Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur if you have diabetes. High blood sugar (glucose) can injure nerves throughout your body. Diabetic neuropathy most often damages nerves in your legs and feet.
Depending on the affected nerves, symptoms of diabetic neuropathy can range from pain and numbness in your legs and feet to problems with your digestive system, urinary tract, blood vessels and heart. Some people have mild symptoms. But for others, diabetic neuropathy can be quite painful and disabling.
Diabetic neuropathy is a common and serious complication of diabetes. But you can often prevent diabetic neuropathy or slow its progress with tight blood sugar control and a healthy lifestyle.
Signs and symptoms :
Peripheral Neuropathy symptoms:
Numbness or reduced ability to feel pain or temperature changes.
Tingling or burning sensation.
Sharp pains or cramps.
Increased sensitivity to touch — for some people, even the weight of a bedsheet can be painful.
Autonomic Neuropathy symptoms :
This type usually affects the digestive system, especially the stomach. It can also affect the blood vessels, urinary system, and sex organs.
Radiculoplexus neuropathy :
Severe pain in a hip and thigh or buttock that occurs in a day or more
Eventual weak and shrinking thigh muscles
Difficulty rising from a sitting position
Abdominal swelling, if the abdomen is affected
Damage to nerves and blood vessels
The exact cause likely differs for each type of neuropathy. Researchers think that over time, uncontrolled high blood sugar damages nerves and interferes with their ability to send signals, leading to diabetic neuropathy. High blood sugar also weakens the walls of the small blood vessels (capillaries) that supply the nerves with oxygen and nutrients.
However, a combination of factors may lead to nerve damage, including:
Inflammation in the nerves caused by an autoimmune response. The immune system mistakes nerves as foreign and attacks them.
Genetic factors unrelated to diabetes may make some people more likely to develop nerve damage.
Smoking and alcohol abuse damage both nerves and blood vessels and significantly increase the risk of infection.
A doctor can usually diagnose diabetic neuropathy by performing a physical exam and carefully reviewing your symptoms and medical history.
Your doctor will check your:
Overall muscle strength and tone
Sensitivity to touch and vibration
Also at every visit, your doctor should check your feet for sores, cracked skin, blisters, and bone and joint problems. The American Diabetes Association recommends that all people with diabetes have a comprehensive foot exam at least once a year.
Along with the physical exam, your doctor may perform or order specific tests to help diagnose diabetic neuropathy, such as:
Filament test. Your doctor will brush a soft nylon fiber (monofilament) over areas of your skin to test your sensitivity to touch.
Quantitative sensory testing. This noninvasive test is used to tell how your nerves respond to vibration and changes in temperature.
Nerve conduction studies. This test measures how quickly the nerves in your arms and legs conduct electrical signals. It's often used to diagnose carpal tunnel syndrome.
Electromyography (EMG). Often performed along with nerve conduction studies, EMG measures the electrical discharges produced in your muscles.
Autonomic testing. If you have symptoms of autonomic neuropathy, special tests may be done to determine how your blood pressure changes while you are in different positions, and whether you sweat normally.
You can prevent or delay diabetic neuropathy and its complications by keeping tight control of your blood sugar and taking good care of your feet.
Blood sugar control
Use an at-home blood sugar monitor to check your blood sugar and make sure it consistently stays within target range. It's important to do this on schedule. Shifts in blood sugar levels can accelerate nerve damage.
The American Diabetes Association recommends that people with diabetes have the A1C test at least twice a year. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. If your blood sugar isn't well-controlled or you change medications, you may need to get tested more often.
Follow your doctor's recommendations for good foot care.
Foot problems, including sores that don't heal, ulcers and even amputation, are a common complication of diabetic neuropathy. But you can prevent many of these problems by having a comprehensive foot exam at least once a year, having your doctor check your feet at each office visit and taking good care of your feet at home.
To protect the health of your feet:
Check your feet every day. Look for blisters, cuts, bruises, cracked and peeling skin, redness, and swelling. Use a mirror or ask a friend or family member to help examine parts of your feet that are hard to see.
