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Corneal Surgery Health Feed

LASIK - How Does It Improve Your Eyesight?

LASIK - How Does It Improve Your Eyesight?

LASIK or laser in situ keratomileusis, is a form of corrective surgery that help patients who are suffering from near sightedness (Myopia)far sightedness(Hypermetropia) and even astigmatism (cylindrical power in glasses). This procedure aims at correcting the shape of the cornea, which is the transparent layer that lines the front of the eye. Through this procedure, the cornea is reshaped so that the retina receives a focused light.

So what are the health tips for people going through a LASIK procedure? Here is our take:

Advantages:

Biggest advantage of LASIK is that it helps people to get rid of Glasses and contact lenses, which sometimes are cosmetically unacceptable and in some cases are visually disabling.

Best part of LASIK is that it is:

  1. Quick (total duration of surgery is hardly 5 minutes) and virtually painless.
  2. Has a high success rate ( success rate is 96%).
  3. Does not require bandages or stitches.
  4. Adjustments can be made years later to alter the vision as per growing impairment in the future and advancing years.

Risks/Side Effects:

Minor side effects like dryness, glare and halos, if appear, subside with time.

Eligibility Criteria:

Any person 18 yrs or older who fulfils the following criteria can undergo Lasik surgery

  1. Stable refraction
  2. Corneal thickness and topography should be in normal range
  3. Dilated retinal examination should be normal
  4. Adequately wet eyes

Note: One should abstain from wearing contact lens at least 2 weeks before the procedure.

Precaution after the Procedure:

Patient is likely to have some inflammation after the procedure and temporary dryness.

Use medicines as prescribed by the doctor

  1. Avoid any type of eye makeup for at least 1 month after surgery
  2. Avoid swimming or water sports for at least 2- 3 weeks after surgery

Going through a LASIK procedure is a matter of finding the right specialist and ensuring that you take all the precautions before the procedure. Also, it is important to look into your medical history and eyes in particular so as to avoid complications.

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Cornea Disorders - Know Factors That Can Affect It?

Cornea Disorders - Know Factors That Can Affect It?

Common conditions affecting the cornea: Some of the common conditions that affect the cornea are:

Injuries: In case of a minor injury and scratch the cornea has the capability to heal on its own. But in case of deeper injuries, there might be corneal scarring, leading to a haze in the cornea along with impaired vision. In case of deep injury you could experience pain in the eye, sensitivity, reduced vision, inflammation of the eye, headache, vomiting and nausea.

Allergies: The common allergies that affect the eye are related to pollen, especially in the warm and dry weather. Symptoms are burning sensation, redness of the eye, itching, and watery discharge. These symptoms can be reduced by antihistamine decongestant eye drops. Rain and cold weather also improve the symptoms.

Keratitis: This is the inflammation of the cornea. Though infection is a common cause of keratitis, non-infectious keratitis is due to minor injuries and wearing the contact lenses for too long. Infectious keratitis is mainly due to parasites, fungi, viruses and bacteria. These can be treated with antibacterial eye drops.

Dry Eye: This is a condition where the eye produces fewer tears and is unable to keep the surface of the eye lubricated. The symptoms of this are scratchy feeling due to the dryness of the eye, along with a burning and stinging sensation of the eye.

Common diseases affecting the cornea: Some common diseases affecting the cornea are:

Herpes Zoster: This is basically the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. This virus also causes chickenpox and if you have had chicken pox then the virus can live in the nerve cells and become activated later in life. The virus might travel through the nerves to the cornea, affecting the cornea.

Iridocorneal endothelial syndrome: This is more common in women aged 30-50 years. It has three features: glaucoma, swelling of the cornea, and changes of the iris.

Pterygium: This is the pinkish, triangular tissue growth, which occurs on the cornea. This might grow slowly throughout life. This is commonly seen in sunny weather in adults aged between 20-40 years.

Treatment of corneal disorders:

Laser surgery: Phototherapeutic keratectomy is a surgical technique. In this UV light is used to restore and reshape the cornea. This is used to treat corneal dystrophies and recurrent erosions.

