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Oophorectomy / Ovariectomy / Ovarian Ablation Health Feed

My mother had operated (hysterectomy with bilateral salphingo oophorectomy) for ovarian tumour. They now staged it as stage 3c. She had mild ascitis & peritoneal involvement also. Doctors suggested chemotherapy. Is there any chance of recurrence after chemotherapy?

Dr. Tejas Shinde 87% (271 ratings)
BHMS
Homeopath,
See dear for cancer there is no curable medicines still we have to operate or have a chemotherapy as a options but the metas will recurrence any where in body such as in brain lungs or in liver. Only supportive therapy an increase of lifespan at certain years. When it will recurrence will be there no one can predict the time. Where recurrence will be there no one can predict. It will be known only after pet scan.
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Things We All Must Know About Heart Ablation!

Dr. Jitesh Arora 90% (55 ratings)
MD - Cardiology, PG Diploma In Clinical Cardoology
Cardiologist, Rudrapur
Things We All Must Know About Heart Ablation!

Heart ablation or cardiac ablation is a procedure done to treat irregular heartbeats or arrhythmias. It is performed by an interventional cardiologist, a doctor who specialises in doing procedures for heart problems and it involves threading long wires called catheters through a blood vessel into your heart. The irregular heartbeat is treated by delivering an electrical pulse using electrodes to specific areas of your heart.

Arrhythmias
A normal heart beats at a steady rate, but sometimes, your heart may beat too quickly, too slowly, or unevenly. These heart rhythm problems are called arrhythmias and one of the treatments for this heart problem is cardiac ablation. Other treatment modalities are medications and changes in lifestyle. Heart ablation is prescribed when the other treatments fail. Arrhythmias mostly happen in older people and in people who suffer from other heart problems like cardiomyopathy.

Here are answers to most frequently asked questions related to ablation

Who will benefit from heart ablation?
The beneficiaries include people who

  • Suffer from arrhythmias that don’t respond to medicines
  • Suffer from side effects from arrhythmia medicines
  • Suffer from a specific kind of arrhythmia that respond very well to cardiac ablation
  • Are at a high risk for cardiac arrest or other complications which can be fatal

Cardiac ablation is very helpful for patients who have certain kinds of arrhythmias like atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia, which cause fast heartbeats.

How to prepare for cardiac ablation?
You will have to undergo extensive tests to record your heart’s electrical activity and rhythm. Your doctor will ask and record whether you have any other disease like high BP and diabetes.

If you are a woman and pregnant, you must not get this procedure done as it involves radiation. You will not be allowed to eat or drink anything after midnight, the night before the procedure.

How is heart ablation done?

Heart ablations are done in a special room known as an electrophysiology laboratory. It usually takes three to six hours and is usually done under general anaesthesia or local anaesthesia with sedation.
The catheters are threaded either from your neck, groyne or arm into your heart. Your cardiologist also injects a special contrast dye to help him see areas of abnormal muscle in your heart. He then uses a catheter with an electrode at the tip to give radiofrequency energy to the weak heart muscle to correct your irregular heartbeat.
You may have to stay overnight after the procedure.

Risks associated

  1. Bleeding
  2. Blood clots
  3. Damage to heart valves or arteries
  4. The build-up of fluid around your heart
  5. Heart attack
  6. Infection

Inflammation of sac surrounding your heart or pericarditis You will have to be monitored regularly after ablation to check for problems in your heart beats.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3374 people found this helpful

Cardiac Ablation - How To Prepare For It?

Dr. Jyotirmaya Dash 90% (14 ratings)
MD - Medicine, DNB (Cardiology), MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Cardiologist, Chennai
Cardiac Ablation - How To Prepare For It?

Heart ablation or cardiac ablation is a procedure done to treat irregular heartbeats or arrhythmias. It is performed by an interventional cardiologist, a doctor who specialises in doing procedures for heart problems and it involves threading long wires called catheters through a blood vessel into your heart. The irregular heartbeat is treated by delivering an electrical pulse using electrodes to specific areas of your heart.

Arrhythmias
A normal heart beats at a steady rate, but sometimes, your heart may beat too quickly, too slowly, or unevenly. These heart rhythm problems are called arrhythmias and one of the treatments for this heart problem is cardiac ablation. Other treatment modalities are medications and changes in lifestyle. Heart ablation is prescribed when the other treatments fail. Arrhythmias mostly happen in older people and in people who suffer from other heart problems like cardiomyopathy.

