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Spinal Discectomy Tips

Ozone Discectomy For Disc Prolapse!

Dr. Neeraj Jain 85% (19 ratings)
MBBS, MD, FIMSA, FIPP
Pain Management Specialist, Delhi
Ozone Discectomy For Disc Prolapse!

Ozone local anaesthesia with strict real time radiological control, which ensures the proper placement of Ozone in the center of the disc making it shrink.

Low Sciatica and PIVD

Among working-age people, as many as 20 percent experience back symptoms at least every year. facet arthropathy, sciatica, muscle strain, sacroilitis, bulging or herniated discs and degenerative disc disease. Prolapsed intervertebral discs (PIVD) are the most common cause of low back pain associated with a defined structural Abnormality.

Patients who are not helped by weeks of conservative therapy are often referred for pain that has persisted beyond a four-week period should be referred to a multidisciplinary pain center.

Different Non Surgical Interventions Employed Successfully:

  • Epidural Steroid Inj.

  • Epidurogram & Epidurolysis.

  • Nerve root sleeve/ transforaminal Inj.

  • Intra-discal steroid inj.

  • Nucleoplasty- Thermal & Mechanical

  • Ozone Discolysis

Conventional treatment methods for back pain comprise lamminectomy/ discectomy microsurgery, endoscopic disectomy and percutaneous arthoscopic disectomy, among others. These are invasive methods and their goal is to remove or contain the protruding disc. However, these methods have occasionally demonstrated a discrete incidence of failure and/or recurrence. Outcome studies of lumber disc surgeries ranging from 4% to 15%, have been noted. "In case of surgery, the chance of recurrence of pain is nearly 15 percent as against less than three percent in Ozone treatment.</p> <p><strong>Reasons for the failures</strong> of conventional surgeries are:</p> <ol> <li> <p>Dural fibrosis</p> </li> <li> <p>Arachnoidal adhesions</p> </li> <li> <p>Muscels and fascial fibrosis</p> </li> <li> <p>Mechanical instability resulting from the partial removal of boney & ligamentous structures required for surgical exposure & decompression</p> </li> <li> <p>Presence of Neuropathy.</p> </li> <li> <p>Multifactorial etiologies of back & <a href=">leg pain, some left unaddressed surgically.

Understanding the need for Nano-Technology 

  1. The various treatment options have confused clinicians and investigators due to high failure rate and complications associated with different kinds of surgeries and interventions. There has been a surge of interest in the search for a safer alternative method of decompressing the nerve roots maintaining the structural stability.
  2. Another safe least invasive alternative therapy that has been receiving exposure in Europe is the use of medical Ozone (02/03 mixture) in the treatment of PIVD. Epidural steroid injection, transforaminal epidural decompressions has a high success rate (up to 85%), but chances of recurrences are there specially if these interventions are done at later stage. anaphylaxis following intradiscal chymopapain injection. Injection of Ozone for discogenic radiculopathy (low back pain with radiation to legs) has developed as a revolutionary alternative to chemonucleolysis and disc surgery .

The use of ozone revolution for treating disc diseases 

Muto suggested an intradiscal injection of Ozone for a disc Ozone injection into the intervertebral disc. After that successful outcome has been reported from various European centers. It is very important to note from those reports that complications are remarkably few. Not a serious single life-threatening complication was found even after 120,000 cases of Ozone nucleolysis, which stresses the safety of these procedures.

The most critical portion of performing any of the minimally invasive procedures is the accuracy and safe positioning of the needle (or terminal device) in the centre of the disc space. The risk in ozonucleolysis is particularly minimised, with the use of a very thin 22/25-gauge needle. It may take anywhere from 5 to 30 minutes to position a needle in the centre of the disc space under radiological guidance. Once the needle is safely placed in position, ozonucleolysis is completed in only another 2 to 3 minutes.