Anterior lamellar keratoplasty and endothelial lamellar keratoplasty: This procedure removes the damaged or diseased endothelial tissue which is then replaced by the healthy tissue from a donor.

Corneal Transplant Surgery: This removes the damaged part of the cornea and then it is replaced by the healthy tissue through a donor.

Artificial Cornea: Keratoprosthesis is usually known as artificial cornea. This is an option for people who have not had a successful tissue implant.

Penetrating Keratoplasty - Know Utility Of It!

Penetrating Keratoplasty - Know Utility Of It!

Ulcers and perforations of the cornea are some very serious clinical conditions, which threaten vision rapidly and progressively and disintegrate the eye globe. They need to be taken care of immediately to prevent irreparable damage to the eyes. In spite of the advanced medical research and practice, severe injuries, infections, and diseases of cornea can lead to serious corneal perforations, which require surgery necessarily as the ultimate solution.

Urgent reconstructive surgery might be necessary to avoid consecutive endophthalmitis, formation of synechiae (anterior and posterior), and secondary glaucoma to prevent the spread of pathogens toward posterior pole of the eye globe. This surgery is also performed to avoid other severe complications including inflammation.

The approach of performing surgery to retain corneal integrity depends on localization, size, state of internal globe tissue, and depth and severity of corneal tissue damage. The state of inflammation and causative infection influences the choice and sequence of surgeries. Urgent Penetrating Keratoplasty, Total Penetrating Keratoplasty, and Corneal or Corneo Scleral Patch Graft, or combination of surgical approaches, also called ‘Keratoprosthesis’, which are performed only for end-stage, progressive corneal pathology, or the last-chance medical treatment.

Ramon Castroviejo, in 1951, described Penetrating Keratoplasty as a method to replace a larger diseased cornea and sclera lying adjacent to it with donor tissue.

The goal of Penetrating Keratoplasty is tectonic repair of large corneal perforations to restore the integrity of the eye globe and correcting or resolving many other conditions of the eye simultaneously.

When to Perform Penetrating Keratoplasty?

Penetrating Keratoplasty is performed for perforated cornea in the following cases:

  1. Corneal degenerations.

  2. Keratoconus and ectasias.

  3. Corneal dystrophies including Fuchs endothelial dystrophy.

  4. Viral keratitis.

  5. Noninfectious ulcerative keratitis.

  6. Post-infectious keratitis.

  7. Microbial keratitis including Fungal and Bacterial keratitis.

  8. Chemical injuries.

  9. Congenital opacities.

  10. Refractive indications.

  11. Mechanical trauma.

  12. Regraft unrelated to allograft rejection.

  13. Regraft related to allograft rejection.

Surgical Procedure:

Surgical procedure involves the following steps:

  1. Preparation of donor tissue is the first step. A corneal button slightly larger than the host corneal opening helps in reducing post-surgical excessive corneal flattening, reducing risk of secondary glaucoma, and enhancing closure of the wound.

  2. Afterwards, host cornea is trephined; viscoelastic is filled into the anterior chamber followed by placement of donor tissue on the endothelial side down of recipient's eye.

  3. Cornea is then sutured in place, interruptedly or continuously. Interrupted sutures are preferred in inflamed, vascularized, or thinned corneas and in paediatric cases.

  4. Penetrating Keratoplasty might be performed in combination with cataract surgery, glaucoma surgery, retinal surgery. and secondary intraocular lens implantation.

Take Away:

Penetrating Keratoplasty is the true and last-chance medical treatment to treat large corneal perforations. It is the only ophthalmologic surgical procedure which restores ocular integrity, and at the same time takes care of infections, inflammations, and necrotic tissue. Such a holistic approach minimizes the risk of endophthalmitis and prevents the spread of disease to the globe of the eye. It also improves the probability of graft survival and has good potential to improve visual acuity.

