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Genetic tests for Male infertility Tips

How to treat infertility with homeopathy?

Dr. Kruti Bhuskute 89% (40 ratings)
BHMS
Homeopath, Mumbai
How to treat infertility with homeopathy?

Nothing in the world can be more precious and valuable than holding and cuddling your baby for the first time. For most, pregnancy and parenthood gives a new dimension to their lives. It completes their family. People wait with bated breath for the beautiful phase to unfold. However, of late, infertility has been on the rise. As per a survey, 1 in every 1000, suffers from infertility issues. Infertility in males, as well as females, can be triggered by factors such as stress (personal or professional), unhealthy and sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy food habits, obesity, medical complications.

Medical assistance and treatments are available, but some of the treatments are way too expensive or have harmful and undesirable side effects. In this regard, homeopathy comes as a much-needed blessing. It is natural and has negligible or no side effects. Furthermore, most of the homeopathic medications are affordable, leaving you with only a small pinch in the pocket.

The first step in homeopathic treatment is identifying the root cause of infertility. In males, infertility can be due to

  1. Erectile dysfunction.
  2. Low semen count.
  3. Sexually transmitted infections like gonorrhea and chlamydia.
  4. Small testes or testicular injury.
  5. Abnormal or premature ejaculation.
  6. Obstruction in Vas deferens (Ejaculatory duct).
  7. Varicocele, Prostatitis.

Female infertility may be due to

  1. Thyroid problems.
  2. PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome), Endometriosis.
  3. Hormonal imbalance and irregular periods.
  4. Uterine fibroid.
  5. STD's like gonorrhea and chlamydia.
  6. Blocked fallopian tube.
  7. Uterine (cervix) abnormality.

Certain lifestyle habits and environmental factors also contribute towards male and female infertility.

Homeopathy to treat male infertility:

Some of the homeopathic medicines work wonders to improve male infertility.

  1. Caladium Seguinum: Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation can be effectively treated with Caladium Seguinum (American Arum). In some men, erectile dysfunction results in pruritus (severe itching) in the genital organs. Caladium is the best bet to deal with pruritus.
  2. Agnus Castus (Chaste Tree): Agnus Castus is used to treat both male and female infertility. Men with erectile dysfunction, low libido, and low sperm count benefit immensely from this medicine. This medicine is a blessing for women with menstrual problems (irregular periods, heavy or scanty periods).
  3. Lycopodium Clavatum (Wolf's Foot): Men with serious erectile dysfunction (due to stress, anxiety) benefit from this medicine.
  4. Calcarea Carbonica: This medicine is helpful for men with a high libido but premature ejaculation.
  5. Conium: Conium is used to treat low libido and weak erections in men.

Homeopathy to treat female infertility:

  1. Pulsatilla: This homeopathic medicine comes as a relief for females who have infertility due to PCOD and irregular periods.
  2. Sepia: Infertility resulting from menstrual problems (scanty and short periods) can be successfully treated with Sepia. It is also helpful in case of women with hypoactive sexual desire.
  3. Natrum Carb: This homeopathic medicine is used to treat women who are unable to retain the sperm.
  4. Aletris Farinosa: This medicine is used to treat infertility triggered by heavy periods.

Though effective, these medicines should not be used without medical prescription and recommendation. Self-medication will do more harm than good. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Homeopath.

2918 people found this helpful

Things That Make Men Infertile

Dr. Nandita Palshetkar 92% (27 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, FCPS - Mid & Gynae
IVF Specialist, Mumbai
Things That Make Men Infertile

The process of sperm production is a complex one as it involves not only the perfect functioning of the testicles or testes but also the pituitary glands and the hypothalamus which is located in the brain that triggers the sperm production by producing necessary hormones. Any damage or malfunctioning of any of these organs can significantly reduce the amount of sperm produced by a male body. In India, it is a taboo to talk about male infertility, but in reality, male infertility is on the rise in India due to low sperm production.

Causes of Low Sperm Production
Several causes can be cited for low sperm production. A few prevalent ones are indicated below:

  1. Varicocele which is a condition in which the veins through which the sperm is drained from the testicles get swollen, and thus the quantity and the quality of the sperm get affected.
  2. Any infection in the epididymis or the testicles can affect the production of the sperm. There can be some permanent damage to the testicles which causes the sperm production to decrease.
  3. Due to an Auto immune disease where anti bodies mistakenly destroy the sperms in your own body thereby reducing sperm quantity.
  4. Hormonal imbalance is a common factor in male as well though it is neglected in India. The pituitary gland might not produce the hormone in the required quantity which is needed for the right amount of sperm production.
  5. Medication that you are using can interfere with the production of the sperm in your body as certain chemicals can alter the hormonal balance in your body thus affecting the sperm quantity.
  6. Rarely, a defect in chromosomes can reduce male sperm production. Known as Klinefelter’s syndrome, the male body has 2 X chromosomes instead of 1 X and 1 Y chromosome which causes abnormality in reproductive men and the organs.

Common Symptoms-
The primary symptom of low sperm count is the inability to have an offspring, but there are many other symptoms as well. It has been observed that a male with low sperm count has a little or diminishing sex drive. They might not hold an erection for long or have erectile dysfunction. There can be swelling or pain in the testicles, and you may even have a lump which is a severe case. Due to hormonal disorder, there can be a decrease in the body or facial hairs.

If you have been observing a few of the symptoms mentioned above, it is better to see a doctor on the quick note. Doctors can ask for a semen test to understand the underlying problem. There are surgical as well as medical procedures to increase the sperm count and have a better sexual life.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

32 people found this helpful

How Stress and a Sedentary Lifestyle Make You Infertile?

Dr. Ranjana Tibrewal 86% (116 ratings)
MBBS, MS
Gynaecologist, Kolkata
How Stress and a Sedentary Lifestyle Make You Infertile?

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a medical condition related to a woman’s endocrine system. Generally, this disorder is characterised by an imbalance of the sex hormones (oestrogen and progesterone), which leads to the development of multiple small cysts in the ovaries. Symptoms of PCOS include acne, irregular menstrual cycle and depression to name a few.

The causes of PCOS have not been accurately identified so far, but researchers suggest that the following factors might contribute to the onset of the condition.

  1. Increased amount of insulin secretion- Women suffering from insulin resistance may get Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as their body is not able to effectively use this insulin, which results in increased insulin secretion by the pancreas. This, in turn, triggers more androgen (male sex hormone) production in the ovaries, making it difficult for the ovaries to ovulate.
  2. Genetic factor- If you have a family history of PCOS, it’s highly probable that you may also get it as the disease is linked with your genes.