How does water contained within the domain of proteoglycans. The water binding capacity of the proteoglycan molecule is partially a property of its size and physical shape, but the main force that holds water to the molecule stems from the ionic, carboxyl (COOH) and sulphate (SO4) radicals of the glycosaminoglycan chains. The ozone can have a direct effect on these carboxyl and sulphate groups, breaking down some of these glycosaminoglycan chains which make up the proteoglycans. The destruction of these cross-linked structures reduces their ability to hold water therefore diminishing the size of the herniation by collagen fibers and signs of regression (vacuole formation and fragmentation)- a sort of disk “<strong>mummification</strong>.”</p>

<p> </p> <p><strong>By Inhibiting inflammatory Nociceptors</strong></p> <ul> <li> <p>Synthesis of Prostaglandins & Secretion of Proteinases</p> </li> <li> <p>Liberation of Bradykinin and Pain Inducing Products</p> </li> <li> <p>Several studies suggest disc inflammation as a mechanism of sciatica due to disc herniation. Ozone has been shown to have an effect on the inflammatory cascade by inhibiting synthesis of proinflammatory prostaglandins or release of bradykinin or release of algogenic compounds; increased release of antagonists or soluble receptors able to neutralize proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-8, IL-12, IL-15, <a href=">interferon, and tumor necrosis factor. Therefore, by reducing the inflammatory components there is a corresponding reduction in pain.

By stimulating fibroblasts & immunosuppressor cytokines 

  • Local production of Antioxidant Enzymes
  • Another action which may prove to be one of the most important is the stimulation of
  • Release of immunosuppressor cytokines like transforming growth factor, and IL-10 fibroblastic activity by ozone. Fibroblasts initiate the repair process by stimulating the deposition of collagen. Although yet to be validated, this mode of action could explain the resolution of PIVD on CT scans and the small percentage of patients who have relapses after the completion of treatment plan.
  • Ozone may have a reflex therapy effect called ‘chemical acupuncture’, breaking the chain of infection which is healed with antibiotics.

     

    In fact, over 120,000 patients have been treated successfully worldwide using the injection of medical ozone with a success rate of 80-90% and with a near nil rate of procedure-related complications. “The procedure is a safe and effective alternative to open surgical procedure. Patients get the advantage of going home after a short recovery on the same day. They generally go to work within a week and are spared prolonged absence from work and disability,” The treatment relieves pain substantially and, after two sittings, people "can go back to work under medical guidance".

    Comparison: 1. More hospital stay One day/day care 2. Complications of prolonged surgery& spine surgery is the treatment of choice for prolapsed disc (PIVD) done under local anaesthesia in a daycare setting. This procedure is ideally suited for cervical & lumbar disc herniation with radiculopathy. The total cost of the procedure is much less than that of surgical discectomy. All these facts have made this procedure very popular in European countries. It is also gaining popularity in our country due to high success rate, less invasiveness, fewer chances of recurrences, remarkably fewer side effects meaning high safety profile, short hospital stay, no post-operative discomfort or morbidity and low cost.

4671 people found this helpful

Endoscopy Discectomy For Sciatica Slipped Disc!

Dr. Varun Singla 90% (33 ratings)
MD, PDCC, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, FPCI
Pain Management Specialist, Delhi
Endoscopy Discectomy For Sciatica Slipped Disc!

Herniated Disc

We all know that spine is one of the crucial parts of our body. The spine forming bones or vertebrae are protected by spongy and small discs. In healthy condition, these discs play the roles of shock absorbers for our spine and help to retain its flexibility. However, while a disc gets damaged, it might break open or bulge. This particular condition is known as ‘herniated disc’. This condition is also called ruptured or slipped disc. An individual can be suffering from the issue of the herniated disc in any of the part of his/her spine. However, most of the herniated discs influence the lumbar spine or lower back. Sometimes, it happens in cervical spine or neck and rarely this condition is seen in the thoracic spine or upper back.

Causes

A herniated disc might be sourced from the disc erosion. With age, the discs start drying out and they become unable to retain their flexibility. Another reason for which this problem can generate is spine injury. It might result in minute cracks or tears in the disc’s hard outer coating. While it occurs, the thick gel (from the internal part of the disc) might be forced out via the cracks or tears in the disc’s outer layer. As a result, the disc can become break open or bulge.

