ANGINA PECTORIS [ANGINA]
Pain in the region of heart on exertion is known as angina pectoris.
• Inadequate supply of blood and oxygen to the heart is the main reason.
• Atherosclerosis of the coronary artery.
• Increased triglycerides and cholesterol.
• Sedentary life.
• Lack of exercise.
• Sudden emotional upsets.
• Chronic consumption of alcohol.
• Chronic smoking.
• Drug abuse like – cocaine etc.
• Diabetes mellitus.
• Family history.
SIGN AND SYMPTOMS:
• Pain in chest – crushing, constricting, sharp, burning pain with feeling of strangling and suffocating,
• Pain may radiate to both arms or mostly along the left arm to the little finger and the jaw, teeth, neck throat, epigastric region and between the shoulder blades.
• Pain is precipitated from exertion or on physical activity and subsides on rest.
• Pains last for few seconds to few minutes.
• May be associated with – short breath, anxiety, palpitation and nausea.
• Cut down salt (common table salt) intake in your diet to avoid hypertension. Intake should not exceed more then 2 to 2.5 gm a day.
• Avoid foods rich in cholesterol: ground nut oil, ghee, butter, whole milk, eggs, lard (fats derived from pig meat), tallow (fats derived from goat or sheep mutton), oily fish, meats and red meat – all non-vegetarian food contain cholesterol in varied amount.
• Avoid non-vegetarian food especially red meat.
• Increase intake of foods that contain PUFA's (poly unsaturated fatty acids) flax / linseed oil is the richest source of PUFA's. Other oils that contain PUFA's are sesame oil, mustard oil and olive oil. As all oils are high in fats, its consumption should be limited. The intake of oils should not exceed 20gms a day.
• Sesame oil and almond oil hinders the absorption of LDL (low-density lipoproteins), so it is advisable to use replace other cooking oils by sesame oil.
• Increase your intake of water.
• Reduce weight if obese.
• Stop smoking and alcohol consumption.
• Exercise regularly.
• Take brisk walks for 40 minutes daily morning.
• Practicing yoga and breathing exercises plays a very important role in lowering the cholesterol levels.
• Do some relaxation techniques like yoga, meditation etc to relieve the stress Change your lifestyle to reduce stress-physical or mental.
Angina is a term used for chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. Angina is a symptom of coronary artery disease. Angina is typically described as squeezing, pressure, heaviness, tightness or pain in your chest.
Symptoms associated with angina include:
The chest pain and discomfort common with angina may be described as pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain in the center of your chest. Some people with angina symptoms describe angina as feeling like a vise is squeezing their chest or feeling like a heavy weight has been placed on their chest. For others, it may feel like indigestion.
The severity, duration and type of angina can vary. It's important to recognize if you have new or changing chest discomfort. New or different symptoms may signal a more dangerous form of angina (unstable angina) or a heart attack.
Stable angina is the most common form of angina, and it typically occurs with exertion and goes away with rest. If chest discomfort is a new symptom for you, it's important to see your doctor to find out what's causing your chest pain and to get proper treatment. If your stable angina gets worse or changes, seek medical attention immediately.
Characteristics of stable angina
Develops when your heart works harder, such as when you exercise or climb stairs
Can usually be predicted and the pain is usually similar to previous types of chest pain you've had
Lasts a short time, perhaps five minutes or less
Disappears sooner if you rest or use your angina medication
Characteristics of unstable angina
Occurs even at rest
Is a change in your usual pattern of angina
Is usually more severe and lasts longer than stable angina, maybe as long as 30 minutes
May not disappear with rest or use of angina medication
Might signal a heart attack
It is true that most people are aware of the fact that ‘angina’ is a term which has something or the other to do with the heart. That being said, very few would be able to answer a question regarding what exactly it is, in a satisfactory manner. So would it not make sense to know more about it and become one of the few?
The term is derived from the ancient language of Latin and refers to a tightness that is felt or a squeezing of the chest. This happens when there is not enough oxygen-rich blood which is reaching the area of the heart muscle. While many people think that angina is a disease, it is actually not true to think that it is! As a matter of fact, it is a symptom of coronary artery disease. It is this disease which is the most common disease which affects the heart.
But why exactly does a person experience angina? Well, the lack of blood which is rich in oxygen occurs when it so happens that the coronary arteries become narrower than they normally should be. This generally happens due to the build-up of plaque. The condition in which this happens is known as atherosclerosis.
When it comes to the sort of people who are at a higher risk of developing angina, it can be said that those who smoke tobacco really do increase their risk, as do those who are overweight or obese and have other lifestyle diseases such as diabetes.