How To Live with PCOS?

PCOS comes with numerous side effects like acne, obesity, infertility, excessive facial or body hair among others. There are certain lifestyle changes, which you may consider to manage PCOS and minimise its side effects.

  1. Change your diet - Opt for a low carbohydrate, low sugar diet to keep your insulin levels in control, as insulin is responsible for increasing the severity of PCOS symptoms.
  2. Try to maintain an ideal body weight - Obesity is known for worsening insulin resistance, and you can prevent this by regularly keeping your weight in check. You can practice some easy at-home exercise to reduce weight besides having a balanced diet.
  3. Get yourself checked regularly - Visit a doctor and get yourself checked regularly for potential health risks as PCOS is often associated with increased chances of diabetes, heart diseases, certain forms of cancer, hypertension, and high LDL (bad) cholesterol levels.
  4. Join a support group - Joining a PCOS support group will help you cope with your emotional difficulties, while helping you to live a better life by cultivating an optimistic outlook. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
2789 people found this helpful

Basil seeds for male infertility

Dr. Madhusudan 93% (4354 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Sexologist, Delhi
Basil seeds for male infertility

Holi basil seeds for male infertility.

A healthy person ejaculates 60-150 million sperms per ml, if this count is lower then 60 million/ml then it may cause infertility in men/unable to get a baby after marriage.

Take 5gm black basil seeds with milk twice a day for 1 month to cure all your sperm related problems like low sperm count or weak sperms.

43 people found this helpful

IUI- A Simple treatment helping Infertile Couples to CONCEIVE

Dr. Sujoy Dasgupta 90% (10856 ratings)
MBBS (Gold Medalist, Hons), MS (Obst and Gynae- Gold Medalist), DNB (Obst and Gynae), Fellow- Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility (ACOG, USA), FIAOG, MRCOG (London, UK)
Gynaecologist, Kolkata
IUI- A Simple treatment helping Infertile Couples to CONCEIVE

Introduction

When couples get married, they often view parenthood as the next stage in their family life. They want to have a child, they want to be “mom” and “dad”, they cannot imagine that this may be hard to achieve or may not be a natural process. When several trials to conceive fail, they are shocked. Their basic expectation about family life gets shattered. Most of the couples are desperately looking for medical therapy that will end into a misery. Clearly this is not a struggle to survive; it is a struggle to fulfill a dream, to achieve what they view as a “full life”.

What is needed for pregnancy?

In the male partner, sperms are normally produced in the testes after puberty (after attainment of characters like growth of beard, moustache etc). From the testes, they are carried through the sperm conducting ducts (epididymis, vas, seminal vesicle and prostate gland). Then during sexual stimulation, after proper erection and ejaculation, they come out through penis. During sexual intercourse, these sperms, present in semen, are deposited inside the vagina.

 In female partner, the deposited sperms must travel from vagina through the cervix (the mouth of the uterus). The cervix acts as gate-keeper, a it prevents entry of dead and abnormal sperms as well as bacteria present in semen, in the uterus. From uterus, sperms reach the Fallopian tubes (the tubes that are attached to the both sides of the uterus) where the sperms must meet the egg (ovum). The eggs are produced only before birth and so, there are fixed number of eggs inside the ovary. The ovum released from the ovary, into the abdomen at the time of ovulation (rupture of the surface of ovary to release the ovum). That ovum must be taken by the tube and thus inside the tube an embryo (earliest form of the baby) is formed, by meeting of the egg and the sperm.

It should be mentioned that out of nearly 200-300 million sperms, in average, deposited in vagina, hardly 500- 800 sperms can reach near the eggs and only one will succeed to form the embryo. The embryo then travels through the tube into the uterus and the uterus attaches the embryo firmly with it and thus the pregnancy starts. So, if there is defect in any one of them there will be difficulty in achieving pregnancy.

Thus, to summarise, pregnancy requires

  1. Production of healthy (“Normal Morphology”) and movable (“Normal Motility”) sperms in adequate number (“Normal Count”) in the testes
  2. Transport of these sperms through the sperm conducting ducts from testes to penis
  3. Successful Erection and Ejaculation during Intercourse to deposit adequate number of these sperms in the vagina
  4. Transport of these sperms from vagina through cervix to the uterus and the tubes
  5. Presence of sufficient number of eggs inside the ovary and ability to release the eggs from the ovaries
  6. Pick up of the eggs by the tubes
  7. Approximation of eggs and the sperms to form the embryo
  8. Transport of embryo from the tubes into the uterus
  9. Acceptance of the embryo by the uterus and its growth

What is Infertility?

 

Literally, the word “Infertility” means inability to conceive. But in reality, there are very few couples, who have no chance of natural conception and are called “Absolutely Infertile”. In fact, in many couples who present to infertility clinics, pregnancy may be the matter of time, thus the chance factor.

It should be kept in mind that, if there is factors to question fertility of either male or female or the female is of age less than 35 years; after one cycle (one month) of regular frequent intercourse, the chance of conception in human being is only 15%. That means, out of 100 couples trying for conception, only 15 will be able to succeed after one month of trying. The word “Regular” and “Frequent” are important; because to achieve pregnancy, couples are advised to keep intimate relationships for at least 2-3 times a week and this should be increased particularly around the time of ovulation (Middle of the menstrual cycle). Thus chance of pregnancy after 6 months, 12 months and 24 months of regular trying are respectively 60%, 80% and 100%.

The word, “Subfertility” seems better and more scientific than “Infertility”, to describe the couples who have reduced chance of conception, due to any cause. However, the word “Infertility”, seems more popular, although it puts pressure on the couples. In most cases, usually we advise to investigate after one year of regular and frequent intercourse, when the couples fail to conceive. However, if there are factors to question fertility; for example female with age more than 35 years, or with previous surgery in tubes/ ovaries/ uterus or known diseases like PCOS or endometriosis; or male partner having surgery in scrotum or groin or any hormonal problems or sexual dysfunctions- the wait period is usually reduced and couples can be investigated, even soon after marriage.

What causes Infertility?

Please look at the point “Thus, to summarise, pregnancy requires” where 9 points have been mentioned.