 

Symptoms

Whenever a herniated disc starts pressing the nerve roots, the affected person can feel pain, weakness, and numbness in the nerve traveling area of his/her body. When the herniated disc issue affects one’s lower back portion, it can generate numbness and pain in his/her buttock, as well as, down his/her leg and this condition is known as sciatica. It is the most prominent sign regarding a low back herniated disc. If a herniated disc does not provide pressure to the nerve, then the affected person might be suffering from a backache. Sometimes, there is no pain absolutely. Generally, a herniated disc heals automatically with the passage of time. The affected person should take patience and strictly follow the treatment plan provided by the doctor. In case, there is no change in the symptoms within the pre-specified period, then that person should consult the doctor about the appropriate surgery.

Endoscopic Surgery

Endoscopic techniques for the purpose of diagnosis have been started since the late 1970s. Experts initiated the utilization of the popular techniques of endoscopic surgery in the 1990s, however, the particular technique is now used for the spine conditions’ treatment. In this procedure, pain and spine specialist make use of specialized instrumentation, as well as, video cameras and perform it through minute incisions. For alleviating interruption to one’s tissue and muscles, the surgeon receives access to the respective vertebrae through the placement of collections of tubes in the endoscopic spine surgery. The Endoscopic spine processes are usually executed in either 23-hour stay or an outpatient setting. The particular minimally invasive spine surgery is utilized for relieving pain sourced from pressing of herniated discs on nerve roots. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4116 people found this helpful

Endoscopic Discectomy - Pin Hole Stitchless Techniques

Dr. Sanjay Sharma 88% (293 ratings)
Fellowship in Interventional Pain management , Diploma in Anesthesia, DA, MBBS
Pain Management Specialist, Jaipur
Endoscopic Discectomy - Pin Hole Stitchless Techniques

What's pivd?
Also called as slipdisc pain or sciatica may affect your lumbar or cervical or throracic spine. But most common is l4 5and l5-s1 level or c5-6 level.
Most of painful condition of pertaining to your spine due to bulge, prolapse (protrusion), extrusion, sequestration. In with all condition nucleus pulposus come out from it originally site. Causing pressure over traversing or exiting nerve roots. Most of time patient getting treatment for of slipdisc or sciatica etc without any radiological evidence.

What causes pivd?
*unwanted prolonged exposure to sitting posture
*acute forward flexion
*unwanted weight lifting
*trauma or accident
*overweight body
*undesirable exercise
*keep on exercise for chronic pain condition

What is symptoms?
Paresthesia, numbness, tingling sensation, burning sensation, spasms in thigh's and calf muscles, radiating pain upto knee or foot. Unable to sitting or standing for long hours, bowl or bladder incontinence, motor power affected

What are basic investigation?
X-rays only show alignment and fracture and displacement of vertebrae,
Mri scan shows all soft and hard structure of spine-all disc, nerve, ligaments, joint, vessel and muscles etc can be seen in perfect way
Emg, ncv, neurometry etc

Treatment options?
There's two types of options for your spine pain, one is conservative treatment with bed rest, exercises and medicine. But upto certain duration 6week to 6month you can try with. If no red flag sign like loss of motor power. Or bowl bladder involvement should take opinion from surgeon.

Second way is surgical procedure-like conventional open surgery or endoscopic minimal invasive techniques choice of your surgeon. As common man had reservation about spine surgery as thoughts to be risky, chance of bowl and bladder incontinence, or power loss of limbs, because in conventional surgery a small percentage of cases use to face failed back surgery syndrome. Where such complaint were invitable. Big skin incision. Long bed rest. Long hospital stays. Even with expert surgeon these complications were enviably there.
Secondly there is minimal invasive like pin hole stitchless techniques are now choice for spine disc pain problem. Day care surgery with out any blood loss. 24hrs hospital stay, no incision like conventional surgery. Done under local anaesthesia and sedation. Patient can resume daily activities same day. Can go to work with safety measures after 2weeks. And safety precautions to be followed for strengthening your back spine. Now like day care surgery endoscopic discectomy for slipdisc pain can be managed in our hands. All surgery can be seen even by patients on screen, what exactly happened to your spine and disc material.

Post procedure- follow up-
Regular physiotherapy and rehabilitation services is mandatory for strengthening of your spine.
Prognosis-success of procedure is 95%with all precautions and safety measures.

Spondylolysthesis - A Condition Which Affects Your Spinal Bones!

