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Hernia Repair Surgery Health Feed

Laparoscopic Hernia Repair - What Should You Know?

Dr. Sumantra Ray 85% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS- General Surgery, MRCS (UK), Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery, Fellowship of Indian Association of Gastrointestinal Endo Surgeons (FIAGES), MCLS
General Surgeon, Kolkata
Laparoscopic Hernia Repair - What Should You Know?

A hernia is a condition where fatty tissue or an organ in your body might bulge through a muscle or an abnormal opening in the body. It is caused mainly due to pressure in the muscle area or weakening in the spot. This may occur due to heavy lifting or weakness that was present since birth.

The different types of hernia are inguinal, incisional, hiatal, umbilical and femoral. For inguinal hernias, surgical methods are used. The most common method is laparoscopic repair.

What is laparoscopic hernia surgery?

In this process, you will be given general anaesthesia before the surgeon performs the surgery. Before undergoing the operation, you will have an evaluation of your complete health that will include an analysis of your past medical history and a physical examination. An electrocardiogram or ECG will also be conducted.   

Then a small cut or incision is made in the lower part of your abdomen below the navel. The laparoscope that is a small telescope-like instrument is inserted to view your internal organs. A video camera is attached to the device that projects the internal view of your body on to a screen. This is viewed by the surgeon in the operating room.

During the process, your abdomen is inflated with carbon dioxide, to create some space for the doctor to look inside easily. The inner abdomen lining called peritoneum is cut open to observe the weakness of the abdominal wall or the location of the hernia sac. After locating it, the surgeon will remove the hernia sac from the wall and use a prosthetic mesh to cover the defect. Then the small incisions are closed with surgical tapes or stitches.

Furthermore, if hernias are found on both sides, they can be operated without making a second incision. The mesh can be placed on all the abdominal areas that are weak. This prevents the hernia to occur in the same spot again or spreading to other areas.

However, laparoscopic surgery is not performed for children. It is also not suitable for some cases such as if you are pregnant, or cannot tolerate general anaesthesia or are obese.   

Aftercare

You will be able to go back home on the same day of the surgery after laparoscopic hernia repair. The recovery time lasts for about 1 to 2 weeks. After that period you can return to light activity like walking. However, you must not engage in any kind of strenuous activity like working out or lifting heavy objects.

You might observe soreness after the first 2 days of the surgery. In some cases, bruising is found in your groin area. But if you observe significant swelling in the groin region, contact the doctor immediately.

It is recommended that you maintain a diet that is rich in fibre. This is because if you suffer from constipation, the straining during your bowel movements might put pressure on the area that is repaired.

People prefer laparoscopic hernia repair as they suffer lesser pain and can get back to their normal lives faster than open repair surgeries. It is advised that you take the medications and follow the instruction of your surgeon properly after the procedure.                     

        

 

1 person found this helpful

Hernia Surgery - Everything About It!

Dr. K.N. Srikanth 87% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, FRCS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Bangalore
Hernia Surgery - Everything About It!

Hernia may be defined as the protrusion of an organ into an adjacent connective tissue or muscle. The protrusion usually occurs through a tear or a weakened area in the muscle (Fascia). The hernia may be Inguinal Hernia, Umbilical Hernia, Hiatal Hernia or Femoral Hernia. The hernia can also originate from an incision (Incisional Hernia). The Inguinal Hernia is commonly observed in males. Here, the intestine squeezes through a tear in the abdominal wall into the groin (inguinal canal). At times, the small intestine bulges through the abdominal wall (weak spot) near the bellybutton. This results in Umbilical Hernia. In Hiatal Hernia, the upper part of the stomach passes into the chest through the diaphragm. Of all the hernia types, the Inguinal Hernia is the most common. 

