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Causes And Symptoms Of Kidney Stones!

Written and reviewed by
Dr. Satyajeet P Pattnaik 92% (743 ratings)
MBBS, MS- General Surgery, MCH- Urology, Fellowship Minimal Access Surgery
Urologist, Mumbai  •  12 years experience

Kidney stones are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys.

Kidney stones have many causes and can affect any part of your urinary tract — from your kidneys to your bladder. Often, stones form when the urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together.

Passing kidney stones can be quite painful, but the stones usually cause no permanent damage if they're recognized in a timely fashion. Depending on your situation, if stones become lodged in the urinary tract, are associated with a urinary infection or cause complications — surgery may be needed.

Your doctor may recommend preventive treatment to reduce your risk of recurrent kidney stones if you're at increased risk of developing them again.

Symptoms -

A kidney stone may not cause symptoms until it moves around within your kidney or passes into your ureter — the tube connecting the kidney and bladder. At that point, you may experience these signs and symptoms:

  • Severe pain in the side and back, below the ribs
  • Pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin
  • Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
  • Pain on urination
  • Pink, red or brown urine
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Persistent need to urinate
  • Urinating more often than usual
  • Fever and chills if an infection is present
  • Urinating small amounts
  • Pain caused by a kidney stone may change — for instance, shifting to a different location or increasing in intensity — as the stone moves through your urinary tract.

When to see a doctor?

  • Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any signs and symptoms that worry you.
  • Seek immediate medical attention if you experience:
  • Pain so severe that you can't sit still or find a comfortable position
  • Pain accompanied by nausea and vomiting
  • Pain accompanied by fever and chills
  • Blood in your urine
  • Difficulty passing urine

Risk factors -
Factors that increase your risk of developing kidney stones include:

  • Family or personal history - If someone in your family has kidney stones, you're more likely to develop stones, too. And if you've already had one or more kidney stones, you're at increased risk of developing another.
     
  • Dehydration - Not drinking enough water each day can increase your risk of kidney stones. People who live in warm climates and those who sweat a lot may be at higher risk than others.
     
  • Certain diets - Eating a diet that's high in protein, sodium (salt) and sugar may increase your risk of some types of kidney stones. This is especially true with a high-sodium diet. Too much salt in your diet increases the amount of calcium your kidneys must filter and significantly increases your risk of kidney stones.
     
  • Being obese - High body mass index (BMI), large waist size and weight gain have been linked to an increased risk of kidney stones.
     
  • Digestive diseases and surgery - Gastric bypass surgery, inflammatory bowel disease or chronic diarrhoea can cause changes in the digestive process that affect your absorption of calcium and water, increasing the levels of stone-forming substances in your urine.
     
  • Other medical conditions - Diseases and conditions that may increase your risk of kidney stones include renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria, hyperparathyroidism, certain medications and some urinary tract infections.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
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