Thus the common causes may be

  1. Problems in male- total absence of production of sperms, less than adequate number of sperms, problems in morphology and motility of sperms (most sperms not healthy or movable), blockage in transport of sperms and inability to deposit sperms in the vagina (sexual dysfunction- Erectile Dysfunction or less commonly, Ejaculatory Dysfunction). Examples include hormonal problems (Testosterone, thyroid, prolactin), diabetes, liver problems, causes present since birth, chromosomal abnormalities, surgery, infection, sexually transmitted diseases, smoking, exposure of scrotum to high temperature, some medicines or psychological causes.
  2. Problems in female- total absence of less than adequate number of eggs in the ovaries, problems in ovulation, problems in picking of eggs by the tubes, blockage of tubes, problems in conduction of sperms or embryo by the uterus, problems in accepting the embryos by the uterus. Examles include causes present since birth, chromosomal abnormalities, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), old age, increased weight, fibroid, endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID), tuberculosis (TB), infections, smoking, surgery, some medicines, hormonal problems (thyroid, prolactin) or excessive stress.
  3. Unknown causes- Despite thorough investigations, 25-30% causes of infertility remain unknown. This is called “Unexplained Infertility”. The reason may be mere chance factors or there may be some causes which, still medical science has yet to discover. But this should be kept in mind while treating infertility. That means, even with correction of the possible factors (like improving sperm counts or thyroid problems etc) or with proper treatment (IUI, IVF or ICSI), unfortunately the treatment can fail and the exact reason, why the treatment failed, is sometimes difficult to find out. 

In general, what are the treatment options for infertility?

To start with, please remember there is no hard and fast rules for infertility treatment. Often medical science fails to understand why couples with very severe form of infertility conceive sooner than those who are having all tests normal. That means, whatever treatment is offered, it’s very important to continue regular sexual intercourse, as the chance of natural pregnancy is usually there in almost all couples. Your doctor will present the facts to you, without pressurizing you on a particular option. After coming to know all pros and cons of different treatment options, you can take decision. Do not hurry. It’s quite natural that you might be in stress.

In general, after the initial tests, a few periods of natural trying is allowed. After that, ovulation induction (giving medicines to release eggs from the ovaries) is offered, failing which IUI and finally IVF is offered. What will be the preferred treatment for you, will depend on your age, duration of marriage, male and female factors and of course, your age. For example, a woman with both tubes blocked or a male with very low sperm count, IVF would be the first line of treatment.

What is insemination?

Insemination literally means putting semen in a particular place. Various forms of insemination exist in fertility treatment. First one is “Intravaginal Insemination (IVI)”, where the raw semen, collected by the husband can be put inside the vagina, taking precautions (to prevent infection) by the husband himself or by the wife. Rarely, it needs medical assistance from a doctor. It’s usually advised to couples having sexual disorders where full penetrative intercourse is not possible (erectile dysfunction of the husband or very painful intercourse experienced by the wife) or where ejaculation cannot happen during intercourse (a very unusual problem). Thus, the success rate of IVI is no better than natural intercourse (success rate 15% per cycle), for those couples who can manage successful intercourse.

“Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)” is the treatment where “prepared” semen is put inside the cavity of the uterus, near the Fallopian tubes. Thus, IUI bypasses some hurdles that can cause problems during natural intercourse. The vagina, cervix and the whole length of the uterus are bypassed, putting the sperms near the eggs. Thus it increases the success rate compared to natural intercourse or IVI.

However, to achieve pregnancy after IUI, the female partner must have open tubes, adequate number of eggs produced by ovaries, eggs must be released by the ovaries and sperms must meet the eggs. And, thus nature plays important role, as in natural intercourse.

Please note, we used the word “prepared” semen. In natural intercourse, as mentioned earlier, the dead sperms and bacteria cannot enter the uterus, because cervix prevents their entry. If they are put artificially by IUI inside the uterus, severe reaction can happen. So, after collection, the husband’s semen is processed in the laboratory to remove all those impurities and to select only the best number of healthy and movable sperms and it definitely increases success rates of IUI

When IUI is generally advised?

As you can understand, to perform IUI, there must be minimum number of sperms in the semen, the tubes must be opened, the ovaries must be releasing eggs. If these are present, IUI is usually advised

  • Less than adequate number of sperm counts, morphology or motility
  • Couples who cannot perform full penetrative intercourse but refuse or unable to conceive by IVI
  • Unexplained infertility- although IVF is better than IUI, but considering the cost, many couples in our country opt for 2-3 cycles of IUI before IVF
  • PCOS and Mild Endometriosis- where natural intercourse or ovulation induction failed
  • Couples in whom only one partner is positive for HIV or Hepatitis B or C- where transmission from one partner to another by unprotected sexual intercourse is not preferable.

What are the tests done before IUI?

The basic infertility evaluation is done before IUI include husband’s semen analysis, assessment of ovarian function (blood tests, ultrasound) and uterus (ultrasound). In some cases, laparoscopy (putting camera to see inside the abdomen by operation) or hysteroscopy (putting camera through vagina inside the uterus, by operation) may be required. Now, if the tubes are blocked, IUI is of no use. So, testing the tubes is advisable before IUI. But some women, who are at low risk of tubal disease (no history of pelvic pain, infection or surgery), one or two cycles of IUI can be done, failing which tubes must be checked by tests like HSG or SSG or in some cases by laparoscopy.

What IUI actually involves?

In the cycle, in which IUI is planned, the woman is asked to take some medicines (or injections) in particular days of the periods as a part of “ovulation induction”. She is then advised to have ultrasound monitoring (TVS- transvaginal sonogram- where ultrasound probe is placed inside the vagina for better accuracy) to see if eggs are growing in response to the medicines or not. If eggs are growing, IUI is planned in a particular time when the egg(s) is more likely to rupture, so that the tie interval between sperm entry and egg release can be kept as minimum as possible.

Is ovulation Induction necessary for IUI?

Frankly speaking, IUI can be done without any medicines (as in case of natural intercourse or IVI), which is called “Natural Cycle IUI”, where only TVS monitoring is done to see how the eggs are growing. This may avoid some side effects of ovulation induction (see below) but is associated with low success rate than IUI done along with ovulation induction.

Is TVS necessary before IUI?

TVS is, undoubtedly, uncomfortable for the woman. But it gives better picture than ultrasound done conventionally. Now, the question is, whether ultrasound monitoring is at all needed or not. TVS directs the doctor how eggs are growing and at what number and size and when they are likely to rupture. Moreover, the rupture can also be confirmed by TVS. Again, the uncommon side effect of ovulation induction can be detected by TVS. That is called OHSS (“Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome”) where excessive eggs can grow inside the ovaries and this can lead to collection of fluid inside abdomen and lungs and can turn very serious. Although very rare, it can be detected by TVS and early actions can be taken to prevent the progress of this condition.

