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Adjunct Prior To Endoscopic Procedures Tips

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography - Understanding The Procedure!

Dr. Sharad Deshmukh 87% (96 ratings)
DNB Gastroenterology, Consulatant Gastroenterologist, Chief gastroenterologist
Gastroenterologist, Nashik
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography - Understanding The Procedure!

Sometimes, when it comes to problems in the abdominal area, an ultrasound is not clear enough for a diagnosis. In such cases, an Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be performed. This procedure gives the doctor a clear view of the duodenum, bile duct, pancreatic ducts, gallbladder and papilla of Vater.

This procedure is usually performed under intravenous sedation without general anesthesia. This procedure involves the use of a duodenoscope, which can be described as a thin, long, flexible tube with a camera at one end. It also has a fiber optic bundle that transmits lights to the camera and a chip to transmit video images to a TV screen.

This is inserted through the patient’s mouth and sent down the throat through the food pipe to the stomach and duodenum while the patient is lying on his or her back. The air pipe is left undisturbed so as to not interfere with the patient’s breathing. Since the patient is not under general anesthesia, he or she can move and turn according to the doctor’s needs. The papilla of Vater is a small nipple like structure with an opening to the bile duct and pancreatic duct.

Once this has been identified, a small plastic catheter is passed through the duodenoscope into the bile duct or pancreatic duct through the papilla. Dye is then injected into the area and X-rays are taken of the bile ducts and pancreatic duct. In cases where a biopsy is needed, other instruments can also be passed through the endoscope. Plastic or metal stents can also be passed through this to relieve obstructions in the bile ducts and pancreatic ducts.

ERCP can be used to diagnose and treat a number of conditions in the liver, bile ducts, gall bladder, pancreas and papilla of Vater. These include:

ERCP can also be used to confirm pancreatic cancer and cancer of the bile duct. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, the doctors can customize treatment according to the patient’s needs.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1872 people found this helpful

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography - Procedure and Results

Dr. Neeraj Nagaich 87% (165 ratings)
DM - Gastroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Jaipur
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography - Procedure and Results

Sometimes, when it comes to problems in the abdominal area, an ultrasound is not clear enough for a diagnosis. In such cases, an Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be performed. This procedure gives the doctor a clear view of the duodenum, bile duct, pancreatic ducts, gallbladder and papilla of Vater.

This procedure is usually performed under intravenous sedation without general anesthesia. This procedure involves the use of a duodenoscope, which can be described as a thin, long, flexible tube with a camera at one end. It also has a fiber optic bundle that transmits lights to the camera and a chip to transmit video images to a TV screen.

This is inserted through the patient’s mouth and sent down the throat through the food pipe to the stomach and duodenum while the patient is lying on his or her back. The air pipe is left undisturbed so as to not interfere with the patient’s breathing. Since the patient is not under general anesthesia, he or she can move and turn according to the doctor’s needs. The papilla of Vater is a small nipple like structure with an opening to the bile duct and pancreatic duct. Once this has been identified, a small plastic catheter is passed through the duodenoscope into the bile duct or pancreatic duct through the papilla. Dye is then injected into the area and X-rays are taken of the bile ducts and pancreatic duct. In cases where a biopsy is needed, other instruments can also be passed through the endoscope. Plastic or metal stents can also be passed through this to relieve obstructions in the bile ducts and pancreatic ducts.

ERCP can be used to diagnose and treat a number of conditions in the liver, bile ducts, gall bladder, pancreas and papilla of Vater. These include:

• Blockage of the bile duct by gallstones, cancer, scars, tumors or compression from adjacent organs.

Jaundice due to an obstructed bile duct. This can also cause light stools and dark urine.

• Persistent upper abdominal pain

• Unexplained weight loss and loss of appetite

• Diagnosing a Dysfunctioning Sphincter of Oddi within the Papilla of Vater

ERCP can also be used to confirm pancreatic cancer and cancer of the bile duct. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, the doctors can customize treatment according to the patient’s needs.

3668 people found this helpful

Tadpol Endoscope

Dr. R.S. Saini 90% (8931 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine
Internal Medicine Specialist, Faridabad
Tadpol Endoscope
The new device called the tadpole endoscope (te) takes inspiration from the mechanics that tadpoles use to swim and is like a micro-robot fish with a camera which is swallowed by the patient.

