Bleeding pets often suffer blood loss as a result of trauma. If bleeding is severe or continuous, the animal may lose enough blood to cause shock (loss of as little as 2 teaspoons per pound of body weight may cause shock). Emergencies may arise that require the owner to control the bleeding, even if it is just during transport of the animal to the veterinary facility. Pet owners should know how to stop hemorrhage (bleeding) if their pet is injured.
Techniques to stop external bleeding:-
The following techniques are listed in order of preference.
1) Direct pressure:--gently press a compress (a pad of clean cloth or gauze) over the bleeding absorbing the blood and allowing it to clot. Do not disturb blood clots after they have formed. If blood soaks through, do not remove the pad; simply add additional layers of cloth and continue the direct pressure more evenly. The compress can be bound in place using bandage material which frees the hands of the first provider for other emergency actions. In the absence of a compress, a bare hand or finger can be used. Direct pressure on a wound is the most preferable way to stop bleeding.
2) Elevation:--if there is a severely bleeding wound on the foot or leg, gently elevate the leg so that the wound is above the level of the heart. Elevation uses the force of gravity to help reduce blood pressure in the injured area, slowing the bleeding. Elevation is most effective in larger animals with longer limbs where greater distances from wound to heart are possible. Direct pressure with compresses should also be maintained to maximize the use of elevation. Elevation of a limb combined with direct pressure is an effective way to stop bleeding.
3) Pressure on the supplying artery:-- if external bleeding continues following the use of direct pressure and elevation, finger or thumb pressure over the main artery to the wound is needed. Apply pressure to the femoral artery in the groin for severe bleeding of a rear leg; to the brachial artery in the inside part of the upper front leg for bleeding of a front leg; or to the caudal artery at the base of the tail if the wound is on the tail. Continue application of direct pressure.
4) Pressure above and below the bleeding wound:-- this can also be used in conjunction with direct pressure. Pressure above the wound will help control arterial bleeding. Pressure below the wound will help control bleeding from veins.
5) Tourniquet:--use of a tourniquet is dangerous and it should be used only for a severe, life-threatening hemorrhage in a limb (leg or tail) not expected to be saved. A wide (2-inch or more) piece of cloth should be used to wrap around the limb twice and tied into a knot. A short stick or similar object is then tied into the knot as well. Twist the stick to tighten the tourniquet until the bleeding stops. Secure the stick in place with another piece of cloth and make a written note of the time it was applied. Loosen the tourniquet for 15 to 20 seconds every 20 minutes. Remember this is dangerous and will likely result in disability or amputation. Use of a tourniquet should only be employed as a last-resort, life-saving measure!
6) Internal bleeding:--internal bleeding is a life-threatening condition, but it is not obvious like external bleeding. Any bleeding which is visible is external.
Internal bleeding occurs inside the body and will not be seen. There are, however, external signs of internal bleeding:
• the pet is pale (check the gums or eyelids).
• the pet is cool on the legs, ears, or tail.
• the pet is extremely excited or unusually subdued. If any of these signs are evident, the pet should be immediately transported to a veterinary facility for professional help. Remember: internal bleeding is not visible on the outside.
What is Compartment Syndrome?
Compartment syndrome is a type of condition that occurs when pressure builds up inside a muscle tissue in the body. Compartment syndrome usually occurs due to swelling or internal bleeding after an injury. The swelling should go away once the wound heals. However in some cases, if the swelling doesn't improve quickly, it leads to the accumulation of pressure. Let us have a look at the symptoms and the causes in depth.
Understanding Compartment Syndrome:
Compartment syndrome is not exactly a disease, but it hampers the flow of blood to and from the affected tissues. Groups of organs/muscles are organized into zones called compartments. During an injury, blood may start accumulating in these compartments, as a result of which the pressure inside the chamber rises restricting smooth blood flows. Severe tissue damage can result, with a loss of body function as well. Compartment syndrome can be fatal in some cases if not treated immediately. The common areas where this occurs are the legs, arms, and abdomen.