In rare cases, where TVS cannot be done or patient declines, only option is to check urine by LH kit to predict the likely timing of ovulation and at that time IUI is planned. However, it is less accurate than TVS monitoring and is associated with less success.

What, if eggs are not growing in the ovaries?

In some women, particularly those who are overweight, aged or some cases of PCOS, eggs may not respond initially to one medicine. There are various forms of ovulation induction medicines (tablets, injection). If one is not working, your doctor can try increasing the dose of that medicine or add or replace it with other medicines. Please remember, it’s difficult to predict what medicine will be best suited for a particular patient. So, it’s basically a trial and error process.

What is done on the day of IUI?

As timing is important, the couples are requested to stick to the timing, advised by the doctor. The husband will be asked to collect the semen by masturbation, using clean technique (to avoid contamination by germs in the semen container). The semen is then prepared by the embryologist and will be checked to see the final number of sperms and their motility and morphology.

The wife is asked to lie down in the IUI table. After cleaning, a sterile speculum (instruments to separate walls of the vagina to see the cervix) is introduced inside the vagina and then 0.4-0.6 ml of the prepared semen is inserted inside the uterus with the help of a small catheter (fine tube). IUI done, under ultrasound guidance, gives better result than IUI done without it. The patient is asked to lie down few minutes after taking out the catheter and the speculum. The medicines are advised and then they can go home. 

Is IUI painful?

Most women feel little discomfort during IUI but it should not be painful. If there is technical difficulty while putting catheter inside the uterus, your doctor will discuss it with you and in the next cycle, will plan management to solve this issue.

What happens if husband cannot collect semen?

Collection of semen in unfamiliar environment is understandably a matter of discomfort and seems awkward. Proper counseling and maintenance of privacy can help. Stress-free approach is needed. If it fails, do not hesitate to inform your doctor. Some medicines can help. But in those, who are unable to masturbate, there are some instruments, like ejaculator, can help to solve this problem.

What happens if sperm count is low?

IUI can be successful if sperm count is minimum more than 5 million per ml and there is reasonably good morphology and motility. If not, IVF or ICSI would be the better option. But IUI can serve as trial also. That means before putting the semen, the prepared sperms can be examined and it can be predicted what is the success rate of IUI in this particular case and whether IVF or ICSI would be needed. In rare occasions, where sperm count is extremely low but the couple do not wish for IVF or ICSI, pooled semen IUI can help- where the semen is collected in number of occasions and is preserved and the final pool is used for insemination, to give a reasonable success rate.

When donor sperm is used and how?

If a man does not have any sperms or too few sperms to do IUI, IVF or ICSI is not affordable, donor IUI is an alternative. But it is not done without consent from both husband and wife. The donor is not known to the couple or the doctor and no identity of the donor is revealed. No relative or friend can serve as donor. Donor semen is frozen semen, collected 6 months ago and the donor is tested for diseases like STD, HIV, Hepatitis B or C. Usual attempt is taken to chose donor having blood group and skin colour similar to those of the husband. But remember, it’s only given after discussion and written consent by the couple.

Can a couple have intercourse in the cycle where IUI is advised?

Intercourse around IUI increases the number of sperms available at the time of ovulation.

When should one check for pregnancy?

Usually if period does not come within 18 days after IUI, pregnancy test is advised. It can be done at home. If negative, then the cause of not having periods is sorted out.

What is the chance of success after IUI?

In one cycle, chance of success is around 20-25%. Most of the couples conceive after 3rd or 4th cycle of IUI. The chance of pregnancy after 6th cycle is low, so, usually IUI beyond 6 cycles is not advised.

The factors where IUI gives better results include unexplained infertility, sexual dysfunction of any of the partner, PCOS and male subfertility (low sperm count or motility)

What happens if IUI fails?

As said earlier, you should think about further treatment, if 3rd or 4th cycle of IUI fails. There is no use of doing IUI beyond 6 cycles, unless natural intercourse is not possible and the age is favourable. IVF gives better result.

Is there any harmful effect of IUI?

Very few harmful effects have been noted, for examples, hazards of ovulation induction (OHSS< twin pregnancy), pain, infection and discomfort. As mentined, if raw semen is given, unusual allergic reaction can happen.

How IUI is being done in your particular centre by Dr Sujoy Dasgupta?

We believe in patient’s autonomy. So we want to give time on discussion and presentation of facts and figures to the couples. We encourage questions from the couples and take utmost care so that no question remains unanswered.

We do not take decisions and impose it on the couples. We advise the couples to take time before taking decision on a particular treatment. If the couple decides, we respect and support their decision.

We try to take nominal charges and help couples to collect medicines (particularly injections) at lower prices than MRPs.

After thorough evaluation of both the partners, we plan for ovulation induction drugs, with consent from them and advise them to come for TVS. After each day TVS, we explain the progress and probable timing of IUI.

On the day of IUI, after requesting the couple to maintain punctuality, we advise the husband to collect semen, in comfortable atmosphere, maintaining the privacy. If there is problem in semen collection, we provide support to him and address his issues in sensitive way.

Our expert trained embryologist then prepares the semen. We always encourage the couples to see the condition of raw and prepared semen under microscope to maintain the transparency.

We advise the woman to fill up the bladder (to take water and not to urinate) to facilitate the passage of IUI catheter. Unlike other places, we perform IUI inside OT to prevent unwanted infection.

Again we maintain our uniqueness in the sense that we perform it under ultrasound guidance. The ultrasound guidance has been scientifically proved to increase the success rate of IUI. Moreover, we show the woman in the ultrasound (real time) how the catheter has been put inside the uterus (to make sure that we are not doing IVI or have placed it in wrong position). This also helps to reduce patient’s anxiety and uncertainty. After that, our nurse takes care of the patient and observes her when she takes rest.

Then we advise the post-IUI medicines and advise them what to expect and when they can go home. Again, this time we try to answer all questions the couples can ask.

