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Arthroscopy Health Feed

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury- Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis

Dr. P. Sharat Kumar 90% (109 ratings)
FFSEM, MFSEM, DIP - SEM GB & I, MCh - Orthopaedics, MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS
Orthopedist, Hyderabad
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury- Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis

The Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is an important ligament that gives stability to the knees. An injury to this ligament can result in a host of complications and discomfort. Children or adults who are into sports such as gymnastics, volleyball, tennis, basketball, soccer, football, often injure this ligament. As per various studies and surveys, ACL injury is more likely to affect female athletes as compared to their male counterparts.

Depending on the severity and extent of the damage, an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury may be ranked on a grade of 3.

  1. Grade 1 sprains indicate a mild injury or stretching of the ligament, seldom affecting the stability of the knees.
  2. Grade 2 sprains are indicative of a partial ligament tear (the ligament loosen up). The damage is still under control.
  3. Grade 3 sprains are extensive and severe, indicating a complete ligament tear (the ligament often breaks in two pieces). With a complete ligament tear, the stability of the knee is also affected (the knee becomes highly unstable).

What causes Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injury?
While a host of sports activities mentioned above increases the risk of the injury, a person may also suffer a partial or a complete anterior cruciate ligament tear under the following situations.

  • A jump down a ladder, a tree, or a wall. An incorrect jump or a landing may be equally responsible for the ligament tear.
  • A collision or a hit, especially on the knee (while playing football).
  • Slowing down suddenly while still in running motion. A person suddenly stopping or missing a step can also injure the ligament.

Symptoms associated with ACL injury

  • An excruciating pain (especially in the back and outside of the knee) is often seen in people with a complete ligament tear (the movement is yet not affected). However, within a few hours, there may a swelling around the knee, indicating the severity of the injury with internal bleeding within the knee joints.
  • There may be restricted knee movement. The knee also feels unstable, further limiting the movement.
  • Sometimes a pop in the knee can be heard just at the time of the ACL injury.
  • Prolonged ACL injury left unattended can result in a painful complication such as knee osteoarthritis.

Diagnosis
To diagnose the extent of the damage, the doctor may suggest

  • Physical examination, including a quick brief about the case history.
  • Imaging tests such as X-rays and MRI can go a long way to analyze the ligament injury.
  • In the case of extensive swelling of the knees, the doctor may carry out an arthroscopy to have a closer look inside of the knee.

An accurate and timely diagnosis is important to avoid the aggravation of the injury. In the case of swelling and knee pain, consult a doctor, and get yourself thoroughly examined.

5255 people found this helpful

Arthroscopy & Sports Injuries

Dr. Manu Mengi 89% (17 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, DNB - Orthopedics, Fellowship In Joint Replacement
Orthopedist, Mohali
Arthroscopy & Sports Injuries

When it comes to contact sports like football or basketball, orthopaedic injuries are unavoidable. Given the high risk of falling and accidents and wear and tear of muscles, injuries like stress fractures, torn ligaments, ACL tears and chronic pain are common complaints a sports doctor comes across. Not all orthopaedic doctors can deal with sports injuries. Sports medicine is a specialisation of this field that deals exclusively with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained while playing sports. A sports doctor must not only treat an injury but must also speed up the healing process so as to allow their patients to return to the field as quickly as possible.

When it comes to surgeries for sports injuries, the smaller the incision made, the faster an injury will heal. This has led to the popularisation of minimally invasive surgeries. Arthroscopy is one such type of minimally invasive surgery that is used by doctors to diagnose and treat joint injuries and musculoskeletal conditions.

This procedure is typically performed on a patient under general or spinal anaesthesia. When being used to diagnose a condition, it involves the insertion of a thin fibre optic tube with a light, magnifying lens and camera into the body through a small incision no bigger than a button hole. This allows the doctors to examine the bone and joint in detail. In cases where this type of surgery is being used to treat a patient, specially designed instruments may also be inserted through an additional small incision to repair the injury.

 

Arthroscopic surgeries for sports injuries are often used in combination with other approaches or open surgery. One of the most common conditions, this type of surgery is used to treat are tendon tears in the knee. Other conditions that can also be treated with arthroscopic surgeries are torn ligaments and cartilage, inflammation of the joint lining, carpal tunnel syndrome, tears in the rotator cuffs and loosening of bones and cartilage.
After the surgery, the incision will be stitched shut and a dressing will be placed over it. In most cases, patients require almost no pain medication as compared to the medication needed to recover from open surgery.