Severe strain and muscle tear or weakness can result in hernia. Obesity, chronic constipation, chronic coughing and sneezing, ageing, damage caused by injury, medical conditions like Cystic Fibrosis, contribute to increased incidences of hernia. In case of hernia, the affected area tends to protrude or bulge out. If left untreated; hernia can prove to be detrimental. One needs to consult a physician for proper diagnosis and treatment. Physical examination can help in the diagnosis of Inguinal Hernia. An ultrasound is needed to diagnose Umbilical Hernia. A Barium X -ray or endoscopy can be of great help in the diagnosis of Hiatal Hernia.  

The severity of the hernia depends upon its size. In case the hernia is rapidly increasing in size, a surgery is needed for the repair. The surgery performed can be Open or Laparoscopic. In open surgery, hernia is identified through an incision. Once located, the hernia is removed from the adjacent tissues. In Laparoscopic Repair, small incisions are made in the affected region. Through these incisions, specialized instruments are inserted. It is through these instruments that the surgeon visualizes and performs the surgery.  In such repair, a mesh, held in place by sutures is used as a scaffold. This facilitates the growth of new tissues in the affected person. This technique significantly lowers the chances of a recurrence.
     Certain factors needs to be well addressed before performing hernia operation
-    Hernia operations, Laparoscopic in particular, should be performed by experienced surgeons. Inexperienced surgeons will do you more harm than good.
-    Laparoscopic hernia operation should be avoided in case a patient has adhesions from previous surgery.
-    Extreme care should be taken while performing a hernia operation in infants and children.
-    In some cases, hernia surgery might affect or injure the vas deferens in men. This in turn can affect fertility in men.
 

1 person found this helpful

Hernia Treatment - Know Why Is It Important To Treat Hernia Surgically!

Dr. Yogendra Kumar 90% (63 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Ghaziabad
Hernia Treatment - Know Why Is It Important To Treat Hernia Surgically!

A hernia occurs when an organ or fatty tissue pushes through a weak opening in the muscle that holds it in place. Hernias are common in the abdomen, but can also develop in the upper thigh, belly button and the genitals. The common types of hernia are the ones that occur in the groin viz (inguinal, femoral, obturator) around the belly button (umbilical), incisional (after a previous surgery) and hiatal (causes acid reflux) and are caused by muscle weakness. This weakness or increase in pressure in the abdomen can be triggered by lifting heavy objects without stabilizing abdominal muscles, diarrhea or constipation and chronic coughing (smokers and asthmatics) or straining to pass urine.

How can you treat hernia?

As hernia is a mechanical defect in the abdominal wall, the only definitive treatment is surgical repair of the defect. The type of surgery required depends on the size of the hernia and the severity of its symptoms. The defect may be repaired with stitches but the best option with least recurrence is to use a mesh. The Hernias that are small and don't cause discomfort can be observed and managed conservatively with regular follow up with the surgeon. All hernias have the risk of intestines getting trapped and strangulation.

Lifestyle changes-

Avoiding heavy meals, not bending over immediately after a meal and managing your body weight can reduce the incidence of hernias. Also, you should avoid foods causing heartburn and quit smoking. If these dietary changes do not relieve your discomfort, you may need surgery to treat the hernia.
 
Medication-

Prescription medication given by your doctor that reduces stomach acid can relieve your soreness and improve the symptoms.

So when do you need surgery?

If your hernia is gradually growing in size, looks unsightly and is causing pain,  you should seek help and the doctor may advise you to effectively treat it through surgery. But with a hernia, there is always a risk of bowel obstruction and strangulation which may need an emergency operation.

A hernia can be repaired using two different surgical methods - open surgery or laparoscopic surgery.

In case of open surgery, an incision is made in the skin near the bulging area. It requires a longer recovery process.
Laparoscopic surgery uses a camera and miniaturized surgical equipment to repair the hernia by making two to four small incisions in the abdomen. This method is less damaging to the surrounding tissue and has much shorter recovery time.

Almost all of the hernias can be treated Laparoscopically, but as many surgeons are not well trained in Laparoscopic hernia repair they do not recommend the procedure. So it's imperative you seek out a good minimally invasive surgical specialist.