Here are answers to most frequently asked questions related to ablation

Who will benefit from heart ablation?
The beneficiaries include people who

  • Suffer from arrhythmias that don’t respond to medicines
  • Suffer from side effects from arrhythmia medicines
  • Suffer from a specific kind of arrhythmia that respond very well to cardiac ablation
  • Are at a high risk for cardiac arrest or other complications which can be fatal

Cardiac ablation is very helpful for patients who have certain kinds of arrhythmias like atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia, which cause fast heartbeats.

How to prepare for cardiac ablation?
You will have to undergo extensive tests to record your heart’s electrical activity and rhythm. Your doctor will ask and record whether you have any other disease like high BP and diabetes.

If you are a woman and pregnant, you must not get this procedure done as it involves radiation. You will not be allowed to eat or drink anything after midnight, the night before the procedure.

 

How is heart ablation done?

Heart ablations are done in a special room known as an electrophysiology laboratory. It usually takes three to six hours and is usually done under general anaesthesia or local anaesthesia with sedation.
The catheters are threaded either from your neck, groyne or arm into your heart. Your cardiologist also injects a special contrast dye to help him see areas of abnormal muscle in your heart. He then uses a catheter with an electrode at the tip to give radiofrequency energy to the weak heart muscle to correct your irregular heartbeat.
You may have to stay overnight after the procedure.

Risks associated

  1. Bleeding
  2. Blood clots
  3. Damage to heart valves or arteries
  4. The build-up of fluid around your heart
  5. Heart attack
  6. Infection

Inflammation of sac surrounding your heart or pericarditis You will have to be monitored regularly after ablation to check for problems in your heart beats.

4 people found this helpful

Radiofrequency Ablation For Trigeminal Neuralgia!

Dr. Snehal Panchal 84% (77 ratings)
MD,DNB, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, Fellowship In Pain Management
Pain Management Specialist, Mumbai

Trigeminal Neuralgia is a type of chronic pain disorder, which affects the trigeminal nerve. There are mainly two types:

Typical Trigeminal Neuralgia and Atypical Trigeminal Neuralgia.

The typical form or this disorder results in certain episodes of severe, sudden, shock-like pain in one side of the face, which lasts for seconds to few minutes.

Symptoms

Trigeminal Neuralgia may have symptoms which include one or more of patterns like the following:

  • Some episodes of severe,
  • Shooting pain which may seem like an electric shock.

A person might come across spontaneous attacks of pain or even attacks which might get triggered by certain things like touching the face, chewing, speaking or even while brushing the teeth.

Causes

When trigeminal neuralgia occurs, the trigeminal nerve’s function gets disrupted. The problem occurs through a contact between an artery or a vein and the trigeminal nerve at the base of one’s brain. This contact puts pressure on the nerve, thus causing it to malfunction.

Trigeminal Neuralgia can occur due to people getting aged or due to any kind of disorder that causes damage to the myelin sheath that protects certain nerves. A number of triggers can lead to the pain of trigeminal neuralgia, which include:

  • While shaving
  • When someone touches one’s face.
  • When a person is eating something.
  • While brushing teeth
  • Smiling
  • Washing one’s face.

What Is Radiofrequency Ablation for Trigeminal Neuralgia?

Radiofrequency Ablation or RFA is a technique by way of surgery, which helps to direct high-frequency heat on to the targeted areas of the body, such as tumors and tissues. When a person suffers chronic pain that means the high-frequency heat is getting targeted to the nerves.

A person suffering from trigeminal neuralgia, would have his or her doctor, who is a neurosurgeon, uses radiofrequency ablation to hit the trigeminal nerve, thereby destroying the nerve’s ability to get the pain signals transmitted to one’s brain.

Medication is the first line of treatment for trigeminal neuralgia by a neurosurgeon, to see how the patient reacts. If that person suffers from severe pain in the face and does not show any improvement through medication, then the doctor might recommend him/her to go for radiofrequency ablation surgery.

How Is The Procedure Conducted?