However, it can take several days for the joint to recover and for the incision to heal. Some of the benefits of this kind of surgery are:

  1. Faster healing
  2. Minimal scarring
  3. Lesser blood loss
  4. No danger of cutting muscles or tendons
  5. More comfortable rehabilitation
  6. Faster return to the sports field

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2673 people found this helpful

Sir two months ago my knee got twisted during playing I had a MRI test on my left knee with doctor consultant. The report is saying that my ach ligament is bulky and heterogeneous with partial discontinuity of the proximal fibres with intact tibial and femoral attachments suggestive of high grade partial thickness tear. I am able to walk but unable to jump because of pain. Doctor is advised me for arthroscopy surgery soon. Please guide me what to do. Is surgery is essential, total time I need to recover fully after surgery. Or any home remedy to recover from this.

Dr. Umesh Jain 92% (481 ratings)
DNB Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Kolhapur
Sir two months ago my knee got twisted during playing I had a MRI test on my left knee with doctor consultant. The re...
How stable is your knee r you able to put full wt and have no sensation of knee giving way or buckling then you can wait for few days try physio. But you vl have to restrict sports n twisting movements at knee eventually you vl need surgery normally takes 5-7 days for swelling to subside post surgery 6 months to run jog any sports.
1 person found this helpful
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Arthroscopic Surgeries - Why They Are Performed?

Dr. Prabhat Agarwal 86% (52 ratings)
MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS
Orthopedist, Delhi
Arthroscopic Surgeries - Why They Are Performed?

Life is beautiful and exciting, but any impaired movement can take our routine for a toss. Especially, with conditions such as arthritis, it gets tougher. But there are numerous modern-day procedures available to treat such issues, and one such method is the Arthroscopic surgery. It is performed on the joints to diagnose and treat the joint problems and abnormalities.

In this surgical procedure, small incisions of around ¼ inches are made to several parts of a joint area for inserting an Arthroscope which is attached to a small television camera, and it lets the surgeons have a closer look at the interiors of the joints. Whether it's finding out the cause of a joint abnormality or visualizing the issue for treating or repairing it, arthroscopic surgeries can take care of both. Let's take a closer look at some of the most common queries regarding arthroscopic surgeries.

Why are arthroscopy surgeries performed?

When it comes to diagnosing as well treating inflammatory, non-inflammatory and different types of infectious arthritis and injuries in the joints, orthopedics usually recommends arthroscopic surgeries. From treating tears or dislocations in the joints of the shoulder, knee, wrists to issues caused by arthritis, and treating cartilage damages such as in the ankles or elbow, arthroscopic surgeries are performed for a wide variety of reasons.

How long it takes to recover completely?

As the effect of the sedatives and anesthesia, patients tend to feel dizzy and sleepy right after the surgeries. Even, sometimes mild pain can be experienced too which usually goes away in a few days with the help of right medications. The surgical incisions, being tiny, also tend to heal within a few days after the surgeries with proper care. Usually, the patients are likely to resume their daily activity, except the stressful ones, within a few weeks. However, depending on the severity of the joint condition and the condition of the patient, the recovery time can vary.

Are there any risks involved in these surgeries?

Potential complications of any kind are not common in arthroscopic surgeries. However, sometimes, patients may feel pain slight pain in the joint or joint stiffness, severe swelling, and even redness or numbness. Joint infection and bleeding into the joint are two other complications that are also very rare.

Remember, though it is mostly an outpatient procedure, still, a spinal, regional, local, or general anesthesia is required depending on the condition of the patient. These surgeries tend to cause less tissue damage as well as less pain with smallest of cuts compared to other traditional surgical procedures. In case you are facing joint issues, consult with your orthopedic to know whether you are the right candidate for arthroscopic surgeries or not.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3520 people found this helpful

Shoulder Injury - What To Expect From Arthroscopic Surgery?

Dr. Rakesh Kumar 92% (130 ratings)
MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS
Orthopedist, Delhi
Shoulder Injury - What To Expect From Arthroscopic Surgery?