Is there an alternative to surgery?

There is no other treatment apart from surgery for a hernia (imagine you have a hole in a cloth, the only way to repair it is with a thread (darning) or a patch).

Exercising regularly, losing weight or taking medications will not eliminate a hernia. Some patients feel that wearing a hernia belt will help ease the discomfort, but it will not help your hernia go away. It will only provide temporary relief. Only surgery provides a permanent and effective solution.

1942 people found this helpful

Femoral Hernia Surgery - Know More About It!

Dr. Amitava Chakraborty 89% (13 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Surgeon, Kolkata
Femoral Hernia Surgery -  Know More About It!
Chronic coughing can cause femoral hernia? True or False? Take this quiz to find out.
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Laparoscopic Surgery For Inguinal Hernia!

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Fellowship of Indian Association of Gastrointestinal Endo Surgeons (FIAGES
Laparoscopic Surgeon, Gurgaon
Laparoscopic Surgery For Inguinal Hernia!

A hernia occurs when a weakened area of muscle in the abdominal wall gives way and the internal organ/tissue bulges out through this weakened are or ‘defect'. This can happen in many different areas of the abdomen. A hernia that develops in the groin region is called "an inguinal hernia". It may be very painful especially if a part of the intestine gets trapped in the bulge.

The only treatment option is surgical repair as the weakened area "defect" needs to be repaired and will likely need reinforcement by a prosthetic material called a "mesh". Doctors may resort to Open Surgery or Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair depending on his/her evaluation of the patient.

Who is a candidate for Laparoscopic surgery?

Laparoscopic surgery is the preferred treatment option for most people with an inguinal hernia. Special situations in which laparoscopic surgery is much superior to open are

  • Failure of a previous open surgical repair. Laparoscopic surgery is performed from "behind" a hernia and abdominal wall in comparison to open surgery which is performed from "the front". So, in case of failure of the open surgery, laparoscopic surgery is done through a fresh, non-scarred area and is technically safer and easier than doing an open surgery once again.
  • If there are hernias on both sides and both need to be repaired at the same time, laparoscopy has a great advantage as both the hernias can be tackled and repaired through the same three tiny cuts, and two separate large incisions need not be made.

Who is Not a Candidate for Laparoscopic Surgery?

The person is not a candidate for Laparoscopic Surgery if he has:

  • Some patients who have undergone previous Abdominal Surgery or prostate surgery may not be suitable candidates for laparoscopic inguinal hernia surgery.
  • Some underlying medical conditions, that make him unfit for general anesthesia, as usually laparoscopic surgery can only be done under general anesthesia.

How Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Is Carried Out?

In a Laparoscopic Intervention, two to three small incisions are made in the lower abdominal area. The laparoscope is passed through one of these incisions and the surgical instruments are inserted through the other incisions. The abdominal cavity is inflated using Carbon Dioxide to help the surgeon visualize the lower abdominal area clearly. Using the laparoscope, the surgeon visualizes the Hernia and uses long instruments to operate on it. She covers a hernia with a mesh and may fix the mesh to abdominal muscles using either stitches or stapler-like instruments.

Benefits of Laparoscopic Surgery

1. Two or three tiny cuts (5-10 mm in size), hence there is less pain after laparoscopic surgery

2. Better cosmetic results

3. Quicker recovery

4. Early return to daily activities like walking, working, etc

5. Shorter hospital stay

Role of Laparoscopic Surgeon In comparison to many other minimally invasive surgeries:

Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair is more demanding in terms of technical capability of the surgeon. In general, Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair is more difficult to carry out in obese people than others. However, if the doctor is well trained and technically advanced with long experience, he can carry out such minimally invasive surgeries smoothly irrespective of the BMI of the patient. Everybody is not a candidate for Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair.