Keep your feet clean and dry. Wash your feet every day with lukewarm water and mild soap. Avoid soaking your feet. Dry your feet and between your toes carefully by blotting or patting with a soft towel.
Moisturize your feet thoroughly to prevent cracking. Avoid getting lotion between your toes, however, as this can encourage fungal growth.
Trim your toenails carefully. Cut your toenails straight across, and file the edges carefully so there are no sharp edges.
Wear clean, dry socks. Look for socks made of cotton or moisture-wicking fibers that don't have tight bands or thick seams.
Wear cushioned shoes that fit well. Always wear shoes or slippers to protect your feet from injury. Make sure that your shoes fit properly and allow your toes to move. A podiatrist (foot doctor) can teach you how to buy properly fitted shoes and to prevent problems such as corns and calluses.
If problems do occur, your doctor can help treat them to prevent more-serious conditions. Even small sores can quickly turn into severe infections if left untreated.
Peripheral arterial disease or commonly known as PAD is a common cardiovascular disease. Despite having the power to cause painful symptoms and severe health risks, it is overlooked by many. This particular arterial disease may lead to life-threatening consequences if left untreated for long. Read on to know more about the condition.
What is PAD?
PAD refers to the situation where in the peripheral arteries to the arms, head, stomach, and legs become narrow. Often referred to as the peripheral vascular disease, here, the arteries start to grow narrower due to the slow but constant buildup of fatty deposits on the artery walls. Though it can affect all the arteries in a person’s body, except those that supply blood to the heart, in the majority of cases, it affects the arteries in the leg.
What are the threats it poses?
PAD is indeed a life-threatening disease, as the blockages, it creates in the peripheral arteries prevent normal blood circulation to the different organs, legs, and brain. And when the blood flow is restricted, or the vital organs of the body fail to receive necessary blood flow, then the legs, brain and all the vital organs suffer severe damage. And when PAD continues to harm the blood flow for a long time, then it leads to tissue infection or tissue death, which is known as gangrene.
Additional health issues it causes
PAD also creates various other health concerns, such as atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease of fatty materials’ build up. In the case of atherosclerosis, the entire blood circulatory system gets damaged, including the arteries leading to the heart. The risk of blood clot build ups and vascular inflammation are also common additional threats posed by the fatty deposits.
Depending on the part of the body that is affected, the PAD symptoms vary from one to another. However, painful cramping in the muscles of one’s legs is the most common symptom of this condition. The pain, originating in the legs often goes up to the muscles in the thighs or hips too. Except this, weakness or numbness in the legs, ulcers or open sores on the feet or legs, skin color changing into bluish or pale are some of the other symptoms of PAD.
The peripheral arterial disease can be diagnosed easily, painlessly and straightforwardly under proper medical attention. Both prescribed medications and a lifestyle change are considered to be the best treatment for controlling PAD. Including a healthy diet and adopting a healthy lifestyle have often been successful in preventing PAD in its early stage.
The moment any signs or symptoms of PAD is noticed one should not be late in seeking immediate medical attention.
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a circulation issue that affects the arteries and blood vessels outside of the brain and heart. PVD commonly strikes the arteries that supply blood to the arms, legs, and organs situated beneath the stomach. These are the arteries that are located away from the heart. They are known as peripheral vessels.
In PVD, the width of the arteries get limited. Narrowing is normally created by arteriosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis is a condition where plaque develops inside a vessel. It is additionally called 'solidifying of the arteries'. Plaque acts towards reducing the amount of blood and oxygen that is supplied to the arms and legs. As the plaque development advances, clumps may develop, which may further affect the vessel.
There are two main types of PVDs:
The most well-known reasons for functional PVDs are as follows:
The common causes of such natural PVDs are given below:
The symptoms include the following:
Primary diagnosis is by color doppler of the affected limb. PVD can also be diagnosed using interventional radiology (IR).
IRis a sub-claim of radiology that gives an image-guided diagnosis, and if required, includes treatment of the organs as well.It has developed as a first-line treatment in the administration of PVD.