 

Conclusion

Infertility is a peculiar thing. Very few men or women are absolutely infertile. That means they do not have ability to achieve pregnancy naturally. Majority of them are subfertile. That means most of them have lower than normal chance (compared to healthy couples) to achieve pregnancy in a normal menstrual cycle. Often we find that patients planning for treatment and in the mean time, they conceive naturally. That means even without treatment, there is some chance of pregnancy. Of course, it’s stressful situation for both the partners. Stress affects conjugal relationships and lead to many couples avoiding conjugal life. Indeed stress can affect the hormone levels in females and affects sexual performances in males. It’s easier for us to advise you to stay stress-free but is difficult to practice. Nevertheless, try relaxation as much as possible. Think that majority of the couples ultimately conceive by some form of treatment. Have faith in yourself and have faith in your doctor.

 

IUI (Intrauterine Insemination)- Treatment Option for Infertile Couples

Dr. Sujoy Dasgupta 90% (10856 ratings)
MBBS (Gold Medalist, Hons), MS (Obst and Gynae- Gold Medalist), DNB (Obst and Gynae), Fellow- Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility (ACOG, USA), FIAOG, MRCOG (London, UK)
Gynaecologist, Kolkata
IUI (Intrauterine Insemination)- Treatment Option for Infertile Couples

Introduction

When couples get married, they often view parenthood as the next stage in their family life. They want to have a child, they want to be “mom” and “dad”, they cannot imagine that this may be hard to achieve or may not be a natural process. When several trials to conceive fail, they are shocked. Their basic expectation about family life gets shattered. Most of the couples are desperately looking for medical therapy that will end into a misery. Clearly this is not a struggle to survive; it is a struggle to fulfill a dream, to achieve what they view as a “full life”.

What is needed for pregnancy?

In the male partner, sperms are normally produced in the testes after puberty (after attainment of characters like growth of beard, moustache etc). From the testes, they are carried through the sperm conducting ducts (epididymis, vas, seminal vesicle and prostate gland). Then during sexual stimulation, after proper erection and ejaculation, they come out through penis. During sexual intercourse, these sperms, present in semen, are deposited inside the vagina. 

 In female partner, the deposited sperms must travel from vagina through the cervix (the mouth of the uterus). The cervix acts as gate-keeper, a it prevents entry of dead and abnormal sperms as well as bacteria present in semen, in the uterus. From uterus, sperms reach the Fallopian tubes (the tubes that are attached to the both sides of the uterus) where the sperms must meet the egg (ovum). The eggs are produced only before birth and so, there are fixed number of eggs inside the ovary. The ovum released from the ovary, into the abdomen at the time of ovulation (rupture of the surface of ovary to release the ovum). That ovum must be taken by the tube and thus inside the tube an embryo (earliest form of the baby) is formed, by meeting of the egg and the sperm. 

It should be mentioned that out of nearly 200-300 million sperms, in average, deposited in vagina, hardly 500- 800 sperms can reach near the eggs and only one will succeed to form the embryo. The embryo then travels through the tube into the uterus and the uterus attaches the embryo firmly with it and thus the pregnancy starts. So, if there is defect in any one of them there will be difficulty in achieving pregnancy.

Thus, to summarise, pregnancy requires

  1. Production of healthy (“Normal Morphology”) and movable (“Normal Motility”) sperms in adequate number (“Normal Count”) in the testes
  2. Transport of these sperms through the sperm conducting ducts from testes to penis
  3. Successful Erection and Ejaculation during Intercourse to deposit adequate number of these sperms in the vagina
  4. Transport of these sperms from vagina through cervix to the uterus and the tubes
  5. Presence of sufficient number of eggs inside the ovary and ability to release the eggs from the ovaries
  6. Pick up of the eggs by the tubes 
  7. Approximation of eggs and the sperms to form the embryo
  8. Transport of embryo from the tubes into the uterus
  9. Acceptance of the embryo by the uterus and its growth

What is Infertility?

 

Literally, the word “Infertility” means inability to conceive. But in reality, there are very few couples, who have no chance of natural conception and are called “Absolutely Infertile”. In fact, in many couples who present to infertility clinics, pregnancy may be the matter of time, thus the chance factor. 

It should be kept in mind that, if there is factors to question fertility of either male or female or the female is of age less than 35 years; after one cycle (one month) of regular frequent intercourse, the chance of conception in human being is only 15%. That means, out of 100 couples trying for conception, only 15 will be able to succeed after one month of trying. The word “Regular” and “Frequent” are important; because to achieve pregnancy, couples are advised to keep intimate relationships for at least 2-3 times a week and this should be increased particularly around the time of ovulation (Middle of the menstrual cycle). Thus chance of pregnancy after 6 months, 12 months and 24 months of regular trying are respectively 60%, 80% and 100%. 

The word, “Subfertility” seems better and more scientific than “Infertility”, to describe the couples who have reduced chance of conception, due to any cause. However, the word “Infertility”, seems more popular, although it puts pressure on the couples. In most cases, usually we advise to investigate after one year of regular and frequent intercourse, when the couples fail to conceive. However, if there are factors to question fertility; for example female with age more than 35 years, or with previous surgery in tubes/ ovaries/ uterus or known diseases like PCOS or endometriosis; or male partner having surgery in scrotum or groin or any hormonal problems or sexual dysfunctions- the wait period is usually reduced and couples can be investigated, even soon after marriage. 

What causes Infertility?

Please look at the point “Thus, to summarise, pregnancy requires” where 9 points have been mentioned. 

Thus the common causes may be

  1. Problems in male- total absence of production of sperms, less than adequate number of sperms, problems in morphology and motility of sperms (most sperms not healthy or movable), blockage in transport of sperms and inability to deposit sperms in the vagina (sexual dysfunction- Erectile Dysfunction or less commonly, Ejaculatory Dysfunction). Examples include hormonal problems (Testosterone, thyroid, prolactin), diabetes, liver problems, causes present since birth, chromosomal abnormalities, surgery, infection, sexually transmitted diseases, smoking, exposure of scrotum to high temperature, some medicines or psychological causes.
  2. Problems in female- total absence of less than adequate number of eggs in the ovaries, problems in ovulation, problems in picking of eggs by the tubes, blockage of tubes, problems in conduction of sperms or embryo by the uterus, problems in accepting the embryos by the uterus. Examles include causes present since birth, chromosomal abnormalities, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), old age, increased weight, fibroid, endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID), tuberculosis (TB), infections, smoking, surgery, some medicines, hormonal problems (thyroid, prolactin) or excessive stress.
  3. Unknown causes- Despite thorough investigations, 25-30% causes of infertility remain unknown. This is called “Unexplained Infertility”. The reason may be mere chance factors or there may be some causes which, still medical science has yet to discover. But this should be kept in mind while treating infertility. That means, even with correction of the possible factors (like improving sperm counts or thyroid problems etc) or with proper treatment (IUI, IVF or ICSI), unfortunately the treatment can fail and the exact reason, why the treatment failed, is sometimes difficult to find out.  

