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Stool Culture Tips

Stem Cell Culture For Broken Bones - What Is It?

Dr. Pranjal Kodkani 85% (21 ratings)
M S Ortho, D - Ortho, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Orthopedist, Mumbai
Stem Cell Culture For Broken Bones - What Is It?

When there is a fracture of the bone, the affected site may be plastered for the fracture to heal. In some cases, this may not be enough to mend the bones and surgery may be required along with bone grafting to rectify the condition. A new form of therapy, involving a less invasive procedure has been developed. It involves culturing the stem cells and using the same to mend and regenerate parts of the bone.

What does the treatment involve?

In this process, one cultures cells from the patient’s body. The cells are extracted from the bone marrow. These cells are cultured in the lab and injected back to the affected region of the body. Research has shown that after the injection, the treatment takes anywhere between 7 to 8 weeks to repair the fracture completely.

Since stem cells are being harvested from the patient and not from a third-party, the treatment does not have any ethical constraints. However, more studies are being conducted to prove without a doubt that the same does not cause any damage to the body of the patient in the long run.

It is likely that this procedure will replace rudimentary surgical techniques, such as bone harvesting, in the future. It is far less invasive and does not result in extreme pain or prolonged hospitalization.

The future of the treatment:

While stem cell culture has been around for a few years now, the use of the same procedure to treat fractures is The Latest Technology. It is in its early stages, which is why such a form of treatment is not offered by all hospitals across the globe and very selective surgeons having experience of the procedure would perform it.

Additional research and studies are being conducted to further confirm the efficacy of the treatment. Research has revealed that stem cell insertion in the bone can be used to regrow defects and heal non-unions of a bone. In some cases, repeated stem cell insertion may be required. The bone that grows as a result is as strong as the other bones in the body.

4650 people found this helpful

Blood Stools? An Alarming Sign

Dr. Ankur Singhal 92% (1678 ratings)
Master in Psychology, MD - Ayurveda, Dems, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Hapur
Blood Stools? An Alarming Sign

Black stools! An alarming sign.

Black stool is a condition in which the feces are very dark or black in color. Black stool may be normal in some cases and caused by ingesting certain substances or medications, such as iron supplements. However, black stool can also be caused by a serious condition, such as bleeding in the digestive tract caused by a peptic ulcer.

Black stool that is tarry in texture and foul smelling is often a symptom of upper gastrointestinal bleeding from the esophagus, stomach or small intestine. This is called melena.

Very small amounts of blood in the stool may be seen by the naked eye and not significantly change the color of stool. This is called fecal occult blood, which can be a symptom of a serious disease and may be found with regular, routine medical examination. Black stools can be a symptom of a serious condition, such as esophageal varices or peptic ulcer. Seek prompt medical care if you have unusually dark stools or any change in the color or texture of your stool. Black stool may be accompanied by other symptoms, which vary depending on the underlying disease, disorder or condition. 

Symptoms that may accompany black stool include:

Serious symptoms that might indicate a life-threatening condition:

In some cases, black stool can indicate a life-threatening condition that should be immediately evaluated in an emergency settings.

Change in level of consciousness or alertness, such as passing out or unresponsiveness

Change in mental status or sudden behavior change, such as confusion, delirium, lethargy, hallucinations and delusions

DizzinessHigh fever (higher than 101 degrees fahrenheit)

PalpitationsRapid heart rate (tachycardia). Respiratory or breathing problems, such as shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, labored breathing, wheezing, not breathing, or choking

Complications include: Anaemia, cardiomegaly, shock, generalised body edema.

6 people found this helpful

BLEEDING DURING PASSING STOOL

Dr. Ashok Gupta 89% (5463 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, MBBS
General Surgeon, Delhi
BLEEDING DURING PASSING STOOL

Bleeding per rectum is the most worrying problem with many of us. What is required to check this?

Don't get panic.

See yourself it is coming mixed with stool or dripping drop by drop after passing the stool.

It is red or black in colour.

Do you have constipation?

How often is it repeated?

Any medication is taken on the previous day.

Any history of taking food outside in hotel or restaurant.

Any bleeding disorder you have which is known to you.

If you have any one of these make homework and contact doctor immediately with the answer to these question.