The tadpole endoscope stands out from existing wireless capsule endoscopes with its addition of a soft tail that allows it to be guided around the stomach remotely by a doctor, allowing for more comprehensive imaging and accurate location of problems within the body.

Cancers of the gastrointestinal (gi) tract, including esophagus cancer, stomach cancer and colon cancer, rank as the second most prevalent among all types of cancers in the world.

Three procedures are required for the traditional method of diagnosing cancers in the gi tract: esophagus cancer and stomach cancer can be diagnosed using gastroscopy; intestinal cancer can be diagnosed using capsule endoscopy; and colorectal cancer can be diagnosed using colonoscopy. All of these diagnostic procedures are expensive and put a lot of stress on the human body.

Created by engineers from the institute of precision engineering at the chinese university of hong kong, the te attempts to improve these existing methods by offering a reliable, non-invasive diagnosis procedure for the gi tract.

The process will work by the patient going to the hospital and swallowing the te which starts working immediately. Once the te is in the stomach, the doctor can control the te to swim around to gather images. By adjusting the posture of the patient, the doctor can view the whole stomach.

The te will then move into the lower gi tract depending on natural peristalsis. The patient can then be sent home wearing a sensor pad to record these images which the doctor can subsequently use to make a diagnosis.

So far, the te has been tested in a stomach model and a pig stomach without the image system. The authors hope that the viability of the propulsion model will take one step closer to the next stage of experiments before the device can be used in a working medical context. The research was published in the journal hkie transactions.
50 people found this helpful

All You Need To Know About The IVF Procedure!

Dr. Ruby Sehra 88% (76 ratings)
MD / MS - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, MBBS
IVF Specialist, Delhi
All You Need To Know About The IVF Procedure!

IVF is a useful process for people who want to become parents but have exhausted all other means of being so. However, the in-vitro fertilization method is definitely not suitable for everyone. Here are some facts you need to know about the procedure and they will help you determine whether you are suited for the program or not.

1. IVF Takes Time
Even though most clinics may not tell you this, but the IVF procedure takes a bit of time to deliver the desired results. On an average, the treatment can take anywhere between four weeks to a couple of months to produce results, depending on the patient’s ability to respond to the medicines used. The procedure involves artificially stopping the menstrual cycle of the woman. Next, the ovulation process is stimulated so that the healthy egg can be extracted from the womb. The eggs chosen are then fertilized and left to undergo embryo culture for another six days. After this, the eggs are implanted back into the mother’s body.

2. The process Can Be Stressful
IVF treatment and pregnancy can be quite a stressful period of time for the parents in question. The mother needs to be constantly monitored to check for any abnormal response to the pregnancy. Regular checkups by the doctor along with blood tests may also be suggested. However, this stress has very little chance of affecting the quality of the pregnancy. So, do not worry that overstressing yourself will lead to complications for the embryo.

3. More Than One Cycle Needed For Pregnancy
IVF treatment occurs in cycles. Each cycle involves transplanting a fertilized egg into the womb. However, pregnancy, right after completion of the first cycle, is quite rare. In fact, almost all patients need to undergo several similar cycles in order to get pregnant. So, do not be disheartened if you do not get pregnant after undergoing the very first cycle of IVF treatment.

4. IVF Is Costly
Not everyone is able to afford the high cost of IVF. Others may be able to afford the cost of undergoing a couple of cycles of the same, after which the high costs can become a burden. Only a select few can bear to carry on with the treatment until the pregnancy arises. So, consider your financial condition prior to signing on for such a treatment option.

At any rate, consult with an expert to get an even better idea about the IVF procedure and the consequent pregnancy.

4105 people found this helpful

11 Most Common Types of Endoscopy!

Dr. Raj Vigna Venugopal 87% (14 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine , DM - Gastroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Bangalore
11 Most Common Types of Endoscopy!