Arthroscopic surgery is a minimally invasive procedure, wherein a viewing instrument is inserted into an area through a small incision in the skin and further work (repair or removal of foreign body) is carried out. With advancements in medical technology, more and more surgeries are being done arthroscopically. Ligament tears are one such instance, where almost all ligament tears are repaired through arthroscopy.
The most common shoulder ligament injury is the rotator cuff, which helps in moving the arm around the shoulder. The tear could be small, medium or large; it could also be partial or complete.

The rotator cuff tendon is inserted into the shoulder in the upper arm and if it gets torn, due to weakness or injury, the movement can be limited. This is repaired arthroscopically due to the following advantages:

  1. Minimal or no hospitalisation
  2. Minimal recovery time
  3. Minimally invasive
  4. Minimally painful procedure

Indications:
Rotator cuff tears are very common in, especially in athletes (hockey, wrestlers, football, etc.) and labour workers who are used to repetitive overhead activities. However, before going for a surgery, the following should be considered:

  1. Nonsurgical methods including physical and rehab therapy have not provided sufficient relief
  2. The patient’s overall health status should be good to sustain the surgery and recovery
  3. Financial and overall health risks are explained and understood

What to expect during surgery?:

  1. A presurgical evaluation is done to ensure that the tear can be treated arthroscopically
  2. X-rays and MRI may be required to confirm the diagnosis
  3. The procedure is done under local anaesthesia, and the procedure is done in a seated position
  4. General anaesthesia can be used though if the patient and the doctor chose to
  5. Depending on where the injury is, incisions are planned to ensure good access to the rotator cuff
  6. If there are foreign bodies like bone spurs, they are removed or trimmed
  7. The procedure usually takes about 2 to 3 hours, and the repair is carried out
  8. Though the complete recovery may take longer, initial recovery with relief of pain and stiffness happens quite soon after the procedure
  9. The incisions are closed using absorbable sutures
  10. The patient is given a sling for immediate postop use

Recovery:
The patient can go home after a couple of hours when the anaesthetic effect has worn off, driving is not possible though.

  1. Initial overuse of the shoulder must be prevented
  2. Pain, infection, and swelling control immediately postop is important
  3. Can take up to 6 months for complete recovery depending on the size of the tear
  4. Exercise regimen and physical therapy instructions should be strictly followed

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3817 people found this helpful

Hello I am suffering from left knee pain from last one year doctors advice arthroscopy can I undergo that at this age.

Dr. Vishwas Virmani 90% (22007 ratings)
MPT, BPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
Hello I am suffering from left knee pain from last one year doctors advice arthroscopy can I undergo that at this age.
• Sports Taping- stretch the tape from both ends and apply on the affected area • Contrast Fomentation (Hot and Cold). • Contrast bath---It is a form of treatment in which knee is applied warm water followed by the immediate application of the knee with ice water. This procedure is repeated several times, alternating hot and cold. Note that the treatment should always end in the ice water, as heat will induce the body's inflammatory response, while cold helps to decrease inflammation.
1 person found this helpful
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Arthroscopic Surgeries For Sports Injury!

Dr. Rakesh Kumar 92% (130 ratings)
MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS
Orthopedist, Delhi
Arthroscopic Surgeries For Sports Injury!

When it comes to contact sports like football or basketball, orthopaedic injuries are unavoidable. Given the high risk of falling and accidents and wear and tear of muscles, injuries like stress fractures, torn ligaments, ACL tears and chronic pain are common complaints a sports doctor comes across. Not all orthopaedic doctors can deal with sports injuries. Sports medicine is a specialisation of this field that deals exclusively with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained while playing sports. A sports doctor must not only treat an injury but must also speed up the healing process so as to allow their patients to return to the field as quickly as possible.

When it comes to surgeries for sports injuries, the smaller the incision made, the faster an injury will heal. This has led to the popularisation of minimally invasive surgeries. Arthroscopy is one such type of minimally invasive surgery that is used by doctors to diagnose and treat joint injuries and musculoskeletal conditions.

This procedure is typically performed on a patient under general or spinal anaesthesia. When being used to diagnose a condition, it involves the insertion of a thin fibre optic tube with a light, magnifying lens and camera into the body through a small incision no bigger than a button hole. This allows the doctors to examine the bone and joint in detail. In cases where this type of surgery is being used to treat a patient, specially designed instruments may also be inserted through an additional small incision to repair the injury.