Penetrating Keratoplasty is an effective surgical process. However, it is always advisable to consult an experienced and skilled surgeon before opting for this method.

4001 people found this helpful

Cornea Transplant - When Is It Required?

Cornea Transplant - When Is It Required?

The cornea is the front layer of eyes that helps in focusing light to see objects clearly. In a cornea transplant surgery, the damaged cornea tissue is replaced by a healthy donor tissue. In medical terms, it is known as keratoplasty for corneal graft. The cornea needs to be clear, smooth, and healthy for a good vision.  An unhealthy cornea leads to blurry vision.

Before transplanting cornea, doctors also try to treat the problem with other methods. However, if the condition is not getting better, Corneal Transplantation is advised.

Causes:

A damaged Cornea leads to blurry and changed vision. The damage can affect the daily life of the sufferer. A cornea surgery may need for the following reasons:

  1. Change of shape of cornea (keratoconus)

  2. Swollen or cloudy cornea

  3. Bacterial, viral, or fungal infection in cornea

  4. Other refractive surgeries

  5. Eye injury

  6. Hereditary conditions (dystrophies)

  7. Thinning of cornea

Diagnosis:

The cornea can heal itself from minor infections and injuries during which itching, redness, pain, blurred vision, and sensitivity towards light are some common symptoms. But, if it continues for a long time, one should see an eye specialist to determine the severity of the condition and undergo some lab tests. The patients sometimes are prescribed with medications before the surgery depending on the severity of their corneal damage. 

Treatment:

Following are the Corneal Transplantation options depending upon the severity of the condition:

  1. Full Thickness Corneal Transplant: It is also known as Penetrating Keratoplasty (PK). This transplant is needed when both the inner and outer layers of the cornea are damaged. In this type of transplant, all the layers of the cornea are replaced by the healthy tissues. The recovering period of this surgery can take more than a year, which is the longest as compared to the other types of corneal surgeries. It has higher risk as the immune system of the patient can attack the donor’s cornea.

  2. Partial-Thickness Corneal Transplant: It is also known as Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty (DALK). In this type of surgery, only the outer and middle layers of the cornea are replaced by the new ones. It is done to treat the bulging of the cornea (keratoconus). The procedure and recovery from this surgery takes less time than the full thickness corneal transplant.

  3. Endothelial Keratoplasty: This transplant is used for post cataract surgery complications. It is needed when the innermost layer (endothelium) of the cornea is damaged. With this surgery, the innermost layer of the cornea is replaced with the new and healthy one. In this surgery, most part of the cornea is left untouched lowering the chances of corneal rejection past surgery. The healing process of this type of surgery is quicker than the other two.

Post-surgery Prevention:

Some of the preventive measures one should follow after the surgery are:

  1. Avoid using electronics like mobile, television, laptop, etc.

  2. Avoid rubbing of eyes.

  3. Avoid exposure to sun or very bright light.

  4. Avoid exposure to dust.

  5. Do not use any eye-drops without doctor’s suggestion.

Take Away:

Corneal transplant is indeed a subject of concern and it is an important surgical transplant. The damaged cornea can lead to blindness or very close to blindness condition if not taken seriously. But with today’s technology, one can easily go through the surgery and taking certain precautions leads to a normal healthy life. However, consulting an experienced and skilled cornea consultant for the transplant related queries is always advisable.

Know More About Corneal Transplant!

Know More About Corneal Transplant!

Keratoplasty or a Cornea Transplant is a surgical procedure to restore the vision of the eye of an individual by replacing the damaged part of the cornea with the donated corneal tissue. The cornea is a dome-shaped transparent surface of the eye. A Cornea Transplant Surgery is required for ulcer in the cornea, thinning of the cornea, clouding of the cornea, Keratoconus, problems caused by previous surgical treatment, Fuchs’ Dystrophy, swelling of the cornea, corneal scarring, and others. All these problems can damage one’s vision and Keratoplasty is used to mend the diseased or damaged cornea, relieve pain, and restore vision. Usually, the Cornea Transplant Surgeries are successful but there are risks most importantly of the rejection of the donor cornea.

