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Skin Graft - Know Forms Of It!

M Ch. Plastic Surgery, MS - General Surgery, MBBS
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Durg
Skin Graft - Know Forms Of It!

Skin graft is a form of a surgical procedure, which involves removal of the skin of a particular region of the body and transplanting it to a different body portion or to a separate individual. Grafting is usually recommended by the doctor if the patient has suffered from extreme burns or the protective layering of the skin of that particular region has been damaged because of extreme illness, bed sores sustained infection on the skin or repeated injuries. Grafting is also recommended as a procedure for nose and breast reconstruction surgeries. It is usually done with the help of local anaesthesia, making the procedure a less painful one.

There are two types of skin grafting procedures:
1. Split-level thickness grafts: The grafting in this procedure deals with the elimination of the epidermis and just a part of the dermis from the site of the healthy skin. These grafts are used to cover generally a large portion of the body. This form of grafting does not develop significantly with the other portions of the skin, so doctors recommend more split-level thickness grafts as the person ages. The grafts happen to be delicate, glossy and faded in comparison to the rest of the skin.

2. Full-thickness grafts: In this procedure, the grafting involves the subsequent removal of the blood vessels and the muscles along with the two skin layers from the donor site. This form of grafting is particularly useful in reconstructing small damages on the exposed portions of the body such as the face. This type adjusts well with the other portions of the skin and subsequently tends to merge with the rest of the skin.

The procedure will begin with the implementation of intravenous therapy (IV) on your wrist or hand on the day of the surgery. This therapy helps the doctor to provide you with the necessary medicines and fluids at any point of the surgery. Just a few minutes before the operation, the doctor will inject general anaesthesia through IV. After removal of the skin, preferably from the unexposed portions of the body, such as thigh and buttocks in the case of a split-level thickness graft and the abdomen and the chest in case of a full-thickness graft, the healthy skin is transplanted at the damaged spot and is fixed by subsequent stitching and dressing. The donor site will also be covered by appropriate dressing to prevent any further infection. After the completion of the surgery, it is recommended to take a few days’ rest before getting on with your daily life routine.

992 people found this helpful

Hand Pain - How Surgery Can Help?

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics, Fellowship in Hand Micro Surgery
Orthopedic Doctor, Ahmedabad
Hand Pain - How Surgery Can Help?

Hand pain is very common and usually results from an injury or overuse of the wrist or the hand. However, recurring or persistent pain in the arms or hand may be an indication of an underlying condition. The wrist and hand contain many joints, bones, and connective tissues - tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and nerves. An injury to your hand can mangle these structures and even disrupt your hand’s normal range of motion.

What are the possible causes of hand injuries? The common causes of hand injuries may include -

  • Blows and knocks
  • Jamming a finger
  • Bending the wrist or fingers backward
  • Repetitive strain - lifting heavy weights, playing a sport, typing for a long period
  • Dislocations and fractures due to a severe blow or fall
  • Certain medical conditions such as - Ganglion cyst, trigger finger, Carpal tunnel syndrome, arthritis, and others

Symptoms You Should Look Out for Hand injuries are often a debilitating condition, and exhibit the following symptoms -

  • A sharp, stabbing pain
  • A tingling sensation in the forearms
  • Numbness and swelling
  • Difficulty holding heavy objects
  • Difficulty making a fist
  • Stiffness or loss of movement

When to See a Doctor In most cases, hand pain due to a minor injury heals on its own in a day or two. However, you should not overlook the condition if the symptoms are long-lasting. Ideally, you should visit an orthopedic if -

  • The pain does not reduce in 2-3days
  • If the symptoms deteriorate
  • If the wrist or hand pain does not respond to medications

Can surgery help treat hand injuries? If the initial treatment methods - RICE therapy and pain medications - fail to yield desired results, then your doctor may recommend surgery. There are several types of hand surgery. The doctor will analyze the underlying cause of the pain and perform an appropriate procedure.