IR medications are for the most part less demanding for patients than surgery, since they include no surgical cut.They are less painful and have shorter stays at the hospital. By and large, the patients are discharged on the same day the procedure is done. This mainly includes angioplasty and stenting. The procedure is as follows:
Angioplasty and stenting have totally replaced invasive surgical methods. Early trials have proven IR to be as successful as surgery for some blood vessel and artery impairments. Earlier, extensive clinical experience demonstrated that stenting and angioplasty are favoured as first-line treatments for more procedures all through the body .
Doctors as well as patients who have been through the same, believe that IR is much better for PVD than invasive surgery, since it reduces the risk of infection.
Heel pain is a common problem in the body where the affected person experiences pain radiating from the heel bone. Heel pain usually progresses slowly over time, it is recommended to consult a medical professional, if heel pain turns severe. The pain tends to most severe after one has been inactive for some time such as after waking up in the morning.
Heel pain is usually caused when tissues present in the bottom of the heel (plantar fascia) is damaged. These tissues connect the heel bone with the bones of the feet and help in absorbing shocks. Tears are formed in these tissues when they are damaged or when they get thicker. These tissues are at an increased risk of wear and tear for those who are over 45 years old. The risks also tend to increase if the person is obese or whose occupation requires standing for lengthy periods of time.
Among other causes of heel pain are heel bone fractures, fat pad atrophy (a condition where a layer of fat present under the heel bone is reduced) and bursitis (inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs present around the joints). Peripheral neuropathy is a condition where damage occurs in the peripheral nerves (that transmits signals between the central nervous system and the rest of the body), this can cause pain in the heel.
The symptoms of heel pain include:
1. Experiencing pain while jogging or walking
2. A feeling of pins pricking the heels after waking up in the morning
3. Inability to bend the heel
4. Painful swelling
5. Pain in the heel accompanied by fever
Prevention and treatment-
Heel pain can be prevented by taking certain preventive measures such as restricting usage of high heeled shoes without proper support and stretching the heel regularly. Medications such as painkillers are used to treat symptoms of heel pain
Physiotherapy treatment -
1. Some instructions have to follow
2. Manual therapy
3. Ift +ultrasound therapy
4. Calf stretching
5. Contras bath
The sensation of pain and numbness are quite common in patients suffering from high blood sugar. If you are suffering from nerve damage from high blood sugar, chances are you have diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The discomfort can affect your mood and overall quality of life. But with some easy to follow steps can help you keep peripheral neuropathy under control.
With these few tips, you will be able to manage the peripheral neuropathy better.
The circulatory system involving blood vessels and valves is quite an intricate networking system. Blood flow is maintained in separate channels controlled by valves. The vessels distant from the heart are known as peripheral arteries (and veins). Due to fatty deposits, the blood vessels narrow, and therefore their blood-carrying capacity reduces. This leads to reduced blood supply to the legs. The blood carries essential nutrients, and when the legs do not receive it, their function is affected. Read on to know more about this condition.
Peripheral artery disease: As noted above, peripheral artery disease or peripheral vascular disease is when the peripheral organs do not receive adequate blood supply. This could be either due to vascular structural abnormalities or more commonly due to atherosclerosis.
Symptoms: PVD or PAD is a chronic disease, and there are no immediate symptoms. The onset happens over a period of time, and symptoms include:
Complications: PAD reduces blood supply to the distant organs. Therefore, the limbs can have ischemia and also undergo death. It is common for sores to not heal due to the poor blood supply. When this condition continues for a prolonged period, then portions of the extremities could become dead due to lack of blood supply. This could also affect the brain and heart, causing stroke and heart attacks.
Treatment: Peripheral artery disease can be treated by the following measures:
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) refers to the narrowing of blood vessels that in turn causes poor blood flow to the limbs. This is also known as peripheral vascular disease. The blood vessels of the legs are most susceptible to this condition. PAD is typically caused by a buildup of plaque in the blood vessels. This limits the amount of blood that can pass through the arteries. High cholesterol, blood pressure and smoking are all contributors to this condition.