Types of Cornea Transplant Surgeries - 

The type of surgery required by an individual is directed by the damaged part of his/her cornea and its severity.

  • Penetrating Keratoplasty or PK, commonly known as Full Thickness Corneal Transplant is the surgical process where all the layers of the affected cornea are replaced.  Penetrating Keratoplasty is required when an individual has bad scarring and bulging or severe cornea injury. Stitches thinner than a hair strand are used to sew the new cornea onto the damaged eyes. This type of Corneal Transplant Surgery consumes a long time to heal.  

  • Endothelial Keratoplasty or EK is the surgery required when the innermost layer of the eye cornea, called Endothelium, is damaged, mostly to treat Fuchs’ Dystrophy and other conditions. There are two kinds of Endothelial Keratoplasty: firstly DSEK or Descemet’s Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty where about one-third of the damaged cornea is replaced by the new donated Endothelium and Descemet membrane with supporting stroma, and another type of Endothelial Keratoplasty is DMEK or Descemet’s Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty where the damaged cornea is replaced by the new donated Endothelium and Descemet membrane without supporting stroma.

  • Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty or DALK, commonly called Partial Thickness Corneal Transplant is used when the lower layers of the cornea are not injured or damaged and only the external and middle layers of the cornea are replaced. This type of surgery takes less amount of time to heal than PK and also the quality essentials of the donated cornea are not that strict.

Symptoms of Cornea Rejection -

The donated cornea might get rejected when the immune system attacks it mistakenly. When this happens, one may require another cornea transplant and medical treatments. There are few signs and symptoms that one should not avoid after the Cornea Transplant Surgery as they could be a sign of rejection. These symptoms include light sensitivity, pain, loss of vision, and redness in the eyes.

Take Away -

Cornea Transplant Surgery is required when the cornea of the eye is damaged due to some injury or infection. The kind of surgery required depends upon the part of cornea damaged and its severity.

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Corneal Cross-Linking - What Should You Know?

Corneal Cross-Linking - What Should You Know?

Corneal cross-linking, abbreviated as CXL, is a type outpatient surgery. This process is minimally invasive, performed for the treatment of progressive keratoconus or other similar conditions which make cornea weak. The CXL strengthens cornea and stabilizes it by linking the collagen fibers present in the cornea.

In this procedure, first of all, the outermost layer of epithelial tissue on cornea is removed. It is followed by enrichment with riboflavin and collagen, which are activated by application of ultraviolet light to strengthen cornea by significantly improving its rigidity. The procedure does not take more than sixty to ninety minutes in most of the cases. For recovery, it requires some weeks of care after the procedure.

Types of CXL:

There are generally two types of CXL which are defined as follows:

  1. Epithelium-off CXL: It is the procedure in which the outer thin layer of epithelium over the cornea is removed for allowing liquid riboflavin to penetrate more easily into the corneal tissue.

  2. Epithelium-on CXL or Transepithelial CXL: It is the procedure in which the corneal epithelium is left intact, which then requires a longer "loading" time or riboflavin.

Who Should opt for CXL?

CXL is most effective when performed before cornea becomes too conical or irregular in shape, or loss of vision from other causes of corneal ectasia or keratoconus. If performed at an early stage, CXL stabilizes and sometimes improves the shape of cornea, resulting in better vision and improved the ability to wear lenses.

CXL is also performed to treat corneal ulcers which no more respond to topical antibiotics. It also eradicates a number of corneal infections. CXL is a very suitable option for those who experience fluctuations in vision daily. Those who wish to get LASIK done might also be pre-treated with CXL to provide strength to the surface of the eye. CXL might help the patient avoid a major corneal transplant surgery.

Preparation for CXL:

  1. Stop wearing contact lenses at least two weeks prior to the procedure.

  2. Follow the instructions of the doctor and the medical team carefully.

During the CXL:

  1. If epithelial-off CXL is being performed, the surgeon would place the patient in a reclining position to remove epithelial layer from cornea followed by addition of riboflavin eye drops.