Dr. Harpreet Singh 85% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics, Clinical Fellowship In Adult & Peadiatric Spine Surgery
Orthopedist, Kanpur
Spondylolysthesis - A Condition Which Affects Your Spinal Bones!

Spondylolisthesis refers to the condition which affects your spinal bones or lower vertebrae. Due to this condition one of the lower vertebrae overlaps the bone directly beneath it. Although a painful condition, it can certainly be treated with both surgical and therapeutic methods.

People with spondylolisthesis often find it difficult to perform routine activities. They usually encounter symptoms such as- persistent pain in the pelvic region, lower back; stiffness in the legs, hamstrings and hip muscles.

What causes spondylolisthesis?
The causes of spondylolisthesis can vary with lifestyle, heredity and age. Children may develop this condition due to an injury or birth defect. Nevertheless, people belonging to all age groups are susceptible to spondylolisthesis if the condition is genetic.

Over exercise or strenuous physical activities can cause spondylolisthesis because over stretching and carrying heavy weight or strain puts too much stress on the lower back.

Participating in sports like football, gymnastics, weightlifting are likely to trigger spondylolisthesis.

Spondylolisthesis can also be triggered due to sondylolysis. The vertebrae safeguard the spinal cord and work with tendons, ligaments, joints and muscles to provide flexibility, structure and support to the neck. Any sort of damage or wear and tear in the protective cartilage and bones in the neck can lead to cervical spondylosis, which in turn leads to spondylolisthesis.

What is the treatment for spondylolisthesis?
Treatment of spondylolisthesis depends on the severity of the pain. While non-surgical methods help ease the pain, a surgery is recommended when the bone has slipped to such an extent that your spine doesn’t respond to medications.

Non-surgical treatment includes the following-

  1. Taking anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen to ease pain.
  2. Practicing a few physiotherapy exercises to reduce lower back pain.
  3. Use of minimally invasive Epidural Steroid Injections (EPIs) to get relief from lower back pain and pelvic pain caused by inflamed spinal nerves. When over-the-counter medications fail to treat tSpondylolysthesishe condition or ease the symptoms, then a surgery is inevitable.
  4. Discectomy- It is a surgical procedure that makes small incisions to remove a part of the damaged disc to relieve pressure from the surrounding spinal cord or nerve root.
  5. Laminotomy- This refers to a minimally invasive procedure that removes a part of the lamina which is the upper surface of the vertebra. This process is used to create more space within the spinal canal.
  6. Foraminotomy- With this method excess bone tissues are removed so that they don’t make the foramen narrow and compress the nerve root. Removing these extra tissues reduce back pain and ease symptoms triggered by nerve compression.

Medical attention is crucial for countering symptoms of spondylolisthesis. Although this condition may not seem life-threatening, if left untreated, it can lead to chronic, persistent pain and permanent nerve damage.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3536 people found this helpful

Know More About Spinal Stenosis

Dr. Pramod Saini 88% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics, FNB Spine surgery, Fellowship In Spine Surgery (AO Spine)
Orthopedist, Noida
Know More About Spinal Stenosis
  • A laminectomy relieves nerve pressure and pain caused by spinal stenosis. Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal that puts pressure on the nerves and causes pain throughout the spine and extremities. It can develop as a result of bone spurs or just from aging. In this procedure, a small section of bone that covers the back of the spinal cord, called the lamina, is removed to relieve the compression. A laminectomy is performed through the back of the spine under general anesthesia. The removal of the lamina and any bone spurs relieves the pressure on the spinal cord. The procedure may be done without fusion, or it can be performed in conjunction with a spinal fusion
4 people found this helpful

Postoperative Care for Spinal Fusion Surgery!

MBBS, Cerebrovascular and Micro neurosurgery fellowship, MS - General Surgery, MCh Neurosurgery
Neurosurgeon, Jaipur
Postoperative Care for Spinal Fusion Surgery!

Spinal surgery becomes inevitable when back pain cannot be managed with medications and/or exercise. This is a major decision and requires planning for many things before, during, and after the surgery.

Before a spinal surgery- This preparation will help in smooth recovery, especially if you do not have a full-time caretaker.

  1. Discontinue pain killers: Discontinue pain killers at least 10 to 14 days before surgery. These are blood thinners and can prolong bleeding during the surgery.