  • Skin Grafts - The procedure involves replacing skin on the injured area of your hand with healthier skin from any other portion of the body, known as the donor site. This type of surgery is done for fingertip injuries or amputations.
  • Closed Reduction and Fixation - This procedure is recommended if you have suffered a bone fracture on the fingertips. The surgery restores the broken bones to its former position and holds it in place while it heals. Immobilization can be done using rods, splints, casts and wires.
  • Tendon Repairs - The most difficult type of hand surgery is the tendon repair surgery owing to the structure of the tendons. The surgeon will carefully make a couple of incisions in your skin and sew the ends of the damaged, torn tendons together. In order to ensure that the nerves and blood vessels are not damaged, he/she will examine the surrounding tissues, and then, close the incision. To allow the wounds to heal, the surgeon will cover the treated area with dressings or sterile bandages.
  • Fasciotomy - The surgeon makes incisions or cuts in your arm or hand and removes damaged tissues to relieve pressure and swelling. This prevents your hand from further damage and helps restore the functioning of the affected area.
  • Arthroplasty - This surgical procedure is usually prescribed for patients suffering from severe hand arthritis. It involves replacing a diseased joint with an artificial one, usually made up of plastic, metal, or silicon.

What to Expect Following the Surgery? Recovery after the procedure depends largely on the type of hand surgery you have had. Sometimes, you may have to undergo multiple surgeries to ensure that the pain is cured completely. You will likely feel pain ranging from severe to mild after the surgery, for which your doctor will prescribe pain medications. This usually eases the pain in a week. To help you get back to daily activities, your doctor may also recommend physiotherapy.

Surgery is the most effective treatment option to ease pain associated with severe hand injuries. If you have been suffering from recurring/persistent pain, and are looking for a permanent cure, then you should consider visiting a specialist.

2389 people found this helpful

Breast Implants - Know More About It!

Advanced Aesthetics, M.Ch - Plastic Surgery, MS - General Surgery, MBBS
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Indore

Breast Augmentation.

Breast Enlargement is one of the most frequently performed surgeries. No medicines or creams work to increase breast Size. Enlargement can be done with fat grafting or silicone breast implants.

Breast Enlargement & Breast tightening is done by enlarging it with silicone breast implant or Fat graft.

Silicone implants are the gold standard world over, a very short operative procedure with very gratifying results. The creams and capsules have never actually worked, but since everyone is not immediately ready for surgery so the companies use these gimmicks to market their products. If there is a lack of substance then augmentation with a silicone implant is the best choice and a gold standard procedure. It is a day care procedure and you are discharged in a very short time from the hospital and it brings about an instant change in breast size and self-esteem. Almost 10 crore implants are in use and so it is extremely safe.  There is no medication to give the results. No one wants surgery unless it is necessary. NO Creams or Pills actually work except psychologically. Surgery is the only answer. Like nose or face breast also comes in all shapes and sizes. Size does not matter from a functional point of view but has an emotional side to it.

The surgery is almost painless because there are enough medications to keep the pain under control. There is no natural way to increase Breast size, except that after childbirth the size may become and remain bigger.

2 people found this helpful

Septoplasty - What Are The Procedure For it?

ENT Specialist, Delhi
Septoplasty - What Are The Procedure For it?

The nasal septum divides the nose into the two nostrils or airways. When this septum is defective in structure or position, it can cause several physical difficulties like breathing problems, sleep apnea, bleeding, sinusitis, etc. The surgery to correct the nasal septum is known as septoplasty. The surgery is very common and has a high rate of success.


When the bone and cartilage separating the two chambers is crooked and deformed, it prevents the air from flowing properly through either one of the nostrils. The people suffering from this condition often take to breathing through their mouth and this leads to respiratory tract infections. So, the septum is fixed with the help of septoplasty.


1. First, your medical history is taken, a thorough physical examination is conducted and the nose is photographed from the inside and the outside. You may also be asked to avoid medication like ibuprofen, naproxen and aspirin for a few days since these can increase the bleeding after surgery. 
2. Septoplasty is performed under general or localized anesthesia and takes about 90 minutes. Incisions are made on the inside of the nose and the mucous membrane is lifted. 
3. Then, the pieces of cartilage that are affecting normal functioning are repositioned or removed. 
4. If the nasal bone is causing the septum to be wrongly aligned, then cuts are made on the bone and it is positioned correctly. 
5. Sometimes, cartilage grafts (called spreader grafts) are put in between the upper nose cartilage and the septum to widen the narrow nostril. 
6. After this, the mucous membrane is put back in place and stitched.