Most of the times it is controlled very easily but close watch and full medical opinion is required

16 people found this helpful

Anal Diseases - Bleeding In Stool

Dr. Anuj Sharma 85% (466 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Fellowship of Indian Association of Gastrointestinal Endo Surgeons (FIAGES)
General Surgeon, Meerut
Anal Diseases - Bleeding In Stool

 Seeing blood in the toilet, on the outside of your stool, or with wiping after a bowel movement is common. Fortunately, most of the causes of such rectal bleeding are not life-threatening,common causes include hemorrhoids and anal fissures but rarely it can be due to serious diseases, so never ignore it . Consult your doctor timely. Most of the cases can be manged with medicines and diet modification rarely surgical intervention is needed.

Develop healthy eating habits to avoid constipation , drink plenty of water, take lots of fruits, salads, green vegtables. Avoid spicy oily food . Avoid or restrict Alchol, Smoking, Tobbaco , Caffeine .Walk and Excercise and always consult your doctor timely.

5 people found this helpful

Colitis - Common Signs You Are Suffering From It!

Dr. Kunal Das 90% (11 ratings)
DM - Gastroenterology, MD - Internal Medicine, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery
Gastroenterologist, Noida
Colitis - Common Signs You Are Suffering From It!

Colitis is characterized by an inflammation of the large intestine (colon). It is generally caused due to the reduced blood supply, autoimmune reactions (wherein the immune system erroneously starts attacking the body’s healthy tissues) and infections in the large intestine.

Symptoms of colitis

  1. Presence of blood traces in the stool.
  2. Tenesmus (constant urge to empty the bowels) is also quite common
  3. Occurrence of abdominal pain in regular intervals, thus resulting in diarrhea
  4. Constant abdominal pain
  5. Fever and sudden chills throughout the day

Types of colitis

  1. Inflammatory bowel diseaseThis condition is characterized by inflammation of the intestines or all the parts of one’s digestive tract
  2. Microscopic colitis: This involves inflammation of the large intestine (colon), resulting in a cramping sensation that can be painful
  3. Chemical colitis:  This condition is caused due to prolonged exposure to certain harsh chemicals which results in intestinal swelling and inflammation
  4. Ischemic colitis: The most common form of colitis, this occurs mainly due to an insufficient blood supply to the large intestine

Diagnosis of colitis

  1. Stool - Routine and microscopy 
  2. Stools - Culture & sensitivity 
  3. Sigmodoscopy or Colonoscopy 
  4. CT scan - Abdomen

Treatment for colitis

  1. Medications such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen can be recommended to ease the pain
  2. The drug ‘Loperamide’ can control diarrhea. However, this should not be consumed if there is presence of blood in the stool
  3. Colitis reduces your appetite. Thus, it is important to maintain a healthy diet in this regard. Avoid consuming dairy products or high fiber foods because they further inflame the large intestine.
  4. Colectomy (surgically removing a part of the whole of the colon) is recommended in the most severe of cases.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2640 people found this helpful

Kidney Infection - How To Understand It?

Dr. Prashant C Dheerendra 89% (33 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, DM - Nephrology
Nephrologist, Bangalore
Kidney Infection - How To Understand It?

In most cases, a urinary tract infection affects only the urethra and bladder("Lower" UTI) but in some cases, it can affect the ureters and kidneys("Upper UTI) as well. This is known as Pyelonephritis or a kidney infection. If this infection spreads to the bloodstream, it could cause serious health problems. Since women have a shorter urethra than men, they are more susceptible to kidney infections. This is because the bacteria typically enter the body through the urethra. 

The most common symptoms of this type of kidney infection are: 

  1. Frequent urges to urinate 
  2. Painful urination 
  3. Backaches 
  4. Fever or chills 
  5. Nausea and vomiting 
  6. Presence of blood in the urine 
  7. Foul smell while urinating 
  8. Cloudy urine 

Pyelonephritis is caused by the same bacteria that cause lower urinary tract infections. In some cases, it may also be caused by E. coli or klebsiella bacteria found in stool. In rare instances, bacteria from the skin can also trigger this disease. The obstruction of urine flow or reduced urine flow can increase a person’s risk of suffering from this disease. Some of the causes for this obstruction include: 

  • Presence of stones in the bladder, ureters or kidney 
  • Tumours or cancerous masses in the abdominal or pelvic area 
  • Benign prostatic hypertrophy 

Kidney stones can also increase the risk of this disease by proving the bacteria with a place to multiply. Lastly, people suffering from diabetes or other conditions that impair the immune system are more susceptible to kidney infections. 