  2. Prepare for blood loss: Most people experience some blood loss, but not excessive.

  3. Use a toilet seat raiser: Sitting and getting up from the toilet seat may be difficult. The seat raiser is used to increase the height, making this movement easy.

  4. Enable easy access to common items: Before heading for the surgery, keep things which are commonly used within easy reach. This will help reduce movement and avoid searching (especially if someone else is going to be doing it).

  5. Stock it up: Cooking may not be feasible during the initial postop period, and so it is advisable to stock up food items (ready to eats, fruits, soups, etc.) which will come in handy.

  6. Slip-ons: Bending down and tying shoes may not be easy, so slip-ons can be used.

  7. Caregiving: It is always advisable to have someone stay over with you during the initial postop days. They could help with regular household chores, cooking, etc.

  8. Lifestyle changes: Ensure you eat well in the days before surgery, quit smoking, quit/use moderate amounts of alcohol, and exercise as advised by your surgeon.

After Surgery- Post surgery, there will be some pain and limitation of movement. It is important to understand that adherence to post-op instructions will improve the success rate of the surgery. Also, recovery time for spine surgery is slightly longer and affects overall quality of life, so psychological preparation is required.

  1. Postoperative medications: These will be given to control infection and pain in the immediate postop period, and should be taken without fail

  2. Rehab: The surgeon will recommend physical therapy and rehab exercises which need to be followed. Complete recovery may take anywhere between 3 to 12 months. During this time, care should be taken to avoid repeat injury.

  3. Support: Adequate back support should be provided using lumbar support and ergonomic chairs, and the right posture should be maintained. Ensure there is no undue strain on the back muscles.

  4. Weight management: With excess weight, there is too much strain on the lower disks. Therefore, weight should be managed to reduce this strain.

  5. Smoking and alcohol should be completely stopped, as healing can be hampered.

With some preparation, spinal surgery can be sailed through smoothly. Consult an Expert & get answers to your questions!

1950 people found this helpful

Physiotherapy Treatment for Spinal Arachnoiditis

Dr. Vishwas Virmani 91% (22727 ratings)
MPT, BPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
Physiotherapy Treatment for Spinal Arachnoiditis

SPINAL ARACHNOIDITIS

Arachnoiditis of the spinal cord is a non specific inflammatory disease of the arachonoid membrane which is characterized pathologically by thickening of the arachnoid membrane with adhesion or adherence to the dura matter and manifested clinically through roots or radiclar signs and symptoms.  

CLINICAL FEATURES

Arachnoiditis is usually seen in 40 to 60 years of age but rarely below 20years.

Onset: it can be acute or sometimes it may take months.Pain: pain is usually localized type with a burning character. Later the painstarts radiating down the lower limb due to nerve root irritation.

Paresthesia: this also takes place due to irritation of the sensory nerve  roots.

Sensory loss: this occurs when the sensory nerve roots get completely blocked.

Muscle weakness with atrophy: although the anatomy of the motor nerve roots make them less prone to get compressed, it can happen in the later stage which will then give rise to weakness and wasting of the corresponding muscles. 

MANAGEMENT 

The medical management usually consists of corticosteroids in acute stage of inflammation. NSAID for pain relief and inflammation.

Surgical management consists of Rhizotomy in cases of unbearable pain.Surgical decompression for removal of cyst

PHYSIOTHERAPY MANAGEMENT comprises of 

Moist heat mainly for reducing the muscle spasm. 

SSF also relieves pain by reducing spasm  and by increasing the blood supply to the area. In case of radiating pain due to involvement of nerve roots the patient may be treated with TENS. Even in     cases of paresthesia TENS is usually used. 

Laser has been found to reduce the inflammation and also break the adhesion in the deep seated structures  which helps in setting free the irritation on the nerve roots thereby     relieving the discomforts of the patient. 

Active exercises like static exercises for the abdominus, back extensor, gluteus and quadriceps helps in reducing   pain in the initial stages and also maintains the tone in the muscles. 

Dynamic exercises may be started once the  pain level comes within the patient’s tolerance level. These exercises may be continued by the patient throughout the life for preventing any chances     of recurrence. 