Post-surgical care

Nasal support is put inside the nose to help it heal and keep it straight. The support is removed after two days but there may be swelling and occasional nasal discharge for a few days. The tissues and cartilage become stable within 4 to 6 months.
You are asked not to blow your nose or cough and sneeze too much as these might displace the nasal support. The head is to be kept at a higher level than the rest of the body while sleeping and physically demanding exercises are to be avoided in order to prevent nosebleeds.


Septoplasty is not performed if the patient had a high level of blood sugar or high blood pressure. It is also delayed in case of any kind of infection in the nose, mouth or in the respiratory tract.

2267 people found this helpful

Craniofacial Surgery - Knowing The Causes & Risks Involved!

Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Mumbai
Craniofacial Surgery - Knowing The Causes & Risks Involved!

A craniofacial surgery is required when there are deformities or abnormalities present in the head or face area of the patient. Depending on the type of deformity, a craniofacial surgery is done to repair or reconstruct it.

The areas that come under a craniofacial surgeon's domain are the cranium(skull), the brain, the face, skin on the face, facial bones, and the nerves. For this reason, in order to conduct craniofacial surgery, a neurosurgeon and a cosmetic surgeon may often work together.

The time taken for completing a craniofacial surgery may vary between four hours and twelve hours.

Why do you need a craniofacial surgery?

There may be multiple reasons why a patient would require craniofacial surgery. These are:

  1. Tumors in the head or face region are one of the most common causes behind this type of surgery. The surgeries conducted to remove these tumors may sometimes lead to the formation of deformities in the region. A craniofacial surgery is conducted in order to correct them.
  2. This kind of surgery can also be used to correct abnormalities formed as a result of injuries or wounds on the face, the jaw or the head.
  3. Some patients may also undergo a craniofacial surgery in order to correct defects that they were born with. Such defects include Apert Syndrome (a syndrome characterized by the premature fusion of certain bones in the skull), cleft palate or cleft lip and craniosynotosis (premature fusion of certain bones in the skull).

Risks related to Craniofacial Surgery:

Certain risks are associated with this type of surgery. These are:

  1. A craniofacial surgery is conducted after putting the patient under general anesthesia. As a result of this, the patient may suffer from breathing problems, blood clots, infections and blood loss. He or she may also react to the medicine in an unwanted way.
  2. As a result of the surgery, the patient may also lose their bone grafts partly or wholly. He or she may go through cranial nerve dysfunction or damage in the brain. The formation of permanent scars is another possible risk of a craniofacial surgery. Some patients, especially children who are of growing age, may need a follow up surgery later on.
  3. Certain patients can face more risks as compared to other patients. These include patients who are malnourished, or suffer from other illnesses like lupus. Those that have suffered nerve damage in the past are likelier to develop complications. Smoking is also another risk factor.
3142 people found this helpful

Open Heart Surgery - What All Should You Know

Cardiothoracic Vascular Surgery, Patna
Open Heart Surgery - What All Should You Know

Open heart surgery is a complicated heart procedure. Howeevr, it is still an important surgical procedure to fix critical heart ailments.

Here is a quick fact-checker about this procedure:

  • The Coronary Artery Bypass Graft or CABG is one of the frequently performed procedures in the open-heart surgery space. This is a procedure that is related to fixing the blocked arteries of the heart. A study conducted by the National Institutes of Health revealed that most patients who had undergone CABG become angina-free within a span of five years.
  • Many hospitals refuse to share any data related to the surgery. It makes sense to run a background check on the surgeon who is scheduled to perform the procedure. Society of Thoracic Surgery lists all doctors and the number of procedures they have performed in this space.
  • This is one of the few surgeries where a doctor needs to make a deep incision close to 2-2.5 inch through the breastbone to separate muscle and get access to the heart.
  • The recent trend is that the doctor can achieve the same result with beating heart CABG where heart does not need to be stopped just to avoid the complications of heart lung machine Once the procedure is over, the doctor closes the incision made through the breastbone with sternal wires. Subsequently, the patient is taken off from the heart-lung machine.
  • The patient might find himself tangled with many tubes as he wakes for the first time after the surgery. These wires take the fluid out of the body. They serve as a temporary pacemaker for the patient.
  • It is important to get a clarification from the surgeon as to from which location of the body would the veins be taken from to perform CABG. Most doctors prefer the vein from the leg.
  • The patient is kept in an ICU for a couple of days before he is shifted to the general ward where he spends close to a couple of weeks before he is released. After the patient gets home, the typical recovery time for the patient is approximately 6-8 weeks.
  • One has to usually deal with heightened emotions after an open-heart surgery. 
5628 people found this helpful