A thorough physical examination along with a urine analysis and urine culture are the first steps to confirming a diagnosis. Some doctors may also ask for a CT scan, blood cultures and an ultrasound of the kidneys. In an ultrasound, your doctor will also look for kidney stones or birth defects that could increase your risk of this disease. 

A 7-day course of antibiotics is enough to cure this disease in most cases. As long as the patient can take oral medication hospitalisation is not required but if the patient is nauseous and constantly vomits, hospitalisation may be suggested as the medicine will need to be given intravenously. In rare, extreme cases, the infection may cause the development of an abscess.

Abscesses cannot be cured by antibiotics and must be drained. Hence, kidney infections can be serious and one needs to take proper care if the symptoms are present. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Nephrologist.

3613 people found this helpful

How To Stop Stomach Problems?

Gautam Clinic Pvt Ltd 91% (7823 ratings)
Sexologist Clinic
Sexologist, Faridabad
How To Stop Stomach Problems?

Cope with having diarrhea. Stay hydrated by drinking water, juice, and broth throughout the day.

Get plenty of rest by staying home from work or school and staying in bed. Try over-the-counter anti-diarrheal medicines like Pepto-Bismol or Immodium A-D to help relieve symptoms. Follow a clear liquid diet of water, broth, juice, and sports drinks until you can handle solid food, then introduce the BRAT diet (bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast).

  • Avoid fatty foods, dairy, caffeine, alcohol, and artificial sweeteners.
  • Many cases of diarrhea are caused by viruses and will pass in a couple of days. It may also be the result of foodborne illness, which is far more common than you might think.
  • If your symptoms get worse or don’t resolve after 48 hours, see your doctor — you may need antibiotics or other medications.

Ease nausea and vomiting with a gentle diet. Stay hydrated — like with diarrhea, dehydration is the biggest risk when you’re sick with vomiting. Follow the same guidelines as when you have diarrhea. If you can eat without vomiting, eat small amounts of bland foods like toast, crackers, and jell-o. Once you can keep these down, add rice, cereal, and fruit to your diet. Increase what you eat slowly as your illness improves.

  • If you’re too nauseated to drink anything, try sucking on ice chips to get small amounts of fluids.
  • When you do drink liquids, try to have them at room temperature. Avoid cold or hot drinks.
  • Don’t eat spicy or fatty foods, which can further irritate your stomach.
  • Let your stomach calm down after vomiting by waiting 30 – 60 minutes afterwards to eat or drink anything. Don’t try heavy solid foods until at least six hours after you last vomited.
  • If your stomach upset is from motion sickness, try a medication like Dramamine before traveling.

Seek medical care if you become dehydrated. If you have diarrhea or vomiting that lasts over 24 hours, or you cannot keep any liquids down for over 12 hours, see your doctor right away. Seek emergency care if you have any signs or symptoms of dehydration, such as:

  • Extreme thirst
  • Dry mouth or skin
  • Dark urine, or producing little or no urine
  • Weakness, dizziness, fatigue, lightheadedness

See your doctor if you have pain or a high fever. Signs that your stomach problems necessitate medical care include a fever of 102°F (39°C) or higher, or moderate to severe stomach, rectal, or chest pain. If you have blood in your stool or vomit, or your stool is black and tarry, see your doctor right away.

Unblock constipation naturally, if possible. Try eating prunes or yogurt containing live cultures. Hydrate well and get regular exercise. Increase the fiber in your diet with vegetables and whole grains. Consult your doctor if you do not have a bowel movement for over a week — they may suggest castor oil, over-the-counter milk of magnesia, or a laxative.

  • People have different rhythms, and it’s normal to have a bowel movement every day to three times per week. If your stool is very hard or you have to strain to poop, see your doctor.

 

All About Typhoid Fever!

Dr. Vikram Gidwani 92% (60 ratings)
MBBS
General Physician, Chittorgarh

What is typhoid fever?
Typhoid fever or enteric fever is a digestive tract infection in which there is fever, headache, and abdominal pain or discomfort. It is very common in developing countries like india.

What are the causes and risk factors?
Typhoid fever is caused by a bacterium called salmonella typhi which is transmitted through contaminated water or food (feco-oral or urine-oral route).

Risk factors include:

  • Travelling to areas where typhoid fever is a common disease.
  • Being in a profession where contamination with bacteria is likely. Like those working in laboratories.
  • Coming in close contact with a person suffering from typhoid.
  • Drinking/ eating contaminated water or food.

