Infertility refers to the inability to conceive or not being capable to get pregnant subsequently one year or six months of trying. Women may be infertile and still able to conceive but are incapable to stay pregnant or carry the pregnancy due to a number of complications.
Signs of Infertility in Women-
Infertility in women might be signaled by many phenomena like irregularity or abnormality in menstruation, absence of periods (Amenorrhea), prolonged bleeding, shortened bleeding, and heavy flow during periods (Menorrhagia), infrequent periods (Oligomenorrhea), frequent periods (Polymenorrhea), intermenstrual bleeding, painful periods accompanied by severe cramps (Dysmenorrhea), pain during intercourse, and symptoms related to hormonal change or fluctuations. Problems in any of the stage of the menstrual cycle might lead to difficulty in getting pregnant or to absolute infertility.
Most of the cases of female infertility are antecedent by challenges with ovulation. No eggs will be fertilized without ovulation. Irregular or absent menstruation is the common sign of infertility.
Ovulation problems are caused by Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). It is a problem of hormonal imbalance which can intervene with routine ovulation, leading to a disturbance in the normal functioning of the reproductive system. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is the most usual cause of female infertility.
Another cause of ovulation problem is Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI). It happens when ovaries stop functioning normally even before the age of 45 (usually when the signs of menopause begin to show).
Sometimes, egg fails to mature the way they should leading to infertility.
Other common causes of infertility include structural or physical problems with a uterus like blocked fallopian tubes and uterine abnormalities including fibroids indenting endometrial polyps and endometrial cavity.
Moreover, sometimes infections caused due to Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and chronic infections of the cervix also prevent women from being fertile.
When the fertilized egg, which is called the zygote, fails to implant itself in the uterine wall, it also causes infertility.
Autoimmune disorders lead to damage to body tissues which the immune system misunderstands as the potential threat. They sometimes cause inflammation of placenta and the uterus causing infertility.
Women should take good care of their overall health that ensures good reproductive health too. Consumption of a wholesome diet is of utmost importance. Abstinence from drugs and alcohol, adopting and maintaining good personal hygiene, and regular checkup for infections and structural problems with the gynecologists help in preventing issues related to fertility. Moreover, women, in general, should avoid lifting heavy weights when not under professional supervision, and should avoid heavy workouts during periods.
Infertility in women can be caused by many factors like Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, Primary Ovarian Insufficiency, failure of maturation of eggs, structural defects and infections in the reproductive system, implantation failure and autoimmune disorders.