  2. If epithelial-on CXL is being performed, the patient is placed in a reclining position, to start riboflavin drops. After some time, eye would be checked to ensure that the sufficient riboflavin present in the cornea.

  3. The thickness of the cornea would be checked, followed by application of the UV light for up to thirty minutes.

  4. A bandage contact lens might be placed in some cases.  Anti-inflammatory drops or topical antibiotic might also be prescribed.

After the CXL:

  1. Do not rub eyes for first five days post the procedure.

  2. Sensitivity to light might be experienced for a few weeks.

  3. Contact doctor immediately if the eyes are paining or the vision decreases suddenly.

  4. Contact doctor immediately instead of replacing it if bandage contact lens dislodges.

Take Away:

Corneal Cross- Linking is a very safe and an effective procedure to restore vision lost from keratoconus. It strengthens the collagen fiber which make up cornea and stabilize it. However, consulting an experienced and skilled cornea specialist for further queries is always advisable.

3944 people found this helpful

Penetrating Keratoplasty - When Is It Required?

Penetrating Keratoplasty - When Is It Required?

Ulcers and perforations of cornea are some very serious clinical conditions, which threaten vision rapidly and progressively, and disintegrate the eye globe. They need to be taken care of immediately to prevent irreparable damage to the eyes. In spite of the advanced medical research and practice, severe injuries, infections, and diseases of cornea can lead to serious corneal perforations, which require surgery necessarily as the ultimate solution.

Urgent reconstructive surgery might be necessary to avoid consecutive endophthalmitis, formation of synechiae (anterior and posterior), and secondary glaucoma to prevent spread of pathogens toward posterior pole of eye globe. This surgery is also performed to avoid other severe complications including inflammation.

The approach of performing surgery to retain corneal integrity depends on localization, size, state of internal globe tissue, and depth and severity of corneal tissue damage. The state of inflammation and causative infection influences the choice and sequence of surgeries. Urgent Penetrating Keratoplasty, Total Penetrating Keratoplasty, and Corneal or Corneo Scleral Patch Graft, or combination of surgical approaches, also called ‘Keratoprosthesis’, which are performed only for end-stage, progressive corneal pathology, or the last-chance medical treatment.

Ramon Castroviejo, in 1951, described Penetrating Keratoplasty as a method to replace a larger diseased cornea and sclera lying adjacent to it with donor tissue.

The goal of Penetrating Keratoplasty is tectonic repair of large corneal perforations to restore the integrity of the eye globe and correcting or resolving many other conditions of the eye simultaneously.

When to Perform Penetrating Keratoplasty?

Penetrating Keratoplasty is performed for perforated cornea in the following cases:

  1. Corneal degenerations.

  2. Keratoconus and ectasias.

  3. Corneal dystrophies including Fuchs endothelial dystrophy.

  4. Viral keratitis.

  5. Noninfectious ulcerative keratitis.

  6. Post infectious keratitis.

  7. Microbial keratitis including Fungal and Bacterial keratitis.

  8. Chemical injuries.

  9. Congenital opacities.

  10. Refractive indications.

  11. Mechanical trauma.

  12. Regraft unrelated to allograft rejection.

  13. Regraft related to allograft rejection.

Surgical Procedure:

Surgical procedure involves the following steps:

  1. Preparation of donor tissue is the first step. A corneal button slightly larger than the host corneal opening helps in reducing post-surgical excessive corneal flattening, reducing risk of secondary glaucoma, and enhancing closure of wound.

  2. Afterwards, host cornea is trephined; viscoelastic is filled into the anterior chamber followed by placement of donor tissue on the endothelial side down of recipient's eye.

  3. Cornea is then sutured in place, interruptedly or continuously. Interrupted sutures are preferred in inflamed, vascularized, or thinned corneas and in paediatric cases.