During the radiofrequency ablation for trigeminal neuralgia, people remain awake and asleep at different times. The process includes:

When the patient is asleep under the influence of general anaesthesia, a neurosurgeon would carefully place a needle through the corner of one’s mouth in order to reach the trigeminal nerve, which lies at the base of the skull. Then, once the X-rays confirm the needle is right in place, the neurosurgeon would wake the patient up, stimulate the nerve and ask the patient if he or she could feel the stimulation exactly at the place where the pain is experienced. This particular step confirms that the doctor has hit the right location. Once, the patient gets back to sleep, the doctor uses radiofrequency heat to minimally injure the nerve, sufficiently enough to induce a numb feeling on the face along with tingling, thus take the pain away.

4362 people found this helpful

Cardiac Ablation - Why Is It Performed?

Yashoda Hospitals 85% (80 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Internal Medicine Specialist, Secunderabad
Cardiac Ablation - Why Is It Performed?

Cardiac ablation is a procedure that can correct problems associated with heart rhythm. It is a procedure performed by an interventional cardiologist, a doctor who specializes in performing procedures related to the heart. During the procedure, small wires called electrodes are placed inside your heart to measure its electrical activity. When the source of the problem is identified, the tissue causing the problem is destroyed.

Methods of performing cardiac ablation: There are two methods of performing cardiac ablation:

  1. Radiofrequency ablation: It uses heat energy to eliminate the problem area.
  2. Cryoablation: It uses extremely cold temperatures to destroy the cardiac tissue. The type of procedure you will undergo depends on what kind of abnormal heart rhythm you have.

Cardiac ablation is conducted at a hospital by trained staff. You will be given a sedative before the procedure to help you relax. A small and flexible tube will be inserted through a cut into one of the blood vessels in the area. The doctor will use live X-ray images to carefully guide the catheter up into your heart. Sometimes, more than one catheter is needed to perform the procedure.

Why is cardiac ablation performed?

Cardiac ablation is used to treat certain heart rhythm problems that medicines cannot treat or control. These problems may be dangerous if they are not treated. Common symptoms of heart rhythm problems may include chest pain, fainting, slow or fast heartbeat, light-headedness, dizziness, and paleness, shortness of breath, skipping beats, and sweating.

Risks associated with cardiac ablation: Cardiac ablation carries a risk of complications, including the following:

  • Bleeding or infection at the site where your catheter was inserted.
  • Damage to your blood vessels where the catheter may have scraped as it traveled to your heart.
  • A puncture in the cardiac wall.
  • Damage to your heart valves.
  • Damage to your heart’s electrical system, which could worsen your heart rhythm and a pacemaker may be required to correct it.
  • Blood clots in your legs or lungs.
  • Stroke or heart attack.
  • Narrowing of the veins that carry blood between your lungs and heart.
  • Damage to your kidneys from the dye used during the procedure.
  • Death, in rare cases.

Results of cardiac ablation: Although a single cardiac ablation can be successful, some people required repeated intervention. Your doctor will tell if you need any other procedure such as pacemaker implantation to treat complex heart rhythm problems. You may also need to take medications, even after you have had an ablation. Some lifestyle changes need to be made that improve the overall health of your heart, especially to prevent or treat conditions that can cause or worsen heart rhythms, such as high blood pressure. Your doctor may advise you to use less salt, which can help lower blood pressure, increase your physical activity, quit smoking, avoid drinking alcohol, eat heart-healthy foods, maintain a healthy weight, and manage strong emotions such as anger.

Follow your doctor’s instructions about wound care, medications, physical activity, and follow-up appointments. Some people may still have episodes of an irregular heartbeat after cardiac ablation. This is a normal reaction as the tissue heals and should go away with time.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

5300 people found this helpful

Heart Ablation - Things We All Must Know!

Dr. Nishith Chandra 92% (688 ratings)
DM Cardiology
Cardiologist, Delhi
Heart Ablation - Things We All Must Know!

Heart ablation or cardiac ablation is a procedure done to treat irregular heartbeats or arrhythmias. It is performed by an interventional cardiologist, a doctor who specialises in doing procedures for heart problems and it involves threading long wires called catheters through a blood vessel into your heart. The irregular heartbeats is treated by delivering an electrical pulse using electrodes to specific areas of your heart.

Arrhythmias
A normal heart beats at a steady rate, but sometimes, your heart may beat too quickly, too slowly, or unevenly. These heart rhythm problems are called arrhythmias and one of the treatments for this heart problem is cardiac ablation. Other treatment modalities are medications and changes in lifestyle. Heart ablation is prescribed when the other treatments fail. Arrhythmias mostly happen in older people and in people who suffer from other heart problems like cardiomyopathy.