6 Different Way to Treat Fistula - Choose Right One

MD - Acupuncture, Diploma In Accupuncture, Advanced Diploma In Accupuncture
Acupuncturist, Delhi
6 Different Way to Treat Fistula  - Choose Right One

If you are suffering from a fistula problem which is an abnormal tunnel or tract that connects one surface in the body to another. Fistulas are two types: anal fistula and rectovaginal fistula. Here we discuss various methods to treat fistula with and without surgery options. But before that, we need to understand the right cause of fistula so that the right treatment can be selected.

Causes of Fistula

  • Bacterial infections
  • Damage to surrounding intramuscular tissue
  • Cancer of the rectum
  • Crohn’s disease 

These are some causes of fistula if you are also suffering from fistula due to the mentioned reason then you can also select the best treatment for the fistula problem.

6 Best Treatment of Fistula

To treat fistula problem here with discuss a method that offers no stitches and cut while treating fistula problem:

  1. Homeopathic Treatment of Fistula
  2. Acupuncture Treatment of Fistula
  3. Psychotherapy Treatment of Fistula
  4. Surgical Treatment of Fistula
  5. Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Fistula
  6. Alternative Treatment of Fistula

Homeopathic Treatment of Fistula

The homeopathic medicines first work to control the infection in the area thereby preventing attacks of the abscess formation. Homeopathy is popular in curing fistula. Some of the homeopathic remedies for fistula are:

  • Aur M
  • Calc P
  • Silicea
  • Nit Ac
  • Berb
  • Sil 

Acupuncture Treatment of Fistula

Acupuncture therapy is very helpful for decrease the Swelling and tenderness Acupuncture has become a common therapeutic procedure for pain control worldwide. 

Psychotherapy and Hypnotherapy Treatment of Fistula

Psychotherapy and hypnotherapy can relieve stress and anxiety. Sessions are normally hourly, each week or fortnight. 

Surgical Treatment of Fistula

The surgical procedure involves getting rid of the fistula tract and sewing together the surrounding healthy tissue to close the opening. A tissue graft from a nearby part of the body may be needed. liquid diet for several days before the surgery may be necessary. Right before the surgery, the patient will also get an enema. 

Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Fistula

  • A high-fiber diet
  • Eat plenty of light, vitamin-rich foods
  • Eat fresh vegetables and fruits 

Alternative Treatment of Fistula Problem

Yoga therapy offers another effective way for treatment fistula. Magnetic therapy is another effective way used regularly in the treatment fistula. 

Risk factors of Fistula

  • Sex: male
  • Crohn’s disease 

Complications of Fistula

  • Severe Infection
  • Anal Sphincter muscle damage 

Diagnosis of Fistula

The doctor will ask about symptoms and medical history and perform a physical exam. The doctor may need to examine the rectum by a gloved finger to determine the presence of a deeper abscess or swelling.

Precautions & Prevention During Fistula

  • Establish normal eating habits
  • Timely treatment of anal sinus and anal papillitis
  • Control constipation and diarrhea

Update From Lybrate: To keep your Gut Health on track and to avoid constipation and gastric troubles, we suggest you to buy Gut Care products available on Lybrate at affordable prices.

3 people found this helpful

I have gum reduction in some teeth. Did I need gum grafting or need to maintain just oral hygiene? I am 26 year of age male.

Dentist, Bareilly
I have gum reduction in some teeth. Did I need gum grafting or need to maintain just oral hygiene? I am 26 year of ag...
Dear lybrate-user, gum recession could be because of the deposit of calculus on your teeth and around gum line. Visit your dentist for checkup and oral prophylaxis. Depending on the extent of gum recession, it can be treated just by Scaling procedure or other treatment modalities. Grafting is needed in severe cases where even after Scaling you don't get satisfactory results.
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Burns And Wounds - 5 Surgical Alternatives For It!

MCh - Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, DNB (Plastic Surgery)
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Aurangabad
Burns And Wounds - 5 Surgical Alternatives For It!

Plasic Surgical Alternatives For Burns & other wounds: The branch of plastic surgery that deals with treatment of burns and other wounds is known as reconstructive plastic surgery. There are numerous surgical conditions that fall under this category. What are medical issues caused by burns and wounds? 