Arthroscopic surgeries for sports injuries are often used in combination with other approaches or open surgery. One of the most common conditions, this type of surgery is used to treat are tendon tears in the knee. Other conditions that can also be treated with arthroscopic surgeries are torn ligaments and cartilage, inflammation of the joint lining, carpal tunnel syndrome, tears in the rotator cuffs and loosening of bones and cartilage.
After the surgery, the incision will be stitched shut and a dressing will be placed over it. In most cases, patients require almost no pain medication as compared to the medication needed to recover from open surgery.

However, it can take several days for the joint to recover and for the incision to heal. Some of the benefits of this kind of surgery are:

  1. Faster healing
  2. Minimal scarring
  3. Lesser blood loss
  4. No danger of cutting muscles or tendons
  5. More comfortable rehabilitation
  6. Faster return to the sports field

If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Orthopedist.

3404 people found this helpful

Cartilage Damage - How They Can Be Treated?

Dr. Gaurav Khera 92% (30 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Orthopaedics (D. Ortho), DNB - Orthopedics, Mch
Orthopedist, Delhi
Cartilage Damage - How They Can Be Treated?

Along with bones, the human structure is also supported by cartilage. Cartilage is a tough, flexible tissue that acts as a cushion between bones at joints. Some parts of the body such as the outer structure of the ear is completely made up of cartilage. Damage to the cartilage can cause pain. inflammation and in some cases even a degree of disability. Since cartilage does not have a blood supply, cartilage damage takes longer to heal than other injuries.

There are three main causes of cartilage damage

  1. Direct impact: Cartilage can get damaged by heavy impact during a bad fall or an accident. For this reason, sportspersons have a high risk of suffering from cartilage damage.
  2. Wear and tear: Over time, joint experiences wear and tear that can damage cartilage. The knees are often most affected by this. Obese people are at a higher risk of knee cartilage injury than others because of the additional pressure being out on the knees.
  3. Lack of movement: Long periods of immobility or inactiveness can also cause damage to cartilage.

A physical examination may not be enough to diagnose cartilage damage as the symptoms of this condition are very similar to that of a sprain or ligament damage. In addition to a physical examination, a doctor may use Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or Arthroscopy. An MRI uses radio waves and a magnetic field to create a detailed image of the body. Arthroscopy involves the insertion of a tube-like instrument into the joint to determine the extent of cartilage injury.

Treatment for cartilage damage is both surgical and non-surgical.
Non-surgical treatment includes exercises, steroid injections and physical therapy.
If the patient does not respond well to this form of treatment, surgical options may be looked at. The type of surgery required depends on the age and activity level of the patient along with the extent of the injury.

Some of the surgical options include:

  1. Debridement: This involves using a small arthroscopic instrument to smoothen the damaged cartilage and remove loose edges. This prevents the cartilage from rubbing against adjacent bone and muscle tissue.
  2. Marrow stimulation: By drilling small holes under the damaged cartilage, the surgeon exposes blood vessels that lie inside the bone and trigger the formation of a blood clot. This, in turn, triggers the development of new cartilage.
  3. Mosaicplasty: This procedure involves the transference of healthy cartilage from one part of the body to another. It is used for isolated cases of cartilage injury on patients who are below the age of 50. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Orthopedist.
4634 people found this helpful

Ankle Sprain: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment!

Dr. Lokesh Sharoff 91% (1389 ratings)
MBBS, D.ORTHO, DNB (Ortho), Fellowship Joint Replacement, MNAMS
Orthopedist, Mumbai
Ankle Sprain: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment!

An ankle sprain can make life miserable. A sudden twist or stretching (due to incorrect walking, incorrect posture, wearing high heels, walking on an uneven and rough surface, exercise, games) can result in ligament(s) tear (partial or complete tear), affecting the ankle. An ankle sprain is often confused with a twisted ankle. However, the two are different as chalk and cheese. A sprained ankle can be extremely painful, taking few weeks to months to heal completely (depending on the severity).

Symptoms:

An ankle sprain is independent of age and sex, affecting anyone and everyone under the sun. The symptoms characteristic of an ankle sprain includes:

  1. The affected region of the ankle may swell up immediately.
  2. Difficulty in walking. In severe forms, a person may find it difficult to place a step.
  3. The area appears bruised and tender.
  4. Excruciating pain and discomfort (severe case).
  5. Stiffness and, in some cases, discoloration of the skin around the tear.