In general, what are the treatment options for infertility?

To start with, please remember there is no hard and fast rules for infertility treatment. Often medical science fails to understand why couples with very severe form of infertility conceive sooner than those who are having all tests normal. That means, whatever treatment is offered, it’s very important to continue regular sexual intercourse, as the chance of natural pregnancy is usually there in almost all couples. Your doctor will present the facts to you, without pressurizing you on a particular option. After coming to know all pros and cons of different treatment options, you can take decision. Do not hurry. It’s quite natural that you might be in stress. 

In general, after the initial tests, a few periods of natural trying is allowed. After that, ovulation induction (giving medicines to release eggs from the ovaries) is offered, failing which IUI and finally IVF is offered. What will be the preferred treatment for you, will depend on your age, duration of marriage, male and female factors and of course, your age. For example, a woman with both tubes blocked or a male with very low sperm count, IVF would be the first line of treatment.

What is insemination?

Insemination literally means putting semen in a particular place. Various forms of insemination exist in fertility treatment. First one is “Intravaginal Insemination (IVI)”, where the raw semen, collected by the husband can be put inside the vagina, taking precautions (to prevent infection) by the husband himself or by the wife. Rarely, it needs medical assistance from a doctor. It’s usually advised to couples having sexual disorders where full penetrative intercourse is not possible (erectile dysfunction of the husband or very painful intercourse experienced by the wife) or where ejaculation cannot happen during intercourse (a very unusual problem). Thus, the success rate of IVI is no better than natural intercourse (success rate 15% per cycle), for those couples who can manage successful intercourse. 

“Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)” is the treatment where “prepared” semen is put inside the cavity of the uterus, near the Fallopian tubes. Thus, IUI bypasses some hurdles that can cause problems during natural intercourse. The vagina, cervix and the whole length of the uterus are bypassed, putting the sperms near the eggs. Thus it increases the success rate compared to natural intercourse or IVI.

However, to achieve pregnancy after IUI, the female partner must have open tubes, adequate number of eggs produced by ovaries, eggs must be released by the ovaries and sperms must meet the eggs. And, thus nature plays important role, as in natural intercourse.

Please note, we used the word “prepared” semen. In natural intercourse, as mentioned earlier, the dead sperms and bacteria cannot enter the uterus, because cervix prevents their entry. If they are put artificially by IUI inside the uterus, severe reaction can happen. So, after collection, the husband’s semen is processed in the laboratory to remove all those impurities and to select only the best number of healthy and movable sperms and it definitely increases success rates of IUI

When IUI is generally advised?

As you can understand, to perform IUI, there must be minimum number of sperms in the semen, the tubes must be opened, the ovaries must be releasing eggs. If these are present, IUI is usually advised 

  • Less than adequate number of sperm counts, morphology or motility
  • Couples who cannot perform full penetrative intercourse but refuse or unable to conceive by IVI
  • Unexplained infertility- although IVF is better than IUI, but considering the cost, many couples in our country opt for 2-3 cycles of IUI before IVF
  • PCOS and Mild Endometriosis- where natural intercourse or ovulation induction failed
  • Couples in whom only one partner is positive for HIV or Hepatitis B or C- where transmission from one partner to another by unprotected sexual intercourse is not preferable.

What are the tests done before IUI?

The basic infertility evaluation is done before IUI include husband’s semen analysis, assessment of ovarian function (blood tests, ultrasound) and uterus (ultrasound). In some cases, laparoscopy (putting camera to see inside the abdomen by operation) or hysteroscopy (putting camera through vagina inside the uterus, by operation) may be required. Now, if the tubes are blocked, IUI is of no use. So, testing the tubes is advisable before IUI. But some women, who are at low risk of tubal disease (no history of pelvic pain, infection or surgery), one or two cycles of IUI can be done, failing which tubes must be checked by tests like HSG or SSG or in some cases by laparoscopy. 

What IUI actually involves?

In the cycle, in which IUI is planned, the woman is asked to take some medicines (or injections) in particular days of the periods as a part of “ovulation induction”. She is then advised to have ultrasound monitoring (TVS- transvaginal sonogram- where ultrasound probe is placed inside the vagina for better accuracy) to see if eggs are growing in response to the medicines or not. If eggs are growing, IUI is planned in a particular time when the egg(s) is more likely to rupture, so that the tie interval between sperm entry and egg release can be kept as minimum as possible. 

Is ovulation Induction necessary for IUI?

Frankly speaking, IUI can be done without any medicines (as in case of natural intercourse or IVI), which is called “Natural Cycle IUI”, where only TVS monitoring is done to see how the eggs are growing. This may avoid some side effects of ovulation induction (see below) but is associated with low success rate than IUI done along with ovulation induction.

Is TVS necessary before IUI?

TVS is, undoubtedly, uncomfortable for the woman. But it gives better picture than ultrasound done conventionally. Now, the question is, whether ultrasound monitoring is at all needed or not. TVS directs the doctor how eggs are growing and at what number and size and when they are likely to rupture. Moreover, the rupture can also be confirmed by TVS. Again, the uncommon side effect of ovulation induction can be detected by TVS. That is called OHSS (“Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome”) where excessive eggs can grow inside the ovaries and this can lead to collection of fluid inside abdomen and lungs and can turn very serious. Although very rare, it can be detected by TVS and early actions can be taken to prevent the progress of this condition. 

In rare cases, where TVS cannot be done or patient declines, only option is to check urine by LH kit to predict the likely timing of ovulation and at that time IUI is planned. However, it is less accurate than TVS monitoring and is associated with less success.

What, if eggs are not growing in the ovaries?

In some women, particularly those who are overweight, aged or some cases of PCOS, eggs may not respond initially to one medicine. There are various forms of ovulation induction medicines (tablets, injection). If one is not working, your doctor can try increasing the dose of that medicine or add or replace it with other medicines. Please remember, it’s difficult to predict what medicine will be best suited for a particular patient. So, it’s basically a trial and error process.

What is done on the day of IUI?

As timing is important, the couples are requested to stick to the timing, advised by the doctor. The husband will be asked to collect the semen by masturbation, using clean technique (to avoid contamination by germs in the semen container). The semen is then prepared by the embryologist and will be checked to see the final number of sperms and their motility and morphology.