In order to avoid angina, the most important thing a person can possibly control is his or her lifestyle. In fact, a lot of the risk factors related to angina are attributable to the lifestyle a person chooses to lead. Cholesterol levels can be controlled if a person puts enough attention and effort in. Also, avoiding a lifestyle that is sedentary by exercise can not only help with cutting the risk of angina but also the risks of other conditions such as high blood pressure. It is ironic that high blood pressure is one of the potential signals of angina!
It is to be noted that while most people just call angina as it is, there are various types-
Stable angina is when the heart is working harder than usual and medicine helps improve this.
Variant and microvascular angina is relievable by medicine and is generally rare. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Cardiologist.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis is a treatment method for people who do not have the HIV infection but who might be facing a considerable risk of contacting the disease. It is done by taking one pill daily. The pill comprises of two medicines i.e. tenofovir and emtricitabine. These two are combined with other drugs in order to treat HIV. When a person is exposed to HIV, be it through sexual intercourse or shared needles, these drugs help in stopping the infection from reaching an advanced stage.
Dosage and use
When the drug is consumed on a regular basis, pre-exposure prophylaxis has been observed to decrease the risk of HIV infection in individuals with increased risk by up to 92%. Pre-exposure prophylaxis is not as effective when not taken on a consistent basis.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
When you are potentially exposed to HIV, and if there is a way to prevent from getting infected, you will seek to perform it. One such procedure is Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) which must be initiated within 72 hours of possible exposure to HIV.
What is PEP meant for?
The Human immune deficiency virus causes HIV infection that affects the immune system and is considered to be one of the deadly forms of infections. This virus spreads through bodily fluids such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids and breast milk. There are chances of encountering the infection under the circumstances such as having sexual intercourse or sharing needles with an infected person by accident. In such a case, PEP (Post Exposure Prophylaxis) can come to your aid in preventing the infection.
The medical term PEP refers to the intake of ARV or antiretroviral medicines after being exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus. To be more specific, PEP is a short-term antiretroviral treatment that works towards reducing the symptoms and likelihood of the HIV infection after being exposed to it.
Who should opt for PEP treatment?
PEP can be ideal for everyone who comes in contact with the HIV and is an HIV negative. Whether one is exposed to HIV through a needle stick injury during his/her work as a health care professional, or whether it’s unprotected sex that has exposed one to HIV, or the sharing of used needles or through sexual assault, opting for the PEP can be the next best step as it is particularly meant for emergency situations.
When and how long PEP can be taken?
As per the research, PEP should be taken within 3 days or 72 hours from the possible time of being exposed to HIV. If taken after 72 hours, the PEP most likely cannot help in preventing the HIV infection, hence the sooner, the better in this case. The course of PEP involves 3 ARV or more per day for almost 28 days. Along with taking the ARV medications, one must visit his/her health care professional at certain intervals for HIV testing and other related tests.
Are there any side-effects of taking PEP?
When opting for PEP treatment, some people may experience a few side effects due to it, which varies from person to person, such as vomiting, nausea, headaches, diarrhea, fatigue, etc. However, none of the side effects are life-threatening and can be easily treated. Often, it is due to the reaction of the PEP medications with other drugs that one is taking at the same time that the side-effects start showing. Moreover, as PEP can potentially prevent HIV infection, this benefit certainly outweighs the inconvenience caused as side effects.
PEP is considered to be one of the most effective and promising treatments available for preventing HIV infection if taken correctly and within the certain time duration. In case one thinks he or she has been exposed to HIV somehow, talking to a health care professional regarding PEP becomes crucial.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
PEP (Post-Exposure Prophylaxis) in HIV.
First of all we should know what PEP is?
PEP stands for Post-Exposure Prophylaxis. It means things to be done if anyone gets exposed to HIV. PEP consists of a combination of ARV (Anti-Retroviral) drugs which is given for a complete duration of 28 Days.
If any person (male/female/transgender) comes in contact with a person who might be having risk of HIV infection, then in such case the former have chance of getting HIV infection too. Such person falls in the category of clients who should start PEP depending upon the risk of transmission and mode of exposure.
What Are the Modes of Exposure?
What to “DO” in such circumstances?
Previously there were no options available for persons who by any means gets exposed to HIV.
But due to recent advances, now we have a set of medicines available which are very much beneficial in such conditions.
So any person getting into such circumstances knowingly or unknowingly SHOULD visit a HIV Specialist for management as soon as possible (it should be within 72 Hours), because the PEP is beneficial only if started early (maximum within 72 Hours).
By doing this we can PREVENT patients from getting HIV infection.
Always Remember Prevention Is Better Than Cure.