It is the doctor who decides if a particular patient is suitable for such surgery or not. However, the conclusive factor in any such repair is the experience and expertise of the doctor. This is why there are not many Laparoscopic Surgeons who carry out Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repairs. Owing to the complexity of this procedure, it is important to get it done from an expert surgeon only.

3335 people found this helpful

Hernia Surgery - 13 Effective Tips To Help You Recover Quickly!

Dr. Harshad Mahatme 85% (10 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, Fellowship In Laparoscopic & Bariatric Surgery, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Surgeon, Nashik
Hernia Surgery - 13 Effective Tips To Help You Recover Quickly!

Hernia surgery is performed for the correction of a hernia which refers to the bulging of internal organs or tissues through an abnormal opening. It is easy to detect hernia through any pain or discomfort while lifting heavy objects, coughand strain during urination or bowel movements or during prolonged standing or sitting.

It can be found in both men and women. The Hernia can be congenital or can be developed over a period of time. If it doesn’t get better over time and also does not go away by itself, then surgery becomes the only option.

Types of Surgery:

There are two types of surgery for hernia treatment. One is the conventional open method, which requires an incision in the skin directly over the hernia. The other one is the Laparoscopic hernia repair in which surgery is performed using a small telescope known as a laparoscope.

In this type of surgery minimal invasions are made and the hernia is repaired with only small incisions adjacent to the hernia. Most hernia operations are performed on an outpatient basis, which means that you can go home the very same day.

Tips for early recovery:

  1. Wear comfortable clothing with expandable waistbands.
  2. Keep yourself active by moving around as much as you can as it increases circulation, which further speeds up healing.
  3. Eat a diet rich in fibre, fresh fruits and vegetables.
  4. Drink lots of water and other fluids to avoid constipation.
  5. Do not lift any objects even if it is very light as it can bring back pain.
  6. Do not to pick up things from the floor as it will be difficult to bend.
  7. Hold a pillow against your stomach while sneezing or coughing to lessen the pain.
  8. Use stool softener for a few days before and after surgery to help you with your bowel movements.
  9. Avoid driving till the time you feel any pain and as long as you are taking narcotic pain medicines.
  10. Band-Aids which cover the incisions should be changed as and when needed.
  11. Refrain yourself from intercourse as it can be painful.
  12. Check with your doctor when to take a shower so as not to hurt your incisions, and make sure to gently dry your incisions and replace the Band-Aids after taking a shower.
  13. Do not consume any alcoholic drinks for at least 24 hours.

The tips mentioned above will definitely provide help to cope up with post surgery blues. However, in case of fever, excessive sweating, difficulty in urinating, bleeding or any prolonged pain consult your doctor immediately.

2812 people found this helpful

Hernia Surgery - 13 Effective Tips For A Speedy Recovery!

MCh - Pediatric Surgery, MRCS, MS - General Surgery, Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery(FMAS) & Reproductive Medicine, MBBS
General Surgeon, Hyderabad
Hernia Surgery - 13 Effective Tips For A Speedy Recovery!

Hernia surgery is performed for the correction of a hernia which refers to the bulging of internal organs or tissues through an abnormal opening. It is easy to detect hernia through any pain or discomfort while lifting heavy objects, coughand strain during urination or bowel movements or during prolonged standing or sitting.

It can be found in both men and women. The Hernia can be congenital or can be developed over a period of time. If it doesn’t get better over time and also does not go away by itself, then surgery becomes the only option.

Types of Surgery
There are two types of surgery for hernia treatment. One is the conventional open method, which requires an incision in the skin directly over the hernia. The other one is the Laparoscopic hernia repair in which surgery is performed using a small telescope known as a laparoscope.

In this type of surgery minimal invasions are made and the hernia is repaired with only small incisions adjacent to the hernia. Most hernia operations are performed on an outpatient basis, which means that you can go home the very same day.