Compartment Syndrome Causes:
Compartment syndrome can occur immediately after an injury or they can happen when the treatment plan for the injury is under way. The biggest risk is that while some compartment syndrome takes days to form, few cases occur within hours. The acute form of the condition occurs when there is damage to the bone like a fracture to the hand and limbs. Other causes can include crush injuries, over-tight bandaging, burns and prolonged compression of an arm or leg. Blood clots also cause this condition in some cases, and so does strenuous physical exercises. A simple physical exam is used to diagnose compartment syndrome along with an X-Ray.
Compartment Syndrome Treatment:
Treatment for compartment syndrome works on the fundamental principle of reducing the pressure to the affected region. Dressings and casts that hamper the blood flow have to be removed immediately. Movement and bodily functions of the affected area have to be monitored vigorously. Surgery is one of the foolproof ways to ease the pressure. It is done by making long incisions into the skin underneath the affected area and releasing the pressure. The surgeries are done as minimally invasive procedures and can be clubbed together with the treatment plan the person is undergoing. In some cases, if the pressure is weak and not restricting the flow, then physical therapies can be undertaken. Medications can also help to an extent along with strength exercises.
With the advances made in medical science, doctors can identify potential compartment syndrome symptoms more quickly. Since these mostly occur when undergoing the treatment, the condition has a better chance of getting identified at its root. They can be avoided mostly with the experience of the physician. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pain management specialist.
While spectacles are a fashion statement for some people, for others they are an uncomfortable necessity. Though contact lenses may be a little more aesthetically pleasing they too can be quite uncomfortable and cannot be worn throughout the day. Thankfully, there is a third way to correct vision. Laser surgery or LASIK, it is a popular refractive procedure that can correct common vision problems, such as nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism. This procedure aims at reshaping the cornea so that light entering the eyes can be focused onto the retina for the person to have a clearer vision.
Laser surgery is pain-free and quick in most cases. Usually, it does not take more than 15 minutes to correct vision in both eyes. The results of this surgery can be seen in as little as 24 hours.
The first step of laser surgery to correct vision is to create a thin, circular flap in the cornea. This is then folded back to access the stroma or underlying cornea. An excimer laser is then used to remove some of the corneal tissue. For people suffering from nearsightedness, the cornea is flattened while for people suffering from farsightedness, the cornea is made steeper. In cases of astigmatism, an irregular cornea is smoothened. Once the correct gradient has been achieved the corneal flap is put back into place and the cornea is allowed to heal naturally. There are no stitches or bandages required in a laser eye surgery. You may feel a temporary burning or itching sensation in your eyes immediately after the procedure. It is important not to rub your eyes or place any pressure on them. Your vision may also be cloudy or blurred for the first few hours. A doctor will usually advise you to rest for a few days after the surgery so that your cornea can heal properly. In a few days, your eyesight should stabilize, though, in a few rare cases, it may take a little longer. You should also avoid any form of strenuous exercising for a few days after the surgery.
Though LASIK surgery has a very high success rate, there are very rare occasions where spectacles may still be needed even after the surgery. Thus LASIK is a choice of treatment for many who seek freedom from glasses. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ophthalmologist.
Diagnostic laparoscopy is a surgical process for examining different kinds of organs present in the abdomen. It is a low-risk and minimally invasive process in which just a small incision is made. This allows the doctor to evaluate the conditions of your abdominal organs without opting for an open surgery. It’s mostly performed when the patient complains of pain in the pelvic region and when other assessing methods have failed to detect the reason behind the pain and discomfort.
How is laparoscopy done?
The laparoscope is a slim and well-lit telescope that allows your doctor to evaluate the conditions of various organs in your body. It can help in determining whether there is any instance of fibroid or endometriosis. It can help in performing a variety of surgeries like removal of ovarian cysts, hysterectomy and tubal ligation. This surgery involves much lesser healing time compared to other elaborate surgeries.
Why should you go for laparoscopy?
Your gynaecologist may recommend you to get a laparoscopy for a treatment or for diagnosis. It is mostly performed due to unexplained pelvic ache, infertility and a history of pelvic infection. Laparoscopy is also performed for the diagnosis of conditions such as uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, endometriosis, pelvic pus or abscess, ectopic pregnancy, painful scar, inflammatory disease in the pelvic region and reproductive cancers.
How to prepare for gynaecological laparoscopy?