How will you know if you have typhoid fever?
Signs and symptoms develop gradually over the period of 10-14 days after exposure to the bacteria.
Signs and symptoms include an irregular fever that can go up to 104.9 ˚f (40.5 ˚c), headache, pain in abdomen, tiredness, muscle pain, loss of appetite, nausea, constipation or diarrhoea, skin rash.

How is typhoid fever diagnosed?
Your doctor will do a physical examination and carry out some tests.
Physical findings in early stages include abdominal tenderness, enlarged spleen and liver, enlarged lymph nodes, and development of a rash (also known as rose spots because of their appearance).

Investigations include:

  • Blood tests: typhidot test igm and igg antibodies, blood culture to test for salmonella typhi.
  • Stool and urine analysis
  • Bone marrow culture: it is the most sensitive test, but it is rarely required except in patients who have already received antibiotics and not getting any better.
  • Widal antigen test: this test can be done, but there is a longer waiting phase of about 10 days till results can be seen, it is time-consuming and could give false positive results.

What is the treatment for typhoid fever?

What are the complications of typhoid fever?
If not treated and sometimes even after treatment, there can be serious complications due to typhoid like pneumonia, meningitis (inflammation of meninges of brain), infection in bones (osteomyelitis), intestinal perforation and intestinal haemorrhage.

A doctor needs to be consulted if a person starts developing the symptoms few days after travelling to a place where typhoid is prevalent.

How can typhoid fever be prevented?

  • Typhoid fever can be prevented by improving sanitation facilities and drinking clean drinking water.
  • Always wash your hands with soap and warm water after using restrooms, before eating or cooking food.
  • Maintaining optimum personal hygiene is the key to preventing this disease.
  • Travellers should not drink untreated water; avoid adding ice to their drinks and should not eat ice creams or milk products or street foods that are a rich source of the infection.
  • Vaccines are available that give partial protection. Vaccines usually are reserved for those who may be exposed to the disease or are travelling to areas where typhoid fever is common.
15 people found this helpful

Dr. Sadath Sait 89% (650 ratings)
BHMS
Homeopath, Ernakulam
Please avoid roadside eateries. As its monsoon. This year viral fever has come with loose stools too.

Urinary Tract Infection - How Constipation Can Lead To It?

Dr. Indira Das 93% (2737 ratings)
MBBS, DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Urinary Tract Infection - How Constipation Can Lead To It?

UTI is an infection that occurs in the urinary tract. It is more common in males than in females and it occurs in both the sexes contrary to popular belief. It usually is the work of a bacterium known as E.coli (Escherichia coli) although other bacterium and fungi may also be responsible for the same, very rarely do they actually cause it. UTI is not a sexually transmitted disease (STD) but it can pose a risk factor during sexual intercourse. So you need to be careful.

Since UTI is caused by a bacteria you can catch it from a number of sources. People who live in unhygienic conditions, lower income groups and the like are more prone to contracting UTI. UTI can cause a number of complications depending on the kind of infection you contract. It can affect the kidneys, which is the upper urinary tract, resulting in pyelonephritis as well as the bladder, the lower urinary tract resulting in cystitis. The simplest of UTI can be handled using a range of antibiotics but it can get further aggravated at which point it needs to be treated with intravenous antibiotics. There is a fair chance of mortality stemming from this disease and the lack of awareness about how it is caused does not help either. Thus, here is a quick guide to the causes of UTI that you can and should keep an eye out for:

  1. Constipation: Constipation makes it very easy for bacteria cultures to develop in your bladder. Since you cannot empty your body of the toxins as it does when you defecate, there is enough time and place for the bacteria to multiply and cause UTI. On the other hand, diarrhoea or faecal incontinence increase your chances of contracting UTI as the bacterium from the stool can stay stuck to your vagina and urethra. Be careful to wash up well after a bowel movement.
  2. Dehydration: Water helps in eliminating the body harmful toxins from the body that might cause infections and such. If you do not drink enough water and stay hydrated then your body becomes a breeding ground for bacteria that can cause UTI. Not drinking enough water can also lead to kidney stones which in turn stop your urine flow and nurture bacteria growth.
  3. Birth control and feminine hygiene products: The use of contraception and feminine hygiene products during menstruation like tampons and sanitary napkins can lead to UTI if not carefully monitored. Frequently changing your birth control is not advised as it can cause hormonal changes and affect the normal bacteria in your vagina. On the other hand, change your tampons as frequently as possible so as not to harbour bacteria growth.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3724 people found this helpful
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