Tips for early recovery:

  1. Wear comfortable clothing with expandable waistbands.
  2. Keep yourself active by moving around as much as you can as it increases circulation, which further speeds up healing.
  3. Eat a diet rich in fibre, fresh fruits and vegetables.
  4. Drink lots of water and other fluids to avoid constipation.
  5. Do not lift any objects even if it is very light as it can bring back pain.
  6. Do not to pick up things from the floor as it will be difficult to bend.
  7. Hold a pillow against your stomach while sneezing or coughing to lessen the pain.
  8. Use stool softener for a few days before and after surgery to help you with your bowel movements.
  9. Avoid driving till the time you feel any pain and as long as you are taking narcotic pain medicines.
  10. Band-Aids which cover the incisions should be changed as and when needed.
  11. Refrain yourself from intercourse as it can be painful.
  12. Check with your doctor when to take a shower so as not to hurt your incisions, and make sure to gently dry your incisions and replace the Band-Aids after taking a shower.
  13. Do not consume any alcoholic drinks for at least 24 hours.

The tips mentioned above will definitely provide help to cope up with post surgery blues. However, in case of fever, excessive sweating, difficulty in urinating, bleeding or any prolonged pain consult your doctor immediately.

1982 people found this helpful

Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair !

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, DNB, FNB - Minimal Access Surgery, MRCS, FIAGES, FMAS.Laparoscopy, FALS Bariatric Surgery
Laparoscopic Surgeon, Mumbai
Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair !

Hernia occurs when a weakened area of muscle in the abdominal wall gives way and the internal organ/tissue bulges out through this weakened are or ‘defect'.This can happen in many different areas of the abdomen. A hernia that develops in the groin region is called "inguinal hernia".It may be very painful especially if a part of the intestine gets trapped in the bulge.

The only treatment option is surgical repair as the weakened area "defect" needs to be repaired and will likely need reinforcement by a prosthetic material called a "mesh".Doctors may resort to Open Surgery or Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair depending on his/her evaluation of the patient.

Who is a candidate for Laparoscopic surgery?

Laparoscopic surgery is the preferred treatment option for most people with inguinal hernia. Special situations in which laparoscopic surgery is much superior to open are

Failure of a previous open surgical repair. Laparoscopic surgery is performed from "behind" the hernia and abdominal wall in comparison to open surgery which is performed from "the front".So, in case of failure of the open surgery, laparoscopic surgery is done through a fresh, non-scarred area and is technically safer and easier than doing an open surgery once again.

If there are hernias on both sides and both need to be repaired at the same time, laparoscopy has a great advantage as both the hernias can be tackled and repaired through the same three tiny cuts, and two separate large incisions need not be made.

Who is Not a Candidate for Laparoscopic Surgery?

The person is not a candidate for Laparoscopic Surgery if he has:

  • Some patients who have undergone previous Abdominal Surgery or prostate surgery may not be suitable candidates for laparoscopic inguinal hernia surgery.
  • Some underlying medical conditions, that make him unfit for general anaesthesia, as usually laparoscopic surgery can only be done under general anaesthesia.

How Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Is Carried Out?

In a Laparoscopic Intervention, two to three small incisions are made in the lower abdominal area. The laparoscope is passed through one of these incisions and the surgical instruments are inserted through the other incisions. The abdominal cavity is inflated using Carbon Dioxide to help the surgeon visualize the lower abdominal area clearly. Using the laparoscope, the surgeon visualizes the Hernia and uses long instruments to operate on it. She covers the hernia with a mesh and may fix the mesh to abdominal muscles using either stitches or stapler-like instruments.

Benefits of Laparoscopic Surgery

  1. Two or three tiny cuts (5-10 mm in size), hence there is less pain after laparoscopic surgery
  2. Better cosmetic results
  3. Quicker recovery
  4. Early return to daily activities like walking, working, etc
  5. Shorter hospital stay

Role of Laparoscopic Surgeon In comparison to many other minimally invasive surgeries:

Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair is more demanding in terms of the technical capability of the surgeon. In general, Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair is more difficult to carry out in obese people than others. However, if the doctor is well trained and technically advanced with long experience, he can carry out such minimally invasive surgeries smoothly irrespective of the BMI of the patient. Everybody is not a candidate for Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair.