The wife is asked to lie down in the IUI table. After cleaning, a sterile speculum (instruments to separate walls of the vagina to see the cervix) is introduced inside the vagina and then 0.4-0.6 ml of the prepared semen is inserted inside the uterus with the help of a small catheter (fine tube). IUI done, under ultrasound guidance, gives better result than IUI done without it. The patient is asked to lie down few minutes after taking out the catheter and the speculum. The medicines are advised and then they can go home.  

Is IUI painful?

Most women feel little discomfort during IUI but it should not be painful. If there is technical difficulty while putting catheter inside the uterus, your doctor will discuss it with you and in the next cycle, will plan management to solve this issue.

What happens if husband cannot collect semen?

Collection of semen in unfamiliar environment is understandably a matter of discomfort and seems awkward. Proper counseling and maintenance of privacy can help. Stress-free approach is needed. If it fails, do not hesitate to inform your doctor. Some medicines can help. But in those, who are unable to masturbate, there are some instruments, like ejaculator, can help to solve this problem.

What happens if sperm count is low?

IUI can be successful if sperm count is minimum more than 5 million per ml and there is reasonably good morphology and motility. If not, IVF or ICSI would be the better option. But IUI can serve as trial also. That means before putting the semen, the prepared sperms can be examined and it can be predicted what is the success rate of IUI in this particular case and whether IVF or ICSI would be needed. In rare occasions, where sperm count is extremely low but the couple do not wish for IVF or ICSI, pooled semen IUI can help- where the semen is collected in number of occasions and is preserved and the final pool is used for insemination, to give a reasonable success rate.

When donor sperm is used and how?

If a man does not have any sperms or too few sperms to do IUI, IVF or ICSI is not affordable, donor IUI is an alternative. But it is not done without consent from both husband and wife. The donor is not known to the couple or the doctor and no identity of the donor is revealed. No relative or friend can serve as donor. Donor semen is frozen semen, collected 6 months ago and the donor is tested for diseases like STD, HIV, Hepatitis B or C. Usual attempt is taken to chose donor having blood group and skin colour similar to those of the husband. But remember, it’s only given after discussion and written consent by the couple. 

Can a couple have intercourse in the cycle where IUI is advised?

Intercourse around IUI increases the number of sperms available at the time of ovulation.

When should one check for pregnancy?

Usually if period does not come within 18 days after IUI, pregnancy test is advised. It can be done at home. If negative, then the cause of not having periods is sorted out.

What is the chance of success after IUI?

In one cycle, chance of success is around 20-25%. Most of the couples conceive after 3rd or 4th cycle of IUI. The chance of pregnancy after 6th cycle is low, so, usually IUI beyond 6 cycles is not advised.

The factors where IUI gives better results include unexplained infertility, sexual dysfunction of any of the partner, PCOS and male subfertility (low sperm count or motility)

What happens if IUI fails?

As said earlier, you should think about further treatment, if 3rd or 4th cycle of IUI fails. There is no use of doing IUI beyond 6 cycles, unless natural intercourse is not possible and the age is favourable. IVF gives better result. 

Is there any harmful effect of IUI?

Very few harmful effects have been noted, for examples, hazards of ovulation induction (OHSS< twin pregnancy), pain, infection and discomfort. As mentined, if raw semen is given, unusual allergic reaction can happen.

How IUI is being done in your particular centre by Dr Sujoy Dasgupta?

We believe in patient’s autonomy. So we want to give time on discussion and presentation of facts and figures to the couples. We encourage questions from the couples and take utmost care so that no question remains unanswered.

We do not take decisions and impose it on the couples. We advise the couples to take time before taking decision on a particular treatment. If the couple decides, we respect and support their decision.

We try to take nominal charges and help couples to collect medicines (particularly injections) at lower prices than MRPs.

After thorough evaluation of both the partners, we plan for ovulation induction drugs, with consent from them and advise them to come for TVS. After each day TVS, we explain the progress and probable timing of IUI.

On the day of IUI, after requesting the couple to maintain punctuality, we advise the husband to collect semen, in comfortable atmosphere, maintaining the privacy. If there is problem in semen collection, we provide support to him and address his issues in sensitive way.

Our expert trained embryologist then prepares the semen. We always encourage the couples to see the condition of raw and prepared semen under microscope to maintain the transparency. 

We advise the woman to fill up the bladder (to take water and not to urinate) to facilitate the passage of IUI catheter. Unlike other places, we perform IUI inside OT to prevent unwanted infection. 

Again we maintain our uniqueness in the sense that we perform it under ultrasound guidance. The ultrasound guidance has been scientifically proved to increase the success rate of IUI. Moreover, we show the woman in the ultrasound (real time) how the catheter has been put inside the uterus (to make sure that we are not doing IVI or have placed it in wrong position). This also helps to reduce patient’s anxiety and uncertainty. After that, our nurse takes care of the patient and observes her when she takes rest. 

Then we advise the post-IUI medicines and advise them what to expect and when they can go home. Again, this time we try to answer all questions the couples can ask.

 

Conclusion

Infertility is a peculiar thing. Very few men or women are absolutely infertile. That means they do not have ability to achieve pregnancy naturally. Majority of them are subfertile. That means most of them have lower than normal chance (compared to healthy couples) to achieve pregnancy in a normal menstrual cycle. Often we find that patients planning for treatment and in the mean time, they conceive naturally. That means even without treatment, there is some chance of pregnancy. Of course, it’s stressful situation for both the partners. Stress affects conjugal relationships and lead to many couples avoiding conjugal life. Indeed stress can affect the hormone levels in females and affects sexual performances in males. It’s easier for us to advise you to stay stress-free but is difficult to practice. Nevertheless, try relaxation as much as possible. Think that majority of the couples ultimately conceive by some form of treatment. Have faith in yourself and have faith in your doctor.

29 people found this helpful

Can Genital Tract Infections Lead to Infertility?

Dr. Soni Anand 90% (131 ratings)
DGO, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Can Genital Tract Infections Lead to Infertility?

Disregarding genital tract infections and issues including the symptoms of the same can lead to problems when it comes to fertility. It may also cause problems in your sexual life. Genital problems can also lead to infertility. These days, infertility is a noteworthy and very important occurrence that plagues many couples.

