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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
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Treatment of Childhood Infections
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Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
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My son 6 years old is not taking interest in food. Please recommend any kind of tonic and supplements.
Mera 7 saal ka beta hai or wo abhi tak bed me hi susu kar deta hai. Maine homeopath b diya par koi faayda nhi. Bahut sharmindagi mehsus hoti hai. Please help anyone.
My 5 yrs daughter has decreased vision I also got consultation with eye specialist for it he advised for vision glasses sir please tell me how can I improve my daughters vision so that I can remove my daughter's specs as early as possible.
Try variety of foods as by this age increasing the variety the appetite/palatability improves.Add ghee generously if tolerated to increase the calorie value of diet.In compare to protein and carbohydrate calorie value of fat is thrice.
Give at least one katori serving at a time of- mashed roti/bread/biscuit mixed in sweetened undiluted milk or mashed roti/rice/bread/dosa mixed with thick dal with added ghee/oil or khichadi with added ghee.Add cooked vegetables in the servings.You can also give dalia/suji ka halwa/kheer prepared in milk or any cereal porridge cooked in milk.You can give mashed boiled potato also.
Give banana,papaya,cheeko,mango to meet the vitamin's requirement.
Give these servings 3 times per day. Feed the baby in your lap with your hands.Don't force.If needed give small amount and increase the frequency of feeds.
My baby is 8 months old, he passes stools 4 times a day, sometimes 5 times from past 2 months, in his stool routine test 6-7 pus cells and entameoba histolytica cyst is found and e.coli infection is there, so doctor gave metrogyl and gentamicin injections for 7 days along with zinc and pro biotic, while taking the medicine and after completing the medicine also no change in him, I am so much worried, is it serious problem, please help me doctors.
Meri daughter 6 months ki hai or weight 6 k.g. Hai. Usko constipation ki problem hai last 2 months se. Usko glycerine ki bati laga kr potty karwani padti hai. please suggest.
My 6 month old received 1st dose of pcv and hib y'day. Now he has developed skin rashes in hos legs and hands as well. There is, no fever or any other noticeable changes. Is this allergic reaction to the vaccine? Does this require medical attention?
It might happen that you may not find your child, at twelve months to two years of age, at the same level as their peers in verbal communication. You think it's just a developmental problem they are facing and put off seeking professional advice; an intrinsically wrong step to take, because your child might be suffering from Speech Delay.
Delayed speech, or alalia, can be roughly defined as a delay in the development and use of the biological mechanisms that produce speech. Delayed speech is sometimes caused from hearing defect also. A deaf child is always dumb. Before we jump into conclusion of delayed speech, hearing assessment is mandatory.
The symptoms of speech delay are roughly categorized into age related groups, generally beginning at the age of 12 months and continuing through the early adolescence, and they are:
1. Age-12 months
a. It is indeed a symptom if your child cannot point at objects or cannot manage gestures, such as waving good-bye.
b. Another symptom is that if your child does not prefer to communicate verbally as much as his/her peers.
2. Age-15-18 months
a. If your child is unable to pronounce familiar syllables or simply cannot call you even by this time, it's a worrying symptom.
b. You find your child unable to, or simply not reciprocating to 'no', 'hello', 'hi', 'bye'.
c. If your child is unable to extend his/her vocabulary up to 15 words by fifteen months, then it's a symptom.
3. Age-2-4 years
a. You find your child unable to spontaneously produce speech and words.
b. Another worrying symptom is if your child is lacking consonant sounds at the beginning and end of words while speaking.
c. If you still find your child unable to form simple sentences and words, then it is indeed a troubling symptom, confirming the disorder.
The causes for the speech delay disorder are:
1. A primary cause can be physical disruption in parts of the mouth such lips or palate, which may be deformed.
2. Another serious cause can be an oral-motor dysfunction which is the disruption in the creation of the specific area of the brain which deals with speech and communication.
3. The disorder can also be attributed to impairment in the development of the child's intellectual, receptive and expressive abilities.
4. There can also be psychological causes involving school environment and peer relationships which might lead to disruption of speech patterns and reluctance in speech expression and development. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pediatrician.
ADHD or Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder refers to those psychological disorders, which significantly alter a child's behavior and considerably affects his or her relationships with others. This condition is seldom preceded by perceptible symptoms and even when they do, they are difficult to decipher. However some of them are:
- Self-centered: Those children who suffer from the attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome tend to be encapsulated in their own subjectivity. Though this does seem harmless apparently, this tendency may lead them to be insensitive to other's needs and wants.
- Emotional outbursts: ADHD makes children extremely susceptible to frequent emotional outbursts and makes them erratic.
- Difficulty in concentration: Children who suffer from ADHD face extreme difficulty in concentrating or focusing on things. Many a times they fail to repeat what was told to them.
There might be several causes which can contribute to the development of this disorder. Some of them are:
- A drastic change in the child's lives: A sudden or a drastic change like the divorce of parents may severely affect the child and maim him emotionally. This may lead to the development of this disorder.
- Depression: Though always associated with adults, depression can be and is common among children as well. In such instances, a consequent development of ADHD is highly plausible.
- Bipolar disorder: Bipolar disorder refers to excessive and incomprehensible mood swings. Many children suffer from it in their early lives, making them susceptible to ADHD.
Notwithstanding the ambiguity and the erratic nature of the disorder, there might be preventive measures which parents might adopt to deter the outbreak of the disorder. Some of them are:
- Less use of preservatives: Parents must be careful about what their children eat. Those foods which contain a certain amount of preservatives tend to aggravate the disorder thereby causing more harm than good.
- Consider alternative forms of medications: Another way of dealing with this problem is by exploring other forms of medications and not sticking to one form. In this respect, practicing yoga may be very beneficial.