It is the doctor who decides if a particular patient is suitable for such surgery or not. However, the conclusive factor in any such repair is the experience and expertise of the doctor. This is why there are not many Laparoscopic Surgeons who carry out Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repairs. Owing to the complexity of this procedure, it is important to get it done from an expert surgeon only.

4114 people found this helpful

Types of Hernia - Can Laparoscopy Be Of Any Help?

Dr. Nitin Jha 89% (19 ratings)
FAIS, FIAGES, MS - General Surgery, MBBS
General Surgeon, Noida
Types of Hernia - Can Laparoscopy Be Of Any Help?

Laparoscopy surgery is a very vital component of the hernia repair. Studies have shown that many patients have a better outcome when they opt for laparoscopic surgery. Candidates eligible for this mode of surgery include those with bilateral inguinal hernias, ventral hernias, and recurrent hernia. People associated with athletics and other outdoor sports prefer to go for a laparoscopic hernia surgery as it ensures a speedy recovery and minimal tissue invasion (due to small incisions).

Laparoscopic hernia repair- inguinal
A laparoscopic surgery requires an incision of 1-2 cm at the belly (at the lower end). Two small punctures are done near the umbilicus. The punctures are done to make room for the cameras so that the surgeon is able to view the abdomen clearly. The smaller incisions allows the operating instrument to enter into the stomach.

The Procedure:
A balloon is placed in between the abdomen and the overlying muscle so that the peritoneum can be separated. When space is successfully made, the camera comes into the action to view the condition of a hernia. A hernia is pulled from its hole into the abdomen. Once the hole is detected, the defect of a hernia is fixed.

Laparoscopic hernia repair- incisional/ventral: Laparoscopic hernia repair is suitable for all types of a hernia such as an umbilical hernia, ventral hernia, recurrent umbilical hernia, epigastric hernia etc. Just like an inguinal hernia, A camera is placed into the abdomen through the muscles. Two small incisions are made for the operating instruments to get through. This is followed by the cutting of the tissue that is placed between a hernia and the intestine. The hole thus gets exposed. Through one of the laparoscopic ports, the hernia mesh gets rolled and is placed into the abdomen. A hernia is then pulled up and the mesh gets secured with 4 sutures. A special device is used to fix the healthy muscle.

Tension free repair: “Tension free” repair is often used to symbolize hernia surgery. A hernia is often triggered by the weakened muscles. Few surgeons endeavors to sew the muscle around the area of a hernia. Since the muscles surrounding the hernia are weak in the first place, they pull apart causing a recurrence of a hernia. To avoid this, most surgeons use a mesh to strengthen the cells around the hernia region. This procedure ensures that the muscles aren’t sewn but the mesh placed over the hole can prevent the muscle to push through the walls of the abdomen.

The use of mesh: There are some reservations about using the mesh in a hernia surgery. However, this is the safest and most appropriate way to perform a hernia laparoscopic surgery. The use of a mesh also negates the risk of open incisions and recurrence of a hernia.

1576 people found this helpful

Overview - Inguinal Hernia

Dr. Gaurav Bansal 93% (2291 ratings)
MBBS, MS-General Surgery , FMAS, FIAGES
General Surgeon, Gurgaon

Overview - INGUINAL HERNIA

An inguinal hernia occurs when tissue, such as part of the intestine, protrudes through a weak spot in the abdominal muscles. The resulting bulge can be painful, especially when you cough, bend over or lift a heavy object.An inguinal hernia isn't necessarily dangerous, however, it can lead to life-threatening complications. Inguinal hernia repair is a common surgical procedure.    

Symptoms

  • A bulge in the area on either side of your pubic bone, which becomes more obvious when you're upright, especially if you cough or strain .
  • A burning or aching sensation at the bulge   
  • Pain or discomfort in your groin, especially when bending over, coughing or lifting    
  • A heavy or dragging sensation in your groin    
  • Occasionally, pain and swelling around the testicles when the protruding intestine descends into the scrotum
  • You should be able to gently push the hernia back into your abdomen when you're lying down.

