvement. It is quick, inexpensive and can also help detect other underlying abnormalities.
  • BronchoscopyThis involves the insertions of a rigid or flexible endoscope into the bronchial passages to check the airways and determine active bleeding sites.
  • MDCT: A multidetector CT is a non-invasive imaging tool that provides a comprehensive evaluation of airways, lung parenchyma, and thoracic vessels. It can also be used to uncover potential causes of bleeding such as bronchiectasis, pulmonary infections and lung cancer. In some cases, a multidetector CT angiography may also be used.

Oral antibiotics are usually the first stage of treatment for this condition. Smokers will also be urged to quit cigarettes as this can worsen their condition. Treatment for minor hemoptysis may also include:

  1. Oral hemostatics
  2. Cough suppressants
  3. Anticoagulants
  4. Radiation of laser treatment
  5. Therapeutic bronchoscopy

In its later stages, hemoptysis can be treated with a minimally invasive procedure known as endovascular embolization or with surgery. In some cases, endovascular embolization may also be sued to stabilise the patient before surgery. This procedure reduces the pressure in the hypertrophic arterial blood vessels and decreases the risk of perioperative bleeding.

Hemoptysis is also one of the most common complaints of lung cancer patients. Depending on the stage of cancer and the amount of blood expectorated, treatment in some cases may not be possible. In such cases, a parenteral opioid and fast-acting benzodiazepine may be administered. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4028 people found this helpful
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