Treatment for the Peripheral arterial disease aims at
In patients suffering from severe peripheral arterial disease, a bypass surgery or an angioplasty may be required. This surgery aims at opening out the narrowed arteries and rerouting blood around the blockages. In very rare cases of advanced PAD, a lack of blood flow can also cause the death of the tissue in the foot or leg. In such cases, the foot or leg will need to be amputated. This is usually seen only if the patient also suffers from diabetes.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, and affects other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected. The treatment by a physical therapist helps in reducing symptoms and improves an individual’s quality of life. As the cause, type, and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy can vary, the approach to care also varies. Physical therapy is helpful in maintaining strength, mobility, and function.
Strengthening exercises for peripheral neuropathy moderately improve muscle strength. Exercising can help, when done regularly. They further reduce the neuropathic pain and also helps in controlling the blood sugar levels.
Objectives of physiotherapy include:
Maintaining and improving functions via a range of motion through stretching.
Strengthening muscles which include exercising against increasing resistance, use of weights and isometric exercise.
Balance training helps in providing stability and prevents falls.
Braces or splints can be used to enhance balance and posture.
Following recommendations and care are provided by physiotherapist:
Moderate intensity exercise- It helps to improve strength and physical function.
Never gliding activities- Includes exercises shown by a physiotherapist who will help you move and glide your nerves.
Balance and coordination activities - Your physiotherapist works on strategies to improve your balance and coordination. Improving balance and coordination helps to decrease your risk of falling and injuries that arise due to it. Balance exercises are a crucial part of the recovery of peripheral neuropathy. Balance training is important in overcoming the feeling of stiffness and unsteadiness, especially among elderly people.
Education – Your physiotherapist educates you on how to safely manage peripheral neuropathy. It mainly focuses on improving your safety, preventing further complications, and finding alternative ways to perform certain tasks.
Kinetic therapy in peripheral nerve injuries- It should not be started until the late stage of nerve regeneration when progressive strength return can be seen. After an injury to the nerve, physiotherapeutic methods are used to eliminate paresis and to restore normal function of muscles as well as to improve circulation.
Electrostimulation – It plays an important role in the treatment of various neuromuscular dysfunctions.
Magnetotherapy- It is used where a pulsed low-frequency magnetic field is applied. It has well-known effects on enhancing enzymatic activity, oxy-reductive processes and proper blood circulation resulting in better oxidation and conduction characteristics of regenerating peripheral nerves. It enhances the regeneration of nerve fibers.
Bio-laser stimulation- where low energy biostimulation lasers are used in palatial, continuous manner. Laser radiation can also be used to rejoin the nerve stumps.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Vascular disorders are disorders of the vessels in your body that carry either blood or waste products. The vascular system consists of the arteries (that carry blood away from the heart), veins (that carry blood to the heart) and lymph vessels (that carry waste products to be excreted from the body). The various diseases of the vascular or circulatory system are:
People with diseases such diabetes, high blood pressure, or kidney failure can be more likely to have vessel problems. Working with vibrating tools, being in cold temperatures, and smoking can worsen vascular problems. Causes of vascular disorders usually fit into one of 5 groups:
Symptoms of vascular disorders can include:
A pinched nerve is a sensation that causes a lot of pain due to pressure on the nerve or some form of nerve damage that may have been caused due to an accident, sports injury, or even as a side effect of other chronic conditions like diabetes. In this condition, one experiences a sharp and shooting pain as soon as there is some movement of the area or pressure on the same.
A pinched nerve usually signifies damage rendered to a peripheral nerve which is usually to be found outside the spinal cord and the brain. Disc herniation and arthritis are also some conditions that may cause a pinched nerve in the affected area. This happens due to the pressure on the nerve which may lead to irritation in the protective layer of the same. This condition can make life quite painful. So here are a number of ways in which you can manage the pinched nerve.
If above conservative treatment fails then we have to go for interventional pain management. Interventions can range from simple trigger point injection, inter lesional injections to more advanced rhizotomies, radio frequency ablation, neurolysis, etc.