Your gynaecologist would ask you to prepare for the laparoscopy test on the basis of the type of surgery. Your doctor would ask you about the medication you take, which would include health supplements and over-the-counter medications and in certain cases you may have to stop certain medications. This process is performed under anaesthesia and you would be able to go home on the same day. The following process depends on the type of process. The diagnosis process is completed faster than the surgical process in which an incision is required to be made. The instrument would be inserted through the incision and then the surgery is executed by inserting the laparoscope tool. Once the process is completed, all the tools are removed from the body and the incision would be closed with stitches and the affected area would be bandaged.
In recent times, the laparoscopic process has advanced to a great extent and robotic surgery is often used for performing the surgical process. This is because it has been proven that robotic hands are steadier than human hands and can perform fine manipulations effortlessly. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist and ask a free question.
A Tennis elbow is a painful condition that affects the tendons due to a condition known as tendinitis, which causes inflammation. This condition will end up restricting the free movement of the elbow and the arm due to the pain and stiffness that it causes. This is due to the fact that these tendons are the tough band of connective tissues that hold the muscles and the lower arm with the bone. Repeated gripping motions and continued tugging as well as activities like weight lifting, tennis, squash and other like carpentry, painting writing and typing, can lead to this condition.
Here are a few methods of treatment and the questions that revolve around them.
Talk to your doctor if the pain is particularly debilitating and discuss surgery for the same.
People who suffer from arthritis are more likely to experience osteoarthritis symptoms. The intensity of the feeling of knee pain in winter is often linked to barometric pressure. In winter, there is a reduction in the pressure exerted by the air around us. This drop in pressure can cause the tissues around the joints to swell resulting in increased pain. The other possible cause of knee pain in winter can be explained from the influence of heat. Fluid in tissues becomes more viscous during winter. As a result of this increased viscosity, the elasticity of the muscles decreases, resulting in winter aches and pains.
Some scientists believe that the higher pain intensity in winter is to be more of a psychological thing. Seasonal affective disorder is more during winter, and people suffering from mental depression seem to sense more pain during winter as the weather restricts outdoor activities. Improper intake of food also causes knee pain in winter due to undigested material. Even though winter arthritis is uncomfortable, the following tips help to make the joints work better and make you withstand the season easier.
Tips to Manage Joint Pain in Winters
Home Remedies for Knee Pain in Winters
These are basic guidelines to help you. Contact your doctor for further management.
Torn cartilages are quite a common form of injury occurring in the human body. While one can’t always be too cautious of injuries, one can still try to be conscious of their muscles and do not move about in an abrupt manner to cause injury to themselves. Further, even though torn cartilages are very common, they are quite painful and most often they occur in the knee. Here are some tips to ensure that your torn cartilage heals well and you are exposed to less pain during the healing period:
Rest: You must take rest. While it is advised to take bed rest, humanly it is impossible to spend all day in bed. Thus one can move about a little but avoid walking and straining their legs and knee too much. At times crutches can be taken while taking a few steps in the room.
Ice Therapy: Putting ice bags in the affected area helps in relaxing the muscles and reducing the pain quite a lot. Though previously people adhered to putting hot water bags, the scenario is slowly changing to ice therapy.
Compress: When you are suffering from a torn cartilage, the doctor often puts a bandage on the knee to compress the area. This is done so that the muscles are brought together and they can heal on their own with time and rest.
Elevate the Knee: Often it is seen that during such cases, the knee or the hands are rested in an elevated platform. This platform is created with the help of a pillow mostly. This lets the cartilage get time to rest and heal on its own.
Avoid Strenuous Activities: This includes jumping, running, jogging, kicking etc, when it comes to the legs and writing, lifting weight etc. when it comes to the hands. These activities require a lot of strength and power and most of all the use of the cartilages. Since the cartilages are torn and in their healing mode, it is best to avoid such activities for a certain amount of time to not put pressure on the cartilages and damage them further.
Painkillers: It has been already mentioned that the healing period can be painful. Thus, the doctor may prescribe some painkillers to ease the pain during this time.
Thus, these are some of the easiest ways to deal with a torn cartilage. The recovery period may be painful, but it happens to many people and is completely healable in nature. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.