Common Infections: A large portion of these genital tract diseases occurs because of infections. Salpingitis happens in close to 15% of ladies in their reproductive age and 2.5% of all ladies get to be infertile as an aftereffect of salpingitis by age 35. Many times, symptoms of conditions and STDs like Chlamydia  trachomatis trachomatis are usually nonexistent. The real rate of ladies with upper genital tract infections is presumably underestimated.

Infection and Infertility: Infectious agents can hinder different vital human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, infections and viruses can meddle with the reproductive capacity in both genders. Diseases of male genito-urinary tract represent around 15% of the instance of male infertility. Diseases can influence distinctive areas of the male regenerative tract, for example, the testis, epididymis and male sex organs and glands. Urogenital diseases at various levels of their advancement, development and transport can affect the sperms themselves in this manner. Among the most widely recognized microorganisms required for sexually transmitted diseases, meddling with male fertility are Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea.

Symptoms: If the following symptoms of a genital tract infection are ignored, it can definitely lead to the person being infertile in some stage of life or immediately. These are as follows:


The signs and symptoms in males are

  1. Changes in the way you discharge
  2. Bleeding while urinating or discharge
  3. Thick white, yellow or green release from the tip of the penis along with pain in urethra or pain while urinating
  4. A hard but painless sore on the penis along with swelling of the lymph hubs in the crotch
  5. Pain or uneasiness while urinating or discharge from the urethra
  6. Difficult or irritated red spots and small blisters on the penis
  7. Chestnut bits on the hair around the penis
  8. Gentle delicacy around one of the testicles
  9. Delicate swelling in the scrotum on one or both sides
  10. Extreme pain after injury to your penis

The signs and symptoms in women are as follows:

  1. Irregular vaginal discharge with a pungent smell
  2. Burning sensation while urinating
  3. Tingling or itching in the outer area of vagina
  4. Uneasiness and pain during sex
  5. Sore vagina
  6. Foamy greenish-yellow discharge with a foul smell
  7. Light bleeding after intercourse
  8. Warts in the vagina

Regular check-ups and visits to the gynecologist are very essential. One should always keep the partner updated about their sexual health problems to practice a healthy and honest relationship and to avoid further contagious infections from occurring.

2981 people found this helpful

Can Genital Tract Infections Lead to Infertility?

Dr. Uma 92% (1611 ratings)
MS- Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Can Genital Tract Infections Lead to Infertility?

Disregarding genital tract infections and issues including the symptoms of the same can lead to problems when it comes to fertility. It may also cause problems in your sexual life. Genital problems can also lead to infertility. These days, infertility is a noteworthy and very important occurrence that plagues many couples.

Common Infections: A large portion of these genital tract diseases occurs because of infections. Salpingitis happens in close to 15% of ladies in their reproductive age and 2.5% of all ladies get to be infertile as an aftereffect of salpingitis by age 35. Many times, symptoms of conditions and STDs like Chlamydia trachomatis are usually nonexistent. The real rate of ladies with upper genital tract infections is presumably underestimated.

Infection and Infertility: Infectious agents can hinder different vital human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, infections and viruses can meddle with the reproductive capacity in both genders. Diseases of male genito-urinary tract represent around 15% of the instance of male infertility. Diseases can influence distinctive areas of the male regenerative tract, for example, the testis, epididymis and male sex organs and glands. Urogenital diseases at various levels of their advancement, development and transport can affect the sperms themselves in this manner. Among the most widely recognized microorganisms required for sexually transmitted diseases, meddling with male fertility are Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea.

Symptoms: If the following symptoms of a genital tract infection are ignored, it can definitely lead to the person being infertile in some stage of life or immediately. These are as follows:


The signs and symptoms in males are

  1. Changes in the way you discharge
  2. Bleeding while urinating or discharge
  3. Thick white, yellow or green release from the tip of the penis along with pain in urethra or pain while urinating
  4. A hard but painless sore on the penis along with swelling of the lymph hubs in the crotch
  5. Pain or uneasiness while urinating or discharge from the urethra
  6. Difficult or irritated red spots and small blisters on the penis
  7. Chestnut bits on the hair around the penis
  8. Gentle delicacy around one of the testicles
  9. Delicate swelling in the scrotum on one or both sides
  10. Extreme pain after injury to your penis

The signs and symptoms in women are as follows:

  1. Irregular vaginal discharge with a pungent smell
  2. Burning sensation while urinating
  3. Tingling or itching in the outer area of vagina
  4. Uneasiness and pain during sex
  5. Sore vagina
  6. Foamy greenish-yellow discharge with a foul smell
  7. Light bleeding after intercourse
  8. Warts in the vagina

Regular check-ups and visits to the gynecologist are very essential. One should always keep the partner updated about their sexual health problems to practice a healthy and honest relationship and to avoid further contagious infections from occurring.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2607 people found this helpful

Infertile men more prone to diabetes

Dr. Masroor Ahmad Wani 93% (4405 ratings)
MD
Sexologist, Srinagar
Infertile men more prone to diabetes
Infertile men more prone to diabetes

Men diagnosed with the fertility related issues or infertility are more susceptible to type 2 diabetes according to recently published study.

The study recommends routine visits of such patients for check-up. The rates of infertility among men are rising due to changing lifestyle, dietary habits, stress and other physiological factors.

The scientists have been studying the associated factors for infertility. Now for the first time scientists have studied the effects of infertility on general ailments.

The scientists from stanford university, school of medicine conducted the study which showed that patients diagnosed with infertility have a greater risk of developing other conditions such as ischemic heart disease, type 2 diabetes compared to fertile men.

The scientists conducted retrospective study in which they assessed the medical records of over 1, 15, 000 men filed between 2001 and 2009.

The scientists scrutinized the men's medical visits before and after fertility testing to determine what health complications they developed in the years after fertility evaluations. They compared general health conditions of men with infertility diagnoses to men without the diagnoses and to men who underwent vasectomy.
The results of the study showed that the infertile men had higher rates of most diseases the researchers had shortlisted.

The scientists found that the infertile men had higher rates of diabetes even when the results were adjusted for the obesity. They found similar results for ischemic heart diseases.

The scientists have wished to expand their research to check physiological relationships between these conditions. Meanwhile, scientists have recommended that infertile men should regularly undergo health check-ups in order to prevent of onset of these conditions.
1 person found this helpful

infertility

Dr. Megha Tuli Gupta 92% (1762 ratings)
MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Gurgaon
infertility
Regular exercise and meal times and a positive working environment decrease stress. Causing 80% of the infertility cases. So smile more and relax. Everything will work out just fine!
177 people found this helpful
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