A cut on your skin can be seen by the naked eye, but injuries and infections to internal organs are not so easily visible to the eye. The procedure to view and operate on the body’s internal organs is known as an endoscopy. An endoscopy is performed using a flexible tube with a camera attached at one end known as an endoscope. This is inserted into the body though a natural opening in the body such as the mouth or through a small incision on the body.

While the camera gives the doctor a view of the internal organs, forceps or a pair of scissors can be used to operate or remove tissue that needs to be biopsied. Since an endoscopy is performed without making large incisions, it negates the development of scarring.

Types of Endoscopies

Endoscopies can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It is also one of the means for early detection of cancer. There are 11 main types of endoscopies which include:

  1. Arthroscopy: This is used to get a closer look at joints. In such cases, the endoscope is inserted into a small incision near the joint being examined.
  2. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: Examining the esophagus and upper intestinal tract by inserting a scope through the mouth is known as an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.
  3. Colonoscopy: In this procedure, a scope is inserted through the anus to get a view of the colon.
  4. Bronchoscopy: This procedure is used to examine a patient’s lungs. It involves the insertion of a scope into the nose or mouth to give a view of the lungs.
  5. Cystoscopy: When the bladder needs to be examined closely, an endoscope is inserted through the urethra. This is known as a cystoscopy.
  6. Enteroscopy: This is a procedure where the scope is inserted through the mouth or anus to get a look at the small intestines.
  7. Hysteroscopy: Here a scope is inserted through the vagina to get a look at the inside of the uterus.
  8. Laparoscopy: It is an endoscopy to examine the abdominal area is known as a laparoscopy. This scope is inserted through an incision in the abdomen.
  9. Laryngoscopy: This type of endoscopy involves inserting a scope through the mouth or nose to examine the voice box.
  10. Mediastinoscopy: By inserting a scope into an incision above the breastbone, doctors can get a look at the area between the lungs. This is known as a mediastinoscopy.
  11. Ureteroscopy: This procedure is used to examine the patient’s ureter by inserting a scope through the urethra.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3810 people found this helpful

Types of Endoscopy and Why Each One is Used

Dr. Neeraj Nagaich 87% (165 ratings)
DM - Gastroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Jaipur
Types of Endoscopy and Why Each One is Used

A cut on your skin can be seen by the naked eye, but injuries and infections to internal organs are not so easily visible to the eye. The procedure to view and operate on the body’s internal organs is known as an endoscopy. An endoscopy is performed using a flexible tube with a camera attached at one end known as an endoscope. This is inserted into the body though a natural opening in the body such as the mouth or through a small incision on the body.

While the camera gives the doctor a view of the internal organs, forceps or a pair of scissors can be used to operate or remove tissue that needs to be biopsied. Since an endoscopy is performed without making large incisions, it negates the development of scarring.

Types of Endoscopies

Endoscopies can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It is also one of the means for early detection of cancer. There are 11 main types of endoscopies which include:

1. Arthroscopy: This is used to get a closer look at joints. In such cases, the endoscope is inserted into a small incision near the joint being examined.

2. Bronchoscopy: This procedure is used to examine a patient’s lungs. It involves the insertion of a scope into the nose or mouth to give a view of the lungs.

3. Colonoscopy: In this procedure, a scope is inserted through the anus to get a view of the colon.

4. Cystoscopy: When the bladder needs to be examined closely, an endoscope is inserted through the urethra. This is known as a cystoscopy.

5. Enteroscopy: This is a procedure where the scope is inserted through the mouth or anus to get a look at the small intestines.

6. Hysteroscopy: Here a scope is inserted through the vagina to get a look at the inside of the uterus.

7. Laparoscopy: It is an endoscopy to examine the abdominal area is known as a laparoscopy. This scope is inserted through an incision in the abdomen.

8. Laryngoscopy: This type of endoscopy involves inserting a scope through the mouth or nose to examine the voice box.

9. Mediastinoscopy: By inserting a scope into an incision above the breastbone, doctors can get a look at the area between the lungs. This is known as a mediastinoscopy.

10. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: Examining the esophagus and upper intestinal tract by inserting a scope through the mouth is known as an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

11. Ureteroscopy: This procedure is used to examine the patient’s ureter by inserting a scope through the urethra.

3018 people found this helpful

Gynaecology Endoscopy - How To Prepare Yourself For It?