Some of the most frequent problems that are caused by burns and similar wounds are as follows: 

  1. Restriction of mobility 
  2. Aesthetic disfigurement and scarring 
  3. Loss of sensation in the affected area 

The different issues are caused by varying kinds of burns and injuries and, hence, each case must be approached in a different manner for remedy. 

Different kinds of plastic surgeries that are used for treatment 

Depending on the nature of the injury, your plastic surgeon may opt for any of the following surgical methods for treating the problem. 

  1. Skin Grafting: In this procedure, partial layer of skin is removed from one part of the body and transplanted to the affected area. This method is used for the treatment of burns. This is called as split-thickness graft
  2. Skin Flap: In this method of reconstruction, entire dermis & subcutaneous tissue are used with its own blood supply. Skin flaps are occasionally used for breast and nose reconstruction. 
  3. Microsurgery: This type of surgery makes the use of a microscope in reconstructive procedures for working on minuscule veins, arteries, and nerves for repairing damaged areas. Microsurgery is often used alongside other surgical procedures for re-attaching amputated body parts like fingers, hand, foot, leg , scalp ,etc treating paralysis of the face and in the reconstruction of breasts, etc. 
  4. Tissue Expansion: This method is used to induce growth of extra skin on the body that can be used for reconstructive purposes. This is done by inserting a balloon expander underneath the skin that slowly gets filled with saline solution and makes the skin stretch & expand. This excess generated skin is then used for correction or reconstruction of the affected area. 
  5. Free Flap Procedure: This microsurgery procedure involves the transfer of skin, bone, muscle along with blood vessels from the donor area to the damaged area for repairing purposes. This is used most frequently for breast reconstruction or after the removal of cancer from the face & neck. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon.
3625 people found this helpful

Eyelid Surgery - Using Eyelid Spacer Grafts

M.Ch (Plastic)
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Chennai
Eyelid Surgery - Using Eyelid Spacer Grafts

Eyelid spacer grafts are widely used by cosmetic surgeons for treating abnormalities in the lower eyelid. Spacer grafts are surgically used for tectonic support. Spacer grafts are scientific and the technology used helps in virally inactivating tissues, and also in the preservation and sterilization of tissues. They are immunologically and biologically safe. Eyelid spacer grafts are commonly used after undergoing a blepharoplasty surgery of the eyelids

When are eyelid spacer grafts used?
Many people have puffy and fat eyelids. Lower eyelid blepharoplasty is a cosmetic surgery, which effectively cures such disorders. The process involves removal of extra fat and skin from the lower eyelids and trimming of excess skin. Eyelid retraction is another condition pertaining to the eyelids, where the eyelids look like they have been pulled down. This condition arises from the removal of too much skin during blepharoplasty. Loose ligament support and excess scarring in the eyelids also lead to eyelid retraction. When this condition does not cease in the post- operational period, eyelid spacer grafts may be used.

Benefits of eyelid spacer grafts

  • Eyelid spacer grafts are effective and helpful in a large number of conditions. The major benefit of spacer grafts is to repair lowered eye retraction after carrying out a blepharoplasty surgery.
  • The eyelids are lengthened vertically as a result of using eyelid spacer grafts. This helps in better closure of the lids and also reduces eye irritation in patients.
  • The eyelids are made to look more natural when they are in resting position. Spacer grafts are placed at the back of an eyelid. Thus, they are not visible from the outside.
  • The recovery time after using eyelid spacer grafts is almost the same as most eyelid surgeries in general. The results are usually very effective.
  • Eyelid space grafters are not the only ones used for repairing eyelid retraction, but these are certainly one of the most efficient ones. They give proper support to the lower eyelid, which is required for the proper closure of the eyelids and maintain proper eyelid positioning after a blepharoplasty surgery.
  • Eyelid spacer grafts ensure permanent cure of eyelid retraction, and it is unlikely that this disorder will occur again after eyelid spacer grafts have been used.
  • Eyelid spacer grafts have proven to be one of the best remedies for eyelid retraction, which many people experience after having a blepharoplasty surgery. There are different types of eyelid spacer grafts that will be recommended by your surgeon to correct eyelid retraction, depending on your case. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a cosmetic physician.
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