  4. Penetrating Keratoplasty might be performed in combination with cataract surgery, glaucoma surgery, retinal surgery. and secondary intraocular lens implantation.

Take Away:

Penetrating Keratoplasty is the true and last-chance medical treatment to treat large corneal perforations. It is the only ophthalmologic surgical procedure which restores ocular integrity, and at the same time takes care of infections, inflammations, and necrotic tissue. Such a holistic approach minimizes the risk of endophthalmitis and prevents the spread of disease to the globe of the eye. It also improves the probability of graft survival and has a good potential to improve visual acuity.

 

Penetrating Keratoplasty is an effective surgical process. However, it is always advisable to consult an experienced and skilled surgeon before opting for this method.

3897 people found this helpful

ICL - Know Merits Of It!

ICL - Know Merits Of It!

This method is implied for youngsters and people aged below 40 years, who have high power glasses, and are not suitable for lasik treatment. Here, an ultra-slender lens of an uncommon configuration and the required force is situated in the eye over the normal lens inside the eye. This lens amends the spectacle force of the eye. ICL is made in Switzerland, and the request for the lens is set according to estimations of the eye.

Here are some facts you should know about ICL:

1. Spherical ICL lens redresses only spherical powered glasses. Toric ICL lens rectifies chamber alongside the spherical force of glasses. The main technique for changeless vision rectification that didn't include glasses or contact lenses accessible to patients who are not reasonable contenders for LASIK is the ICL or the Implantable contact.

2. It is embedded in the back chamber, behind the iris, over the normal lens of the eye so as to correct the refractive mistake of the eye.

3. It offers vision adjustment that is more honed and has more prominent profundity and measurement than other refractive surgeries. Indeed, ICL may create unrivalled visual quality as confirmed by less higher request abnormalities than corneal refractive surgeries. Patients encounter an almost immediate vision recovery.

4. The lens is invisible to the eyes of the patient and also other people. The whole surgery takes around 10 to 15 minutes. The lens is biocompatible and made of collamer, a material based on collagen. It contains a UV blocker that forestalls unsafe UVA and UVB rays from entering the eye.

5. ICL surgeries are amazingly safe. A few patients may encounter some distress amid the mending procedure like dry eyes or light affectability. These impacts are brief. Your specialist will examine with you the dangers and advantages of the method amid your interview.

Advantages of ICL-

1. The lens is foldable and infused through a small, torment free, self-recuperating entry point in your eye.

2. The ICL gives very successful results and fantastic nature of vision. After this treatment, you can leave the clinic following two or three hours, because of fast recuperation. You will have the capacity to make the most of your new sight very quickly and retreat to your dynamic way of life. Your specialist will give you a point by point exhort on this.

3. ICL corrects a very large range of visual defects.ICL Is one of the most effective spectacle removal techniques. It corrects your vision instantly after surgery and lasts quite long.

4016 people found this helpful

Cornea Disorders - What To Do?

Cornea Disorders - What To Do?

Some of the common conditions that affect the cornea are as below :

1) Injuries - In case of a minor injury and scratch the cornea has the capability to heal on its own. But in case of deeper injuries there might be corneal scarring, leading to a haze in the cornea along with impaired vision. In case of deep injury you could experience pain in the eye, sensitivity, reduced vision, inflammation of the eye, headache, vomiting and nausea.

2) Allergies - The common allergies that affect the eye are related to pollen, especially in the warm and dry weather. Symptoms are burning sensation, redness of the eye, itching, and watery discharge. These symptoms can be reduced by antihistamine decongestant eye drops. Rain and cold weather also improve the symptoms.

3) KeratitisThis is the inflammation of the cornea. Though infection is a common cause of keratitis, non-infectious keratitis is due to minor injuries and wearing the contact lenses for too long. Infectious keratitis is mainly due to parasites, fungi, viruses and bacteria. These can be treated with antibacterial eye drops.

4) Dry Eye - This is a condition where the eye produces less tears and is unable to keep the surface of the eye lubricated. The symptoms of this are scratchy feeling due to the dryness of the eye, along with a burning and stinging sensation of the eye.