Hello sir I have child of 8 month old (7.5 kg) she don't eat properly. She want smthing new evry day please can you suggest me food chart for my baby?
My baby is 9 month old and he is 69 cm tall. Is this height normal? And I am breast feeding only for one time ,is it ok? Or I need to increase number of times I feed him?
Hello sir, Please tell me what are the symptoms of dengue in a small child his age is between 8 to 10 years?
My baby girl is only 2 months old and she is suffering from cold and do not want to feed as she habituated. Her nostril is blocked and she is taking breath from her mouth. I gave her nasoclear nasal drop but it is a temporary solution and a sound is coming from her chest. What is the solution and how would I give her relief from this situation? A information I am giving that she is not doing breastfeed she feed from bottle.
I am 29years old suffering female, suffering from back pain since 4month. I am a breastfeeding mother. I applied pain relief ointments and anti inflammatory ointment not getting any relief. So kindly suggest any medical advice.
My nephew is 8 months old (born on 10th August, 2017). Till date he had undergone four blood transfusion since his birth. haemoglobin comes down every 30-40th day to 7-9 level. We stay at Ayodhya (Uttar Pradesh) where no treatment is available for this disease. Doctors has suggested that he should be undergoing blood transfusion throughout his life for survival and he can survive maximum 25 years like this. Please find the attached report of cough. I would be really thankful to you if you can examine his report and help us in any possible way to treat his disease, I would appreciate your confirmation. Father and mother have minor Thalassemia Infant name as in prescription- Baby of Archita (Thalassemia major) Thank You,
What is ADHD?
ADHD, also called attention-deficit disorder, is a behavior disorder, usually first diagnosed in childhood, that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity. These symptoms usually occur together; however, one may occur without the other(s).
The symptoms of hyperactivity, when present, are almost always apparent by the age of 7 and may be present in very young preschoolers. Inattention or attention-deficit may not be evident until a child faces the expectations of elementary school.
What are the different types of ADHD?
Three major types of ADHD include the following:
ADHD, combined type. This, the most common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors as well as inattention and distractibility.
ADHD, impulsive/hyperactive type. This, the least common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors without inattention and distractibility.
ADHD, inattentive and distractible type. This type of ADHD is characterized predominately by inattention and distractibility without hyperactivity.
What causes attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
ADHD is one of the most researched areas in child and adolescent mental health. However, the precise cause of the disorder is still unknown. Available evidence suggests that ADHD is genetic. It is a brain-based biological disorder. Low levels of dopamine (a brain chemical), which is a neurotransmitter (a type of brain chemical), are found in children with ADHD. Brain imaging studies using PET scanners (positron emission tomography; a form of brain imaging that makes it possible to observe the human brain at work) show that brain metabolism in children with ADHD is lower in the areas of the brain that control attention, social judgment, and movement.
Who is affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
Estimates suggest that about 4% to 12% of children have ADHD. Boys are 2 to 3 times more likely to have ADHD of the hyperactive or combined type than girls.
Many parents of children with ADHD experienced symptoms of ADHD when they were younger. ADHD is commonly found in brothers and sisters within the same family. Most families seek help when their child's symptoms begin to interfere with learning and adjustment to the expectations of school and age-appropriate activities.
What are the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
The following are the most common symptoms of ADHD. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. The 3 categories of symptoms of ADHD include the following:
Short attention span for age (difficulty sustaining attention)
Difficulty listening to others
Difficulty attending to details
Poor organizational skills for age
Poor study skills for age
Often interrupts others
Has difficulty waiting for his or her turn in school and/or social games
Tends to blurt out answers instead of waiting to be called upon
Takes frequent risks, and often without thinking before acting
Seems to be in constant motion; runs or climbs, at times with no apparent goal except motion
Has difficulty remaining in his/her seat even when it is expected
Fidgets with hands or squirms when in his or her seat; fidgeting excessively
Has difficulty engaging in quiet activities
Loses or forgets things repeatedly and often
Inability to stay on task; shifts from one task to another without bringing any to completion
The symptoms of ADHD may resemble other medical conditions or behavior problems. Keep in mind that many of these symptoms may occur in children and teens who do not have ADHD. A key element in diagnosis is that the symptoms must significantly impair adaptive functioning in both home and school environments. Always consult your child's doctor for a diagnosis.
How is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosed?
ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder of childhood. A pediatrician, child psychiatrist, or a qualified mental health professional usually identifies ADHD in children. A detailed history of the child's behavior from parents and teachers, observations of the child's behavior, and psychoeducational testing contribute to making the diagnosis of ADHD. Because ADHD is a group of symptoms, diagnosis depends on evaluating results from several different sources, including physical, neurological, and psychological testing. Certain tests may be used to rule out other conditions, and some may be used to test intelligence and certain skill sets. Consult your child's doctor for more information.
Treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Specific treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder will be determined by your child's doctor based on:
Your child's age, overall health, and medical history
Extent of your child's symptoms
Your child's tolerance for specific medications or therapies
Expectations for the course of the condition
Your opinion or preference
Major components of treatment for children with ADHD include parental support and education in behavioral training, appropriate school placement, and medication. Treatment with a psychostimulant is highly effective in most children with ADHD.
Treatment may include:
Psychostimulant medications. These medications are used for their ability to balance chemicals in the brain that prohibit the child from maintaining attention and controlling impulses. They help "stimulate" or help the brain to focus and may be used to reduce the major characteristics of ADHD.
Medications that are commonly used to treat ADHD include the following:
Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Metadate, Concerta, Methylin)
Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat)
A mixture of amphetamine salts (Adderall)
Atomoxetine (Strattera). A nonstimulant SNRI (selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) medication with benefits for related mood symptoms.
Psychostimulants have been used to treat childhood behavior disorders since the 1930s and