Antibiotics have been the bed rock of modern medicine. Modern medicine (cancer chemotherapy, placement of implants, joint replacement, transplant) have been based on the premise that infections could be treated. But today these magic bullets are beaten by bacteria & we are facing antibiotic resistance as a global threat. To save them, we must use antibiotics only when needed, also use a narrower spectrum possible & for the right dose and duration. Most Upper respiratory tract infections or diarrhoea may be viral and may not require antibiotics.
Antibiotics, earlier referred as wonder drugs, are derived from bacterium and are used to cure bacterial infections. These antibiotics cannot be used to cure viral infections. Therefore, they must be used only when prescribed by any physician. Ever since its inception, antibiotics have gained importance in medicinal field. Other than curing bacterial infection, they have also been widely used in preventing an infection.
Below is the list of some commonly used antibiotics along with their usage-
ANTIBIOTICS USED FOR ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS-
As mentioned earlier, antibiotics can also be used for preventing any infection while undergoing any kind of surgery. Antibiotic Prophylaxis is usually used when the patient is going to have breast surgery or joint replacement surgery or pacemaker surgery or cataract surgery or glaucoma surgery. Such medical procedures make the patient body highly prone to infections. Therefore, antibiotics are used to safeguard the patient's organs.
The abovementioned applications of antibiotics highlight its importance. But since the antibiotics have their side-effects, so it is advisable to undertake antibiotics only after consulting any physician.
Antibiotics are taken to treat a host of bacterial infections. From fevers to fungal infections, doctors prescribe antibiotics to deal with the symptoms. Usually, a single course of antibiotics must be taken for the cold or the flu to completely heal. Antibiotics only treat bacterial infections; they do not do anything for viral infections.
1. Antibiotics and Good Bacteria
Antibiotics kill bacteria. Antibiotics do not discriminate between good bacteria and their bad peers. Thus, they end up killing the good bacteria as well. The microbiomes in the gut are the good bacteria in your body that aid in digestion. Certain antibiotics can change the entire microbial diversity in the gut and this change can last for a year. Clindamycin, another antibiotic, can kill butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced by microbes. In the gut, the butyrate prevents carcinogenesis, inflammation and oxidative stress.
2. Resistance to Bacteria
Like every living organism, bacteria too evolve and adapt to the surroundings. They mutate and respond to the changes in the environment, thus leading to bacterial resistance. Some bacteria mutate and survive antibiotic treatments. These bacteria reproduce and the resistance strain gets passed on to the next generation which, in turn, makes the new bacteria desensitised to antibiotics.
When you get infected again-
i. The infection lasts longer, thus the disease may become serious
ii. There are more complications which tend to further increase every single time you are prescribed a new course of antibiotics
iii. If the infection lasts longer, then the chances of you infecting others also become higher
iv. Recovery takes longer
However, there are a few other things to be considered as well:
i. Taking antibiotics if you have a viral infection is not a smart thing to do. The antibiotics do nothing to kill the virus.
ii. However, if your bacterial infection has been plaguing you since a long time, doctors generally prescribe antibiotics every time. This is because, no matter what their downsides are, antibiotics do help you in recovering from various bacterial complications, at times, permanently.
Diarrhea occurs when the body is expelling germs out of it. An episode of diarrhea can last anywhere from a couple of days to a week. Dehydration, cramps, vomiting, nausea and fever often accompany diarrhea. Usually, children tend to get diarrhoea more than adults.
Diarrhea treatment according to causes behind it
Diarrhea and children - recognising dehydration
The most serious complication of diarrhea is dehydration, especially if the diarrhea is severe. Severe dehydration is critical as it can cause brain damage, seizure, even death. Your child may need immediate medical attention, if you notice the following symptoms:
When should you visit a doctor
Diarrhea resolves within a few days, but it can have serious complications. Call your doctor if you notice signs such as:
1. Looks very sick
2. Diarrhea has persisted for more than 3 days
3. Your child is less than 6 months old
4. Your child is vomiting bloody yellow or green fluid
5. Seems dehydrated
6. The fever reads above 105 degree Fahrenheit
7. Bloody stools
9. Stomach pain persists for more than 2 hours
10. Infrequent urination
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!