Some common diseases affecting the cornea are as below :

1) Herpes Zoster - This is basically the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. This virus also causes chickenpox and if you have had chicken pox then the virus can live in the nerve cells and become activated later in life. The virus might travel through the nerves to the cornea, affecting the cornea.

2) Iridocorneal endothelial syndrome - This is more common in women aged 30-50 years. It has three features: glaucoma, swelling of the cornea, and changes of the iris.

3) Pterygium - This is the pinkish, triangular tissue growth, which occurs on the cornea. This might grow slowly throughout life. This is commonly seen in sunny weather in adults aged between 20-40 years.

Treatment options for corneal disorders are as below :

1) Laser surgeryPhototherapeutic keratectomy is a surgical technique. In this UV light is used to restore and reshape the cornea. This is used to treat corneal dystrophies and recurrent erosions.

2) Anterior lamellar keratoplasty and endothelial lamellar keratoplasty - This procedure removes the damaged or diseased endothelial tissue which is then replaced by the healthy tissue from a donor.

3) Corneal Transplant Surgery - This removes the damaged part of the cornea and then it is replaced by the healthy tissue through a donor.

4) Artificial Cornea - Keratoprosthesis is usually known as the artificial cornea. This is an option for people who have not had a successful tissue implant.

4201 people found this helpful

Cornea Disorders - What Should You Do?

Cornea Disorders - What Should You Do?

Common conditions affecting the cornea: Some of the common conditions that affect the cornea are:

  • Injuries: In case of a minor injury and scratch the cornea has the capability to heal on its own. But in case of deeper injuries there might be corneal scarring, leading to a haze in the cornea along with impaired vision. In case of deep injury you could experience pain in the eye, sensitivity, reduced vision, inflammation of the eye, headache, vomiting and nausea.
  • Allergies: The common allergies that affect the eye are related to pollen, especially in the warm and dry weather. Symptoms are burning sensation, redness of the eye, itching, and watery discharge. These symptoms can be reduced by antihistamine decongestant eye drops. Rain and cold weather also improve the symptoms.
  • Keratitis: This is the inflammation of the cornea. Though infection is a common cause of keratitis, non-infectious keratitis is due to minor injuries and wearing the contact lenses for too long. Infectious keratitis is mainly due to parasites, fungi, viruses and bacteria. These can be treated with antibacterial eye drops.
  • Dry Eye: This is a condition where the eye produces less tears and is unable to keep the surface of the eye lubricated. The symptoms of this are scratchy feeling due to the dryness of the eye, along with a burning and stinging sensation of the eye.

Common diseases affecting the cornea: Some common diseases affecting the cornea are:

  • Herpes Zoster: This is basically the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. This virus also causes chickenpox and if you have had chicken pox then the virus can live in the nerve cells and become activated later in life. The virus might travel through the nerves to the cornea, affecting the cornea.
  • Iridocorneal endothelial syndrome: This is more common in women aged 30-50 years. It has three features: glaucoma, swelling of the cornea, and changes of the iris.
  • Pterygium: This is the pinkish, triangular tissue growth, which occurs on the cornea. This might grow slowly throughout life. This is commonly seen in sunny weather in adults aged between 20-40 years.

Treatment of the corneal disorders:

  • Laser surgery: Phototherapeutic keratectomy is a surgical technique. In this UV light is used to restore and reshape the cornea. This is used to treat corneal dystrophies and recurrent erosions.
  • Anterior lamellar keratoplasty and endothelial lamellar keratoplasty: This procedure removes the damaged or diseased endothelial tissue which is then replaced by the healthy tissue from a donor.
  • Corneal Transplant Surgery: This removes the damaged part of the cornea and then it is replaced by the healthy tissue through a donor.
  • Artificial Cornea: Keratoprosthesis is usually known as the artificial cornea. This is an option for people who have not had a successful tissue implant.
2475 people found this helpful
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