Here are answers to most frequently asked questions related to ablation

Who will benefit from heart ablation?
The beneficiaries include people who

  • Suffer from arrhythmias that don’t respond to medicines
  • Suffer from side effects from arrhythmia medicines
  • Suffer from a specific kind of arrhythmia that respond very well to cardiac ablation
  • Are at a high risk for cardiac arrest or other complications which can be fatal

Cardiac ablation is very helpful for patients who have certain kinds of arrhythmias like atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia, which cause fast heartbeats.

How to prepare for cardiac ablation?
You will have to undergo extensive tests to record your heart’s electrical activity and rhythm. Your doctor will ask and record whether you have any other disease like high BP and diabetes.

If you are a woman and pregnant, you must not get this procedure done as it involves radiation. You will not be allowed to eat or drink anything after midnight, the night before the procedure.

How is heart ablation done?

Heart ablations are done in a special room known as an electrophysiology laboratory. It usually takes three to six hours and is usually done under general anaesthesia or local anaesthesia with sedation.
The catheters are threaded either from your neck, groyne or arm into your heart. Your cardiologist also injects a special contrast dye to help him see areas of abnormal muscle in your heart. He then uses a catheter with an electrode at the tip to give radiofrequency energy to the weak heart muscle to correct your irregular heartbeat.
You may have to stay overnight after the procedure.

Risks associated

  1. Bleeding
  2. Blood clots
  3. Damage to heart valves or arteries
  4. The build-up of fluid around your heart
  5. Heart attack
  6. Infection

Inflammation of sac surrounding your heart or pericarditis You will have to be monitored regularly after ablation to check for problems in your heart beats. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Cardiologist.

3978 people found this helpful

Ovarian Cysts - How To Treat Them?

Dr. Vani W 86% (35 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Madurai
Ovarian Cysts - How To Treat Them?

All women have two ovaries located on either side of the uterus. They are fundamental for the process of child birth. However ovarian cysts have emerged as major problems which most women suffer from. In this, small pockets filled with fluids develop on the surface or within the ovaries. Though they are generally harmless, often times disappearing without any treatment, they do have the potential to create complications during child birth. Treatment of ovarian cysts depends on the size and the quantity of the cysts. 

Some of the treatments available are-

1. Patience and a careful watch
In case medical examinations reveal tiny cysts, patience can be the key word. If you did not suffer from perceptible symptoms and the cysts were revealed only through tests, you must follow it with regular visits to the doctor. Few medications and regular ultrasound examinations are all you need in such a case.

2. Contraceptives
Birth control pills or contraceptives may be sometimes prescribed to you as possible medications to treat the cysts. Regular administering of these medicines deters the possibility of further development of cysts.  They also benefit greatly in reducing the possibilities of suffering from ovarian cancer in the future.

3. Operations
In case the tests reveal large cysts, operations or surgical removal of them may be the only possible solution.  Operations are generally suggested if the cysts have persisted for a long time and are accompanied by terrible pain in the lower abdomen.

4. Ovarian cystectomy 
This is performed when the ovaries are kept intact and only the cysts are carefully removed.

5. Oophorectomy
In this form of surgery, only the ovary that is affected with the cysts is removed, while the other is kept intact. Both the ovaries might also have to be surgically removed if they are found to be affected.

6. Hysterectomy and subsequent removal of fallopian tubes and uterus
This is done when the cysts developed have the potential of becoming cancer us. In such a situation, an extreme measure is adopted with the complete removal of the ovaries along with the uterus and fallopian tubes. This is done in order to prevent the subsequent spreading of cancer. 

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2713 people found this helpful

Treating ovarian cysts

Dr. Sushma Dikhit 88% (29 ratings)
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (MRCOG), MS, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Ghaziabad
Treating ovarian cysts

All women have two ovaries located on either side of the uterus. They are fundamental for the process of child birth. However ovarian cysts have emerged as major problems which most women suffer from. In this, small pockets filled with fluids develop on the surface or within the ovaries. Though they are generally harmless, often times disappearing without any treatment, they do have the potential to create complications during child birth. Treatment of ovarian cysts depends on the size and the quantity of the cysts. 


