Female infertility is considered as the inability of conceiving. As per WHO it is described as the inability to be pregnant, maintain and carry forward a pregnancy to its full term. It is often of two types:
Primary Infertility: This is the inability to give birth to a baby either due to the inability to become pregnant or maintain a pregnancy which includes stillborn and miscarriage.
Secondary Infertility: This refers to the inability to give birth when there is already a live birth or the woman was pregnant.
The causes of infertility can vary from being acquired or genetic. However, the following factors are largely responsible for infertility:
1. Genetic: Some genes can lead to a mutation leading to infertility like, in the case of BMP15 gene there is a hypergonadotrophic ovarian failure which causes infertility.
2. Acquired: This is caused by factors like age, smoking, sexually transmitted diseases, obesity, body weight, eating disorders, diseases like diabetes, thrombophilia and also radiation and chemotherapy.
The treatment of infertility usually depends on the cause, age, duration of time for which a person has been infertile and preference of the patient. Infertility is believed to be a complex disorder and the treatment involves a huge amount of physical, financial and psychological commitments. All this also requires a lot of time. Some women might need just a minimum of two therapies to attain fertility while others might require different treatment before they can conceive.
Fertility Restoration through medication: This is the main treatment for women who are infertile because of ovulation disorders. These drugs include:
Fertility Restoration through surgery: Surgical procedures can amend the problem of infertility. However, these treatments are very rare these days owing to the success of other fertility treatments. These include:
Assistance in reproduction through techniques-
The most commonly used techniques for reproduction assistance are:
Dealing with infertility is not easy and can be emotionally and physically draining. To cope with the various tests and treatments of infertility one should be fully prepared, eat a healthy diet, exercise reach out for help and support of family and friends and look for other options like a donor egg, adoption or no children.