Dr. Harisinh Solanki 90% (10 ratings)
MBBS
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
Gynaecology Endoscopy - How To Prepare Yourself For It?

Minerals are important constituents that the body needs for proper cellular functioning as every process of the body requires the presence and action of these elements. An imbalance in these essential elements can cause several health problems including hair loss. The various minerals have to be in harmony with one another as too much of a particular mineral can lead to an imbalance in another.



Causes of mineral imbalance

Coming to the causes, several reasons can lead to an imbalance in your mineral levels and these are:

- Diet
- Medications
- Stress

Here are the minerals that your hair need.

1. Calcium - The first mineral that your hair requires is calcium. This vital mineral plays a key role in stimulating the growth of hair follicles. The foods that you can turn to for your daily calcium dose are nuts, almonds, beans, vegetables, etc.

2. Magnesium - Following closely after calcium and one which must be taken together with calcium is magnesium. Without the presence of magnesium, the consumption of calcium can be harmful for the body. Both these elements are used by the body in tandem. So, foods you can have to meet this requirement are cashews, milk, almonds and so on.

3. Potassium - Lack of potassium in your diet can cause you to lose hair as well. Increasing the intake of this mineral helps in removing the buildup of sodium around your hair follicles that interfere with the absorption of nutrients required for strong hair. Potassium can be obtained from bananas, whole grains, almonds, etc.


4. Zinc - Another element that helps in the growth of hair is zinc. This mineral is vital for DNA synthesis of hair follicles, helping them to divide and multiply. Seafood, pumpkin seed, avocado, etc can be good sources of zinc.

5. Iron - Iron deficiency can bring about hair loss. When there isn't adequate iron in your diet, your body consumes ferritin (a protein responsible for storing iron in your body tissues) found in non-essential tissue such as your hair bulbs, resulting in shedding of your hair before it is able to reach its optimal length.

6. Selenium - Inadequate selenium in your body can cause you to suffer from thyroid problems, and subsequently hair loss. Whole grains and broccoli are two selenium-rich food sources that you can take to help your hair to grow properly.

7. Copper - Copper plays a very important role in your hair health. It gives growth, colour and strength to your hair. Sesame seeds and seafood are options that you can take to meet your copper requirement.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

Common FAQs About Endoscopic Surgery!

Dr. Praveen C R 90% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Diploma In Minimal Access Surgery
General Surgeon, Bangalore
Common FAQs About Endoscopic Surgery!

Nowadays, people do not have to go for open surgeries for the treatment of certain conditions. You need not have large incisions on your body for getting a surgery done. It can be done with a few small incisions. This kind of surgery has a lot benefits over the open surgery such as less pain, less recovery time, fewer scars and less time in the hospital. So, with so many benefits, who would choose an open surgery? For those who are opting for an endoscopic surgery for any problem and have no knowledge about it, here are some common FAQs about endoscopic surgery.

What is endoscopic surgery?
Endoscopy means inserting a small tube into the body, to inspect the interior. A small endoscope is inserted, which has a camera and light attached to it. This will help in seeing the internal organs of the body without having to cut open the body. Usually, this procedure is used for diagnosing certain health conditions. But in some conditions, it is also used for providing treatment.

Is there anything I should know before the endoscopic surgery?
Yes, your doctor will help you understand what to eat and what not to eat, also he will tell you about when to stop eating. Your body has to be prepared for the endoscopy.

Are there any kind of side effects of endoscopic surgery?
Any kind of surgery will have some pain. It is the same with endoscopy as well. With endoscopic surgery, the pain is less but there is no surgery with zero pain. Hence, you will have some pain at the place of the surgery. This depends on the place of surgery and how far the incisions are made.

Are there any chances of moving to an open surgery during the endoscopic surgery?
This happens in very rare conditions that you need to switch to an open surgery. You need to discuss this with your doctor in advance in order to understand whether it can happen. Not all surgery will require this.

How long does it take for recovery?
Usually, endoscopic surgeries are performed even on an outpatient basis. That means you need not even have to get admitted to the hospital for getting the surgery done. You can take care of yourself at home and keep visiting the doctor as suggested.