Some of the treatments available are-

1. Patience and a careful watch
In case medical examinations reveal tiny cysts, patience can be the key word. If you did not suffer from perceptible symptoms and the cysts were revealed only through tests, you must follow it with regular visits to the doctor. Few medications and regular ultrasound examinations are all you need in such a case.

2. Contraceptives
Birth control pills or contraceptives may be sometimes prescribed to you as possible medications to treat the cysts. Regular administering of these medicines deters the possibility of further development of cysts.  They also benefit greatly in reducing the possibilities of suffering from ovarian cancer in the future.

3. Operations
In case the tests reveal large cysts, operations or surgical removal of them may be the only possible solution.  Operations are generally suggested if the cysts have persisted for a long time and are accompanied by terrible pain in the lower abdomen.

4. Ovarian cystectomy 
This is performed when the ovaries are kept intact and only the cysts are carefully removed.

5. Oophorectomy
In this form of surgery, only the ovary that is affected with the cysts is removed, while the other is kept intact. Both the ovaries might also have to be surgically removed if they are found to be affected.

6. Hysterectomy and subsequent removal of fallopian tubes and uterus
This is done when the cysts developed have the potential of becoming cancer us. In such a situation, an extreme measure is adopted with the complete removal of the ovaries along with the uterus and fallopian tubes. This is done in order to prevent the subsequent spreading of cancer. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.

2566 people found this helpful

Ovarian Cysts - How To Treat It?

Dr. Purnima Jain 90% (15 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Ovarian Cysts - How To Treat It?

All women have two ovaries located on either side of the uterus. They are fundamental for the process of child birth. However ovarian cysts have emerged as major problems which most women suffer from. In this, small pockets filled with fluids develop on the surface or within the ovaries. Though they are generally harmless, often times disappearing without any treatment, they do have the potential to create complications during child birth. Treatment of ovarian cysts depends on the size and the quantity of the cysts. 


Some of the treatments available are-

1. Patience and a careful watch
In case medical examinations reveal tiny cysts, patience can be the key word. If you did not suffer from perceptible symptoms and the cysts were revealed only through tests, you must follow it with regular visits to the doctor. Few medications and regular ultrasound examinations are all you need in such a case.

2. Contraceptives
Birth control pills or contraceptives may be sometimes prescribed to you as possible medications to treat the cysts. Regular administering of these medicines deters the possibility of further development of cysts.  They also benefit greatly in reducing the possibilities of suffering from ovarian cancer in the future.

3. Operations
In case the tests reveal large cysts, operations or surgical removal of them may be the only possible solution.  Operations are generally suggested if the cysts have persisted for a long time and are accompanied by terrible pain in the lower abdomen.

4. Ovarian cystectomy 
This is performed when the ovaries are kept intact and only the cysts are carefully removed.

5. Oophorectomy
In this form of surgery, only the ovary that is affected with the cysts is removed, while the other is kept intact. Both the ovaries might also have to be surgically removed if they are found to be affected.

6. Hysterectomy and subsequent removal of fallopian tubes and uterus
This is done when the cysts developed have the potential of becoming cancer us. In such a situation, an extreme measure is adopted with the complete removal of the ovaries along with the uterus and fallopian tubes. This is done in order to prevent the subsequent spreading of cancer. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.

4103 people found this helpful

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Dr. Prachi Goel 93% (62 ratings)
BHMS, MD
Homeopath, Delhi
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Pcos

Polycystic ovarian syndrome, also known as pcos or stein-leventhal syndrome, is a “syndrome,” or group of symptoms that affects the ovaries and ovulation. Its three main features are: 

Fluid filled sacs /cysts in the ovaries; 

High levels of male hormones (androgen);

Irregular or skipped periods.

(doctors typically diagnose pcos in women who have at least two of these three symptoms)

In pcos, the ovarian cysts cause the levels of androgen to be raised more than the normal limits. Due to this overproduction, the ovarian follicles fail to mature. 

Some women do not have cysts on their ovaries but other symptoms such as absence of ovulation or high levels of androgens where no other condition is known, may lead to a diagnosis of pcos.

Prevelence

It is a most common hormonal disorder (5% - 10%) in women during childbearing years (18 - 44).

Causes

Exact cause - not yet known. Factors that might play a role include:

Excess insulin: excess insulin might increase androgen production, causing difficulty with ovulation.

Low-grade inflammation: research has shown that women with pcos have a type of low-grade inflammation that stimulates polycystic ovaries to produce androgens, which can lead to heart and blood vessel problems.

Genetic predisposition: research suggests that certain genes might be linked to pcos. Means it tends to run in families.

Obesity or being overweight: means that if you are obese or overweight, your chances of developing pcos are higher than those with normal weight. 

Excess androgen: the ovaries produce abnormally high levels of androgen, resulting in hirsutism and acne.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of pcos often develop around the time of the first menstrual period during puberty. Sometimes pcos develops later, for example, in response to substantial weight gain & signs and symptoms are typically more severe if you're obese.

Menstrual disorders: few, irregular or absent menstrual periods. Some women with pcos get fewer than 8 periods in a year; heavy bleeding as uterine lining builds up for a longer period of time, so the periods can be heavier than normal.

Ovarian cysts or cysts in the ovaries: enlargement of ovaries with small, multiple ovarian cysts which look like a string of pearls. 

Weight management difficulties: including obesity/weight gain usually centered around the lower torso (apple shaped) and difficulty losing weight.

Fertility issues: lack of ovulation causing infertility. To get pregnant, you have to ovulate. Women who don’t ovulate regularly don’t release as many eggs to be fertilized. Pcos is one of the leading causes of infertility in women.

Signs of high levels of androgens & testosterone: extra hair growth on your face, chin, back, belly and chest (hirsutism), thinning of scalp hair, androgenic alopecia (male pattern baldness), acne associated with oily skin, skin discolorations (acanthosis nigricans, or dark patches/thick, hard skin)

Symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (pms): mood swings, bloating, etc.

Headaches: hormone changes can trigger headaches in some women.

Depression: both hormonal changes and symptoms like unwanted hair growth can negatively affect your emotions. Many with pcos end up experiencing depression and anxiety.

Decreased libido (sex drive).

Examinations & investigtions

There is no single test to diagnose pcos. To help diagnose pcos and rule out other causes of presenting symptoms, your doctor may talk to you about your medical history and do a physical exam and different tests:

Physical exam - blood pressure, body mass index (bmi), waist size, inspect skin for extra hair on face, chest or back, acne, or skin discoloration, any hair loss or signs of other health conditions (such as an enlarged thyroid gland).

Pelvic exam - for signs of extra male hormones (for example, an enlarged clitoris) and to see if your ovaries are enlarged or swollen.

Hormonal essay - androgen (increased) ; tsh, t3, t4 (abnormal); lh: fsh (greater than 3: 1); estradiol to estrone ratio (reversed); estrone level (markedly low); androstenedione (elevated); serum testosterone and dhea-s (elevated).

Usg - bilaterally polycystic ovaries are detected which is the main feature of pcos. Polycystic ovaries contain a large number of harmless follicles that are up to 8mm (approximately 0.3in) in size.

Blood sugar level (increased in some cases).

Complications

Some of the conditions that are likely to develop in untreated pcos, more so in obese patients are as follows-

Type 2 diabetes: a diabetic patient is always at risk of developing cardiac problems, chronic renal failure, hypertension, eye problems and so many other infections.

Metabolic syndrome: including central obesity, increased insulin levels or insulin resistance, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that significantly increase your risk of cardiovascular disease. 

Endometrial cancer: during ovulation, the uterine lining sheds. If you don’t ovulate every month, the lining can build up. A thickened uterine lining can increase your risk for endometrial cancer.

Pregnancy complications: twice risk of delivering baby prematurely; greater risk for miscarriage, gestational hypertention and gestational diabetes.


Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis/non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Autoimmune thyroiditis.

Sleep apnea: repeated pauses in breathing during the night, which interrupt sleep esp. Seen in overweight women.

General management

Not smoking, as this increases levels of androgens and the risk of heart disease.

Eat healthy.

For weight management: choose nutritious, high-fiber carbohydrates instead of sugary or refined carbohydrates; balance carbohydrates with protein and healthy fats; eat small meals and snacks throughout the day instead of large meals; exercise regularly to help manage insulin levels and your weight. Maintaining a healthy weight reduces androgen levels and reduce the risk of diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.


Medicinal management

Conventionally, in allopathy, menstrual symptoms have been treated with a low dose birth control pill. They have no medicines to completely cure or even reduce the size of the ovarian cysts. Ocp's are often prescribed which restore a normal hormone balance, regulate ovulation, relieve symptoms like excess hair growth, and protect against endometrial cancer but has a temporary effect of regularizing the menstrual cycle for as long as the medicines are taken. Once you leave the medication, you are back to irregular menses, this is because the cause is left untreated. In some cases, a surgery called laparoscopic ovarian drilling is considered. Other avenues include fertility treatments, or surgeries; oophorectomy, hysterectomy, or a cyst aspiration.

Homeopathy believes that the human body has been perfectly enabled by nature to keep itself disease free. It is only when the immunity or its own internal vitality is deranged that the body becomes incapable of keeping itself disease free. Therefore homeopathy tries to restore the balance of that vitality. Once the vitality regains its original balance, it is able to nurse itself back to health without any external aid. 

Every woman with symptoms of pcos presents differently and so too each woman’s treatment plan will be. The weighting of pcos symptoms will vary and so the focus of treatment will too. Whether it is to help with hormonal imbalances or regulating periods, seeking relief from the side effects of prescribed medications or support in dealing with the stress and frustration associated with trying to get pregnant, or the emotional turmoil of being diagnosed with pcos or infertile, homeopathy can help restore health on both the physcial and emotional levels.


Goals of treatment:

Correct the hormone imbalance.

Lowering of insulin resistance levels.

Restoration of fertility.

Lower the level of testosterone (which will improve acne and lessen hair growth).

Restoration of regular menstruation, and prevention of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer.

Apis mellifica 

Stinging pains in the ovarian region; accompanied by tenderness over abdomen and uterine region.

Unable to tolerate heat and feels worse in summers.

Right sided symptoms mostly.

Oedematous swellings of various body parts.

Calcarea carbonica 

Pcos with prolonged, profuse periods.

Easy weight gain and obesity.

Excessive sweating on the head.

Extreme sensitivity to cold air.

Desire for sweets and boiled eggs and in a few cases, undigestible things like chalk and lime.

Graphites 

Menses are too late and are pale and scanty.

Hardness may be felt in the ovarian region.

Tearing pain in the stomach region.

Constipation with other symptoms.

Patient is often of a stout build or is fat.

Cannot tolerate cold and is always feeling chilly.

Lachesis 

Menses are too short and flow is feeble; or heavy periods or no periods at all.

Pains in the abdomen which are relieved after the flow starts.

Aversion or intolerance to anything being worn a little tight.

Most sypmtoms start from left side going to right.

Patients who talk a lot, jump from topic to topic.

Jealousy is another prominent symptom.

Circulation is deficient or excessive. Often cold hands and feet.

Pulsatilla 

Menses are late or delayed and are scanty; suppressed for long duration.

Patient thirstless and takes little water.

Changeable moods.

Suited to young girls in whom the problem starts at puberty itself.

Difficulty digesting fatty foods.

Desire for cool open air; open air overall provides relief.

Mild, sensitive nature.

Tendency to weeping, weeps at the slightest instance and feels better when given consolation.

Sepia 

Bearing down pains from the back and abdomen.

Feeling of “ball” like sensation in the inner parts. 

Pelvic organs seem relaxed.

Menses are irregular. In some cases they are too late and scanty while in others they are early and profuse.

Vaginal dryness, vaginal tension or yeast infections. Yellowish or greenish leucorrhea.

Irritable and indifferent. Cares least even for her family members.

Abnormal hair growth on the face, especially on upper lips.

Ovaries remain enlarged with fluid-filled cysts in them. 

Infertility.

Sensitivity to cold air.

Natrum muriaticum 

Irregular and suppressed menstrual cycle.

Difficulty in conception.

Facial acnes or skin blemishes.

Repeat yeast infections.

Aversion to heat of sun.

Craving for extra salt in the diet.

Reserved nature; has weeping spells especially when alone and often worsening of symptoms when sympathy is offered.

Thuja occidentalis 

Retarded menstrual flow with multiple cysts in ovaries.

Excessive hair growth on unusual parts including anywhere on the body, face, arms or legs.

Dissolves abnormal growth or accumulation anywhere in the body and can dissolve pcos cysts.

Cystic growths more pronounced in the left-side ovary. 

Cysts may not cause much inflammation, but will be quite painful.

 

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