At no point should the sprain be taken lightly. Seek medical assistance at the earliest. Negligence on your part can aggravate the situation. In extreme cases, an ankle sprain can add to your agony and discomfort, affecting the joints, bones, blood vessels, tendons, and cartilage.

Diagnosis and Treatment:

Diagnosis:

Accurate diagnosis can make the treatment effective, thus accelerating the recovery process. In case of an ankle sprain;

  1. Physical examination of the affected area and a thorough case study is an important diagnostic step followed by many doctors.
  2. X-ray of the affected ankle region can help in a better and more accurate diagnosis.

Treatment:

The course of treatment depends on the extent of the damage. In case of a minor sprain, doctors mostly recommend

  1. Keeping the affected ankle area bandaged (ACE bandage) and well protected. A crutch or a brace is a blessing for people who face difficulty in walking.
  2. Time and again, apply a cold compress on the sprained ankle. A cold compress can help reduce the swelling effectively.
  3. In case of extreme pain and swelling, your doctor may recommend an acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen
  4. Rest as much as possible. While sleeping, use cushions or pillows to keep the leg elevated.

In rare cases where the sprain refuses to heal and becomes unresponsive to the above treatment, doctors may recommend an Arthroscopy or a Reconstruction surgery.

Precaution and Care:

A little alertness and agility on your part can help to deal with an ankle sprain better.

  1. In the case of a severe sprain, try and avoid self-medication as much as possible. It can do you more harm than good.
  2. Exert minimum or no pressure on the affected ankle area.
  3. Indulge in some strengthening exercise as recommended by your physician. It is advisable that you warm up before any exercise.
  4. Avoid heavy, strenuous work as much as possible.
  5. Wearing correct footwear is important. Women who have had an ankle sprain should avoid wearing heel shoes. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Orthopedist.
2641 people found this helpful

Arthroscopy - Things To Remember During and Post Procedure!

Dr. Arun Partani 92% (114 ratings)
DNB (Orthopedics), Fellowship in Joint Replacement, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Jaipur
Arthroscopy - Things To Remember During and Post Procedure!

Literally translated into two words – arthro (joint) and scopy (to look), arthroscopy refers to a process used to look into a joint. The doctor uses an instrument known as arthroscope which is used to examine a joint in greater detail. What was initially used mainly in diagnosis has gradually grown to include use of instruments through the arthrocope, thereby allowing for some surgical treatments to be done as well.

Indications/uses:

  1. Diagnosis of joint problems like cartilage tears
  2. Repairing joint problems
  3. Remove foreign bodies in a joint
  4. Track response to treatments
  5. Identify disease progression
  6. Used during an open surgery to:
    • Remove fragments or spurs of tissues
    • Shave off sharp edges
    • Collect fluid or tissue samples
    • Remove swollen tissues
    • Take biopsy
    • Extract swollen joint fragments
    • Remove deposits of calcium or other minerals

Procedure:

  1. Usually done as an outpatient procedure
  2. The procedure in terms of what to expect will be explained to the patient
  3. A sedative is given and the area to be studied is usually shaven and topical antiseptic is applied
  4. Vital signs are monitored
  5. Regional or local anethesia is generally used, where only the joint to be studied is injecte with a local anesthetic.
  6. In cases where the patient is undergoing an open surgery, general anesthesia would be given.
  7. The patient’s position would depend on the joint being studied, usually, is made to lie on the back.
  8. A tourniquet is used to restrict blood flow to the particular joint
  9. A small incision is made in the joint space and the instrument is introduced into the joint space. There is a constant slow flow of saline or another irrigant (to which chlorhexidine might be added) to improve visibility and to remove debris and control infection
  10. Other joint tools are used as required during the procedure either to cut off small fragments of tissue or to remove debris or foreign body.
  11. Once all procedures are done, the joint is thoroughly flushed to clear off any debris.
  12. It is closed with stitches after final inspection
  13. During recovery, crutches or splints may be used depending on the patient’s overall condition
  14. Duration of the procedure depends on what actually was done. An inspection could last about 20 minutes while a procedure could take a couple of hours.

After the procedure:

  1. Complications are very rare, maybe painful operated joint for a couple of days
  2. Rest the joint well for a couple of days
  3. Ice, pain killers, and compression bandage may be required
  4. Return to normal activity and exercises to be followed as dictated by the orthopedist.
2400 people found this helpful
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