What kind of medicine is usually prescribed?
Depending on the type of surgery that you have undergone, you will be prescribed medicine. Along with that, you will also be prescribed painkillers after any kind of surgery. The pain is usually less but taking one or two pills may be required.  In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1901 people found this helpful

Adenoids and Endoscopic Adenoidectomy!

Dr. Sarika Verma 92% (121 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery, Diploma In Otorhinolaryngology (DLO), DNB - ENT, Allergy Testing
ENT Specialist, Gurgaon
Adenoids and Endoscopic Adenoidectomy!

Adenoids are part of the ENT (ear-nose-tongue) area. They are basically lump of tissues situated at the back of the nose and higher up in the throat passage. Along with tonsils, they form a part of the lymphatic system and are also known as pharyngeal tonsils. They work in conjunction with tonsils to keep infections and viruses at bay. They also help in maintaining the body fluid balance.

Adenoids mostly occur in children. They basically start to grow from birth and can become enlarged between the ages of 5 to 7 years. They become swollen by fighting some bacteria or virus. However, by teenage years they start to shrink and completely disappears by adulthood. They do not help in fighting diseases and the body develops other ways to fight germs and bacteria.

Problems Caused by Adenoids:
Although adenoids are not harmful, they can become enlarged or swollen when fighting bacteria or viruses. In such situations, it is best to consult pediatric or ENT specialists. However, there are certain symptoms that occur in children:

  1. Breathing problems- Children may experience difficulty in breathing through the nose. Instead, they breathe through the mouth which might lead to dry mouth resulting in bad breath and cracked lips.
  2. Sleeping problems- Children having swollen adenoids having difficulty in having sound sleep. They might snore or experience sleep apnea (irregular breathing or might stop breathing for few seconds).
  3. Ear infections- Have ear infections and even develop glue ear (the ear duct is filled with fluids).
  4. Sinus problem- Your child may experience runny nose or facial pain.

Diagnosis
If your child is experiencing the above symptoms and having difficulty breathing, its best to visit an ENT specialist to get the adenoids checked out. The adenoids cannot be seen through normal eyes and has to be examined using special methods like endoscopy. An endoscope is a long flexible tube with a light, it is inserted through the mouth and the image of the inside of the mouth is seen on a screen.

Treatments for Adenoids:
Depending on the severity of the adenoids, it can be treated with nasal sprays or drops and antibiotics suggested by a doctor. If the adenoid does not shrink or the problem persists, it’s best to go for adenoidectomy.
What is Adenoidectomy? Adenoidectomy is the surgical removal of adenoids. It is generally performed by an ENT surgeon and carried out through the mouth under general anesthesia. The whole operation only requires a day. Your child is released at the end of the day.

Recovery:
After the surgical procedure, your child may experience:

  1. Sore throat
  2. Ear ache
  3. Stiff jaw
  4. Runny nose
  5. Bad breath

All of these difficulties pass away within a week or two. However, you should be careful as there is always a risk of infection after an operation. In case of excessive bleeding, known as hemorrhage, your child may need another surgery where the bleeding is stopped by cauterization.

Moreover, food and drink should be monitored carefully. As your child will have difficulty in swallowing food, it’s best to have fluids like soups or yoghurt. Remember to give them plenty of water to avoid dehydration.

Adenoids are not scary diseases. So don’t be scared and give your child all the care and support when they are facing difficulty in breathing or sleeping.

1 person found this helpful

Endoscopic Vein Harvesting for Bypass Surgery!

M.Ch Cadiac Surgery, M.S
Cardiothoracic Vascular Surgery, Mohali
Endoscopic Vein Harvesting for Bypass Surgery!

Sarwalheartsurgery at max institute of ctvs, max superspeciality hospital, mohali has launched endoscopic vein harvesting (taking out veins through key hole) on a regular basis for bypass surgery. We are the pioneers in this region north of delhi with no other hospital offering this so far on routine basis the procedure is of immense benefit. No long incisions on leg, low or no infection rates and no uneasiness, less swelling of legs at a very economical cost extra to the package. It has huge benefit in females cosmetically and no infections especially in obese and diabetic patients.

2 people found this helpful
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