SLR: Active and passive SLR is given to  lengthen the neural structures and relieve the tension in them. This is a type of neural mobilization that helps in relieving the signs of   radiculopathy. 

Gait training in cases of muscular weakness.

Spinal Cord Injury: Know How To Prevent It!

Dr. Satyajit Das 89% (79 ratings)
DNB NEUROSURGERY, M.B.B.S.
Neurosurgeon, Durgapur
Spinal Cord Injury: Know How To Prevent It!

The spinal cord is like a cable consisting of millions of nerves that transmit messages in the form of electrochemical signals from the brain to the rest of the body, and also sensations from the body back to the brain. We are able to perceive pain and move our limbs because of messages sent through the spinal cord. 

The spinal cord is soft and vulnerable to injury. It is protected by the bony structure of the vertebral column. A spinal cord injury can happen if there is a fracture of the spine. Sometimes, even if the vertebral column is intact, violent shaking can cause cord contusions. It’s an extremely serious type of injury that is likely to have a lasting and significant impact on most aspects of daily life. 

If the spinal cord sustains an injury, some or all of these impulses may get blocked. The result is a loss of sensation and mobility below the level of injury. A spinal cord injury closer to the neck will typically cause paralysis throughout the body, while one in the lower back may affect the legs but spare the hands. 

Causes: 

A spinal cord injury is often the result of violent trauma. Events like spontaneous hemorrhage, infection, tumors or autoimmune diseases can also cause spinal cord damage. Some causes of traumatic injury to the spinal cord are : 

  • trauma during a car accident (specifically, trauma to the face, head and neck region, back, or chest area) 
  • falling from a significant height 
  • head or spinal injuries during sporting events 
  • electrical accidents 
  • a violent attack such as a stabbing or a gunshot 
  • Diving head first into water that’s too shallow and hitting the bottom

Symptoms-

Some symptoms of a spinal cord injury include: 

  • Neck or back pain 
  • Pain radiating along limbs, or numbness/ pins and needles sensation along the arms or legs. 
  • Weakness of particular muscle groups in focal injury, to complete paralysis in severe injury. 
  • Clumsiness during finer actions using the hands. 
  • Unsteadiness or loss of balance while walking. 
  • Loss of control of the bladder or bowels You must take immediate precautions 

If there is the slightest suspicion that someone has a back or neck injury: 

  • Call 911 or your local emergency medical assistance number 
  • Do not move the injured person – permanent paralysis and other serious complications may result. 
  • Place heavy towels on both sides of the neck or hold the head and neck to prevent them from moving until emergency care arrives •    Provide basic first aid, such as stopping any bleeding and making the person comfortable, without moving the head or neck 
  • If movement is absolutely necessary, arrange a cervical collar, then log-roll onto a stiff spine board or flat surface, taking care that all parts of the body move together and that any relative movement between one part of the spine to the next is avoided. 

Prevention- 
Because spinal cord injuries are often due to unpredictable events, the best you can do is reduce your risk. Some risk-reducing measures include: 

  • always wearing a seatbelt while in a car 
  • wearing proper protective gear while playing sports 
  • never diving into water unless you’ve examined it first to make sure it’s deep enough and free of rocks 
  • increase protective measures to avoid falls from height 

Treatment: 
Seek the opinion of a Neurosurgeon or an Orthopedic spine surgeon as soon as possible. X-rays, CT scan or MRI scans may be advised for assessing bony or soft tissue injuries of spine. Minor injuries require only immobilization and rest. Severe injuries, however, may require steroid injections and surgical intervention. Time is of essence, and an early surgery in certain situations may save a limb that would otherwise be paralyzed for life.

3186 people found this helpful

Spinal Bifida - Know The Signs That Indicate It!

MCh - Neurosurgery, MS-General Surgery, MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Delhi
Spinal Bifida - Know The Signs That Indicate It!

The medical term ‘spina bifida’ or spinal bifida refers to a congenital defect in the spine. In simpler terms, spina bifida is a defect in the neural tube. Based on the severity of this disease, spina bifida can be divided into three different types:

  • Myelomeningocele
  • Meningocele
  • Occulta

The symptoms of spina bifida vary depending on each of these three types. Let's take a closer look at its symptoms here:

Myelomeningocele

Myelomeningocele is the most severe form of spina bifida. In this type of neural defect, spinal canal of the baby remains open in the middle or lower back along a few vertebrae. Due to this opening, a sac is formed at the back of the baby at birth, which exposes the baby to several life-threatening infections.