Incarcerated hernia

If you aren't able to push the hernia in, the contents of the hernia can be trapped (incarcerated) in the abdominal wall. An incarcerated hernia can become strangulated, which cuts off the blood flow to the tissue that's trapped. A strangulated hernia can be life-threatening if it isn't treated.

Signs and symptoms of a strangulated hernia 

  • Nausea, vomiting 
  • Fever    
  • Sudden pain that quickly intensifies    
  • A hernia bulge that turns red, purple or dark
  • Inability to move your bowels or pass gas

Signs and symptoms in children

  • Inguinal hernias in newborns and children result from a weakness in the abdominal wall that's present at birth. Sometimes the hernia will be visible only when an infant is crying, coughing or straining. 
  • In an older child, a hernia is likely to be more apparent when the child coughs, strains during a bowel movement or stands for a long period.
  • Seek immediate medical care if a hernia bulge turns red, purple or dark.

Causes

  • Some inguinal hernias have no apparent cause. 
  • Increased pressure within the abdomen    
  • A pre-existing weak spot in the abdominal wall
  • Straining during bowel movements or urination    
  • Strenuous activity    
  • Pregnancy    
  • Smoking
  • Inguinal hernias develop later in life when muscles weaken or deteriorate due to aging, strenuous physical activity or coughing that accompanies smoking.

Risk factors

  • Male. Men are eight times more likely to develop an inguinal hernia than are women.   
  • Old age
  • Family history.
  • Chronic cough, such as from smoking.    
  • Chronic constipation.
  • Pregnancy.

Complications

1. Pressure on surrounding tissues

Most inguinal hernias enlarge over time if not repaired surgically. In men, large hernias can extend into the scrotum, causing pain and swelling.    

2. Incarcerated hernia

If the contents of the hernia become trapped in the weak point in the abdominal wall, it can obstruct the bowel, leading to severe pain, nausea, vomiting, and the inability to have a bowel movement or pass gas.    

3. Strangulation

An incarcerated hernia can cut off blood flow to part of your intestine. Strangulation can lead to the death of the affected bowel tissue. A strangulated hernia is life-threatening and requires immediate surgery.           

Diagnosis

A physical exam is usually all that's needed to diagnose an inguinal hernia. Your doctor will check for a bulge in the groin area. 

.If the diagnosis isn't readily apparent, your doctor might order an imaging test, such as an abdominal ultrasound, CT scan or MRI.                                

Treatment

If your hernia is small and isn't bothering you, your doctor might recommend watchful waiting. 

Enlarging or painful hernias usually require surgery to relieve discomfort and prevent serious complications.

There are two general types of hernia operations — open hernia repair and laparoscopic repair.                Open hernia repair - In this procedure, which might be done with spinal anesthesia or general anesthesia, the surgeon makes an incision in your groin and pushes the protruding tissue back into your abdomen. The surgeon then sews the weakened area, often reinforcing it with a synthetic mesh (hernioplasty). The opening is then closed with stitches, staples or surgical glue.After the surgery, you'll be encouraged to move about as soon as possible, but it might be several weeks before you're able to resume normal activities.  

COMPARISON OF OPEN AND LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY

Laparoscopy

In this minimally invasive procedure, which requires general anesthesia, the surgeon operates through several small incisions in your abdomen. Gas is used to inflate your abdomen to make the internal organs easier to see.A tiny camera (laparoscope) is inserted into one incision. Guided by the camera, the surgeon inserts tiny instruments through other incisions to repair the hernia using synthetic mesh.People who have laparoscopic repair might have less discomfort and scarring after surgery and a quicker return to normal activities.

It also might be a good choice for people with hernias on both sides of the body (bilateral).

 

 

 

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