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Loeys-Dietz Syndrome Tips

premenstrual syndrome

Dr. Kamaksha Prasad 90% (2068 ratings)
DSTD,MBBS
Sexologist, Howrah
premenstrual syndrome
nearly all women suffers some mood changes/breast pain/abdominal pain/hot flushes headache, fatigue, insomnia, bloating, uncontrollable food cravings, irritability, depression, feelings of loneliness, rejection … days just before their periods. sexual desires also changes in those days. so, irritation/ feel of unsatisfaction wipe off the peace of mind..
its due to sex hormone changes in your body during that time mainly estrogen & FSH.
try to control your emotion by doing yoga- it acts like miracle. eyes closed & deep breathing in & out in the early morning makes you calm & control your sex steroid releasing hormones through hypothalamus.slow body twisting improves your circulation in lower abdominal organs.
for abdominal/breast pain-try to use home remedies like cold compress/ cold cod oil massage.
diet- raw onion and pumpkin seeds. flaxseed oil, evening primrose oil lavender and tea in the evening. try to have vegetables and fish- avoid meats.
**do not let your hormones to control your mind**
in severe cases, you may need medicines, consult your physician- we are always their to solve your problems.
184 people found this helpful

Piriformis Syndrome

Dr. Punnam Gupta 88% (174 ratings)
BPTh/BPT; certificate in sports medicine, PGCR, Diploma in Sports Medicine
Physiotherapist, Delhi
Piriformis Syndrome

Piriformis Syndrome

1 person found this helpful

Surfing Syndrome!

Dr. Kishore Sabbu 92% (388 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma in Child Health (DCH), MD Internal Medicine
General Physician, Visakhapatnam
Surfing Syndrome!
  • Referring internet extensively regarding health issues is creating confusion and a lot of psychological stress to the persons reading the information.
  • Always consult your doctor whom you believe for your health issues.

Klinefelter Syndrome

Dr. Sharath Kumar C 88% (1354 ratings)
Ph.D (Male Infertility), M.S (Infertility), D.G.L.S, D.R.C.O.G, C.Sc., D.M.R.D, M.B.B.S
Sexologist, Bangalore
Klinefelter Syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome, also known as the xxy condition, is a term used to describe males who have an extra x chromosome in most of their cells.

Klinefelter syndrome is named after Dr. Henry klinefelter, who first described a group of symptoms found in some men with the extra x chromosome. About one of every 500 males has an extra x chromosome, but many don't have any symptoms.

Symptoms:

  • Symptoms depend on how many xxy cells a man has, how much testosterone is in his body, and his age when the condition is diagnosed.
  • As xxy males enter puberty, they may have a taller, less muscular body, less facial and body hair, and broader hips than other boys. As teens, xxy males may have larger breasts, weaker bones, and a lower energy level than other boys.
  • Xxy adult males look similar to males without the condition, although they are often taller and may have autoimmune disorders, breast cancer, vein diseases, osteoporosis, and tooth decay.

Fertility:
Xxy males can have normal or subnormal sex lives, but they usually make little or no sperm and are infertile. Some times, they are impotent also.

Treatment:

  • The xxy chromosome pattern cannot be changed. Treatments involve physical, speech, occupational, behavioral, mental health, and family therapists, and testosterone replacement therapy.
  •  Even though all men with klinefelter syndrome have the extra x chromosome, not every xxy male has all of those symptoms. 
  • Because not every male with an xxy pattern has all the symptoms of klinefelter syndrome, it is common to use the term xxy male to describe these men, or xxy condition to describe the symptoms. 
     
2 people found this helpful

Boerhaave Syndrome

Dr. Mirza Nimmat Baig 90% (144 ratings)
md general phisician
General Physician, Hyderabad
Boerhaave Syndrome

Boerhaave first described the spontaneous rupture of the esophagus in 1724. It typically occurs after forceful emesis. Boerhaave syndrome is a transmural perforation of the esophagus to be distinguished from mallory-weiss syndrome, a nontransmural esophageal tear also associated with vomiting. Because it often is associated with emesis, boerhaave syndrome usually is not truly spontaneous. However, the term is useful for distinguishing it from iatrogenic perforation, which accounts for 85-90% of cases of esophageal rupture.
Diagnosis of boerhaave syndrome can be difficult because often no classic symptoms are present and delays in presentation for medical care are common. Approximately one third of all cases of boerhaave syndrome are clinically atypical. Prompt recognition of this potentially lethal condition is vital to ensure appropriate treatment. Mediastinitis, sepsis, and shock frequently are seen late in the course of illness, which further confuses the diagnostic picture.
See can't-miss gastrointestinal diagnoses, a critical images slideshow, to help diagnose the potentially life-threatening conditions that present with gastrointestinal symptoms.
A reported mortality estimate is approximately 35%, making it the most lethal perforation of the gi tract. The best outcomes are associated with early diagnosis and definitive surgical management within 12 hours of rupture. If intervention is delayed longer than 24 hours, the mortality rate (even with surgical intervention) rises to higher than 50% and to nearly 90% after 48 hours. Left untreated, the mortality rate is close to 100%.
 

Pathophysiology
Esophageal rupture in boerhaave syndrome is postulated to be the result of a sudden rise in intraluminal esophageal pressure produced during vomiting, as a result of neuromuscular incoordination causing failure of the cricopharyngeus muscle to relax. The syndrome commonly is associated with overindulgence in food and/or alcohol. The most common anatomical location of the tear in boerhaave syndrome is at the left posterolateral wall of the lower third of the esophagus, 2-3 cm proximal to the gastroesophageal junction, along the longitudinal wall of the esophagus. The second most common site of rupture is in the subdiaphragmatic or upper thoracic area. [1, 2]

Although likely underreported, the incidence of boerhaave syndrome is relatively rare. A 1980 review by kish cited 300 cases in the literature worldwide. [3] a 1986 summary by bladergroen et al described 127 cases. [4] of these, 114 were diagnosed antemortem; the others were diagnosed at autopsy. Overall, boerhaave syndrome accounts for 15% of all cases of traumatic rupture or perforation of the esophagus.

Race-, sex-, and age-related demographics
Cases have been reported in all races and on virtually every continent, affecting males more commonly than females, with ratios ranging from 2: 1 to 5: 1.
Boerhaave syndrome is seen most frequently among patients aged 50-70 years. Reports suggest that 80% of all patients are middle-aged men. However, this condiction has also been described in neonates and in persons older than 90 years. Although no clear explanation exists for this, the least susceptible age group appears to be children aged 1-17 years.
Mortality/morbidity

Prognosis
Prognosis is directly contingent on early recognition and appropriate intervention. Early diagnosis of boerhaave syndrome allows prompt surgical repair. Diagnosis and surgery within 24 hours carry a 75% survival rate. This drops to approximately 50% after a 24-hour delay and approximately 10% after 48 hours.
 

Morbidity/mortality
The mortality rate is high. Esophageal perforation is the most lethal perforation of the gi tract. Survival is contingent largely upon early recognition and appropriate surgical intervention.
Overall, the mortality rate is approximately 30%. Mortality is usually due to subsequent infection, including mediastinitis, pneumonitis, pericarditis, or empyema.
Patients who undergo surgical repair within 24 hours of injury have a 70-75% chance of survival. This falls to 35-50% if surgery is delayed longer than 24 hours and to approximately 10% if delayed longer than 48 hours.
Cases of patients surviving without surgery exist but are rare enough to warrant case reports in the medical literature.
 

Complications
Esophageal rupture may lead to the development of septicemia, pneumomediastinum, mediastinitis, massive pleural effusion, empyema, pneumomediastinum, or subcutaneous emphysema.
If the esophageal rupture extends directly into the pleura, hydropneumothorax is expected. In adults, this occurs more commonly on the left side of the pleura. In neonates, esophageal rupture usually occurs on the right side.
After esophageal rupture, free air enters the mediastinum and also may spread to the adjacent structures, resulting in mediastinal abscess or superimposed secondary infection.
Other complications include acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and hydrothorax.

1 person found this helpful

Know Everything About Asperger's Syndrome!

Ms. Parveen 92% (135 ratings)
Bachelors In Psychology, Masters In Psychology, Post Graduate Diploma In Guidance & Counselling, Internship in clinical psychology
Psychologist, Jalandhar
Know Everything About Asperger's Syndrome!

Asperger's Syndrome has recently come under the umbrella of Autism Spectrum Disorder. This syndrome usually affects the social skills of the patient, most heavily. The patient may seem normal and even intelligent at first glance. But on closer interaction, several social skill problems will come to the fore including an obsessive focus on certain topics and issues. Repetitive behaviour is also a part of this disease.

Let us find out more about Asperger's Syndrome:

  • Symptoms: The symptoms usually begin to show up early on in one's childhood. The patient will not be able to make eye contact while speaking with others. Also, a perfectly normal person may seem inordinately shy and reserved during social interactions. This awkwardness may come to the fore in the form of looking for expression cues on other people's faces and even the body language. The patient may not be a very happy and lively soul, with hardly a smile to crack at the funniest of jokes. The lack of emotions or the emotionally numb state is also a major giveaway of the condition. Other symptoms may include a strong aversion towards change in food habits and routine.
  • Diagnosis: The diagnosis is usually done by mental health specialists like a developmental paediatrician, a psychiatrist, a psychologist or even a paediatric neurologist. These specialists can put the child through a variety of tests that will study the neurological health as well as the speech and emotional behaviour of the child.
  • Educating the Parent: Once the diagnosis has been done, the parents of the patient will have to appraised of the condition and its implications. The symptoms and treatment will have to be duly discussed even as the parents are put through training and therapy to learn techniques with which they can help the child in progressing along more normal lines. The therapy will also help the parents deal with the challenge of living with someone suffering from this condition.
  • Treatment: There are varied forms of treatment that aim at fixing the specific areas and symptoms that the patient is learning to live with. Social skills training, speech and language therapy, CBT or Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and other forms of treatment can help the child overcome many symptoms that come from this condition.

In the course of the treatment, it is important for the child, parent and therapist concerned to realise that there is no single approach that can be applied to all patients suffering from Asperger's Syndrome. Individual care and therapy will be required for individual cases. At the same time, most of the skills will need to be repeated at home so that the child takes them more seriously.

2 people found this helpful

Piriformis Syndrome

Dr. Kirti Yadav 90% (174 ratings)
MSPT (Master of Physical Therapy), BPT
Physiotherapist, Gurgaon
Piriformis Syndrome

Become physically active every day which will improve your posture, muscle strength, and balance and will prevent you from falling.

Crest Syndrome!

Dr. Radhika A (Md) 84% (10 ratings)
MD - Acupuncture, Diploma In Accupuncture, Advanced Diploma In Accupuncture
Acupuncturist, Delhi
Crest Syndrome!

Treatment of CREST syndrome

Homeopathic Treatment of CREST syndrome
Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of CREST syndrome
Psychotherapy Treatment of CREST syndrome
Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of CREST syndrome
Surgical Treatment of CREST syndrome
Dietary & Herbal Treatment of CREST syndrome
Other Treatment of CREST syndrome
What is CREST syndrome
Symptoms of CREST syndrome
Causes of CREST syndrome
Risk factors of CREST syndrome
Complications of CREST syndrome
Lab Investigations and Diagnosis of CREST syndrome
Precautions & Prevention of CREST syndrome
Treatment of CREST syndrome 

Homeopathic Treatment of CREST Syndrome

Homeopathy heals and helps in regaining healthy skin. It treats the person as a whole. Treatment is constitutional. It means that homeopathic treatment focuses on the patient as a person, as well as his pathological condition. It balances the energy system, improves immunity and body functions. It naturally cures the root cause of disorder. Some of the homeopathic medicines for treatment of CREST syndrome are:

Barc C
Grapg
Sepia
Ipecac
Sulph

Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of CREST syndrome

Allopathic Treatment of CREST syndrome involves the following medications:

Blood pressure lowering drugs
Drugs to suppress the immune system
Antacid drugs

Surgical Treatment of CREST syndrome

Surgical Treatment of CREST syndrome involves the following surgeries:

Large or painful calcium deposits are sometimes surgically removed.
Laser surgery can reduce the appearance of red spots or lines
Amputation of fingertips may be necessary if skin ulcers progress to gangrene.
 

Dietary & Herbal Treatment of CREST syndrome

Avoid sugar and white bread and other refined carbohydrates
Limit high-fat foods
Consume only unsaturated fats that are low in cholesterol
Eat whole grains
Eat lots of fruits and vegetables
Avoid spicy or fatty foods, chocolate, caffeine, and alcohol
What is CREST syndrome

CREST syndrome, is one subtype of scleroderma, a condition that literally means hardened skin.

Symptoms of CREST syndrome 

Tight, hardened skin
Red spots or lines on skin
Raynaud’s phenomenon
Bumps under the skin
Difficulty swallowing
Causes of CREST syndrome

The immune system appears to stimulate the production of too much collagen. This overproduction of collagen builds up in the skin and internal organs, impairing their function.

Risk factors of CREST syndrome

Being women women of African descent
Rheumatoid arthritis or Hashimoto’s disease
Exposure to toxins

Complications of CREST syndrome

Lung damage
Gastrointestinal problems
Heart problems
Dry eyes and mouth
Dental problems
Ulcers on fingers and toes

Diagnosis of CREST syndrome

Diagnosis of CREST syndrome involves the following tests:

Blood test for antibodies
Skin biopsy

Precautions & Prevention of CREST syndrome

There is no known prevention. You can take some precautions to avoid complications:

Do not smoke
Eat small, frequent meals
Don’t exercise immediately before or after eating
Avoid harsh soaps and detergents
Practice good oral hygiene
Apply sunscreen before you go outside

1 person found this helpful

All About Klinefelter's Syndrome

Dr. Viniita Jhuntrraa 93% (718 ratings)
MBBS
Sexologist, Jaipur
All About Klinefelter's Syndrome

Klinefelter's syndrome is a medical condition, in which a boy is born with an extra copy of the 'X' chromosome. Klinefelter's syndrome has an adverse effect on testicular growth and results in the formation of smaller than normal testicles. This affects the production of the sex hormone testosterone. 

It can also cause lower retention of muscle mass, facial or body hair and enlarged breast tissues. It is difficult for people who are diagnosed with Klinefelter's syndrome to father children because they produce little, or   no sperm and often has to resort to take help from assisted reproductive procedures to procreate.

Symptoms
Generally Klinefelter's syndrome is not diagnosed before adulthood because of the fact that there are few noticeable symptoms, which might indicate Klinefelter's syndrome during infancy, childhood or adolescence period. 

The few characteristics, which might indicate the condition are listed below:

  1. Development of weak muscles
  2. Taking above average time to develop basic motor skills
  3. Delaying in speaking
  4. The testicles haven't descended into the scrotum

Boys and teenagers develop the following characteristics:

  1. They tend to have longer leg and broader hips than their peers
  2. Onset of puberty is delayed or in some cases absent or incomplete
  3. After puberty, less muscular bodies and less facial and body hair compared with other teens
  4. Smaller than average size of penis

Causes

  1. Klinefelter's syndrome occurs due to the occurrence of an extra 'X' chromosome in the cells instead of the normal combination on 'XY' chromosomes. 
  2. In some severe cases, there is the occurrence of more than one extra 'X' chromosome in each cell. 
  3. This is not inherited or a genetic condition. This occurs due to a random error during the formation of the egg , the sperm or post conception.  

Diagnoses and Treatment

  1. Chromosome analysis and hormone testing are the two main ways to diagnose this condition.
  2. Abnormal hormone levels present in blood and urine, might indicate Klinefelter's syndrome.

Early diagnosis and medication minimizes the effects of Klinefelter's syndrome. These include:

  1. Testosterone replacement therapy. In treatment, testosterone is injected at regular intervals from the onset of puberty to ensure normal growth.
  2. Patients also need educational support as well as speech therapy to overcome any barriers the patient is experiencing.
  3. Removal of excess breast tissue and fertility treatment. 
  4. With the help of Intracytoplasmic Sperm injection, it is possible for patients with low sperm production to father children.
3799 people found this helpful

Fregoli Syndrome Vs Capgras Syndrome - Causes + Symptoms

Dr. Vikas Deshmukh 88% (75 ratings)
MBBS, M.D Psychiatry , Diploma In Psychological Medicine
Sexologist, Navi Mumbai
Fregoli Syndrome Vs Capgras Syndrome - Causes + Symptoms

Fregoli syndrome and Capgras syndrome are psychological disorders which cause the patients to develop delusions regarding the people around him and his social interaction. They are called delusional misidentification syndromes (DMs). Both conditions are extremely rare and are believed to develop in patients who already have other psychiatric disorders. The two conditions can be compared in the following ways:

  1. Nature of the disease: Patients with Fregoli delusion believe that the many people around him or her are actually the same person in many different disguises. Capgras syndrome, on the other hand, causes the patient to think that someone who he or she interacts with on a daily basis has been replaced by an impostor.
  2. History: Fregoli syndrome was discovered in 1927 in a woman who thought her favorite actresses were disguising themselves as her friends, her employers and even strangers. The doctors named the condition after Italian entertainer Leopoldo Fregoli who did excellent impersonations of contemporary political figures. Less than 50 cases of the disorder have been reported worldwide since then.

Capgras syndrome was discovered in 1922 by French psychiatrist Joseph Capgras. The patient claimed that identical impostors had taken the places of her husband and some of her friends. This disorder is seen more commonly in women than in men and has more reported cases than Fregoli syndrome.

What causes it?

Fregoli delusions can be caused by severe injury to the temporal and parietal areas of the brain or other neural pathways.

Capgras syndrome has more complicated neuroanatomical causes. It is often seen in patients of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia and sometimes in patients of bipolar disorder and paranoia.

Symptoms behind them
The symptoms of Fregoli syndrome are delusions, visual and auditory hallucinations, cognitive defects, problems in visual memory and motor functioning.

Capgras syndrome is characterized by delusions, lack of emotional response to a familiar face, constant anxiety and depression.

Treatment
Antipsychotic medication is generally used to treat Fregoli delusions. Anti-seizure drugs and anti-depressants are prescribed to combat other symptoms of the disorder. The family members of the patient are also counselled so that they do not feel insulted by the patient's behavior.

Individualized cognitive therapy is much more beneficial in case of Capgras syndrome than medication. Habilitation therapy is a form of treatment where the patient is not repeatedly contradicted and corrected. Usually the patients' family members are made to talk to them about their mistakes gently without arguing with them. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a psychiatrist.

4171 people found this helpful
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