Some of the common symptoms of this type of spina bifida are:

  1. Seizures
  2. Presence of uneven hips
  3. Deformed feet
  4. Curved spine or scoliosis
  5. Bladder and bowel problems
  6. Muscle weakness
  7. Paralyzed leg muscles.

Physical deformities from moderate to severe levels are also very common in this type of spina bifida.

Meningocele

Meningocele is a ratherrare form of spinal bifida in which a sack of fluid stays in open at the back of the baby. Here the protective membranes that usually stay around the spinal cord push out through the vertebrae’s opening. Though this sack contains no part of the spinal cord, it may cause minor disabilities.

Some common symptoms of this kind of spina bifida are:

  1. Membranes forming a visible sack on the back at birth
  2. Presence of a small opening in the baby's back

The good news is that this sack can be removed through surgery without hampering the normal development of the spinal cord.

Occulta
Spina bifida occulta is the mildest form of spina bifida, which, in majority of the cases, often stays hidden as its symptoms are rarely visible. As it doesn’t even cause any form of disabilities, it generally goes unnoticed. It doesn’t cause any damages to the nerves or the spinal cord.

Some common symptoms of occulta are:

  1. Presence of a gap between the vertebrae
  2. An area on the back formed with extra fat
  3. Acluster or small group of hair on the back
  4. A dimple or birthmark on the back.

In this kind of spina bifida, neither any sack of fluid is formed, nor are there any visible opening in the back. Sometimes, people who have spina bifida are not aware of it due to its minimal symptoms.
Spina bifida usually affects a child before birth, when the brain or the cord or the protective covering over them fails to develop completely. Knowing about the symptoms can be one of the best ways to identify and diagnose this disease and opt for proper treatment solutions. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurosurgeon.

2556 people found this helpful

Symptoms Of Spinal Stenosis And Its Treatment

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, D.Ortho
Orthopedist, Guwahati
Symptoms Of Spinal Stenosis And Its Treatment

What is Spinal Stenosis: The narrowing of the gaps in the spine or the backbone is called as Spinal stenosis. This leads to pressure on the nerves and the spinal cord. 5% of cases of spinal stenosis are seen in the low back of the lumbar spine. In some cases the narrowing of the spine leads to the compressing of the nerve root, which leads to pain in the leg.

Causes of spinal stenosis: It can be caused by aging, arthritis, trauma to the spine, spondylolisthesis and tumor of the spine

Symptoms of spinal stenosis: There is constant pain in the back and legs as stenosis pinches the nerve responsible for sensation and muscle power. Other symptoms are numbness and tingling in the legs, frequent falling and pain while walking.

Treatment of spinal stenosis:

-  A routine program with exercises and physical therapy are the best treatment for spinal stenosis. The exercises are not a complete cure but they are beneficial in keeping the patient active. A physical therapy can be supervised and once the period of the same is over people easily transition to the exercise program. The key for exercise is starting slowly in order to build strength.

-  Generally, the patients are counseled not to perform strenuous activities as that might worsen the symptoms of spinal stenosis. In case of lumbar stenosis, patients find it comfortable when they are flexed forward. The doctor might recommend walking while being bent over and leaning when using a walker if not walking upright; sitting in recliners is also recommended instead of straight back chairs.

-  Injections of cortisone are usually given in the epidural space. This is believed to relieve the symptoms of spinal stenosis temporarily. Though there have been studies which question the use of these injections as they lead to the risk of osteoporosis related fractures. This is still being pondered over by the doctors as a suitable treatment option as it has its own benefits and risks.

-  Medications such as the antiinflammatory medicines like ibuprofen or aspirin are helpful in controlling the symptoms of spinal stenosis. Narcotic drugs might also prove to be helpful if used with care and for a short while. This is helpful for severe pain related to the nerves. Muscle relaxants like gabapentins might also be recommended. In some case anti depressants might also be given to provide relief from pain. 

Though side effects are a concern when using these medications and the patient should let the doctor knows about their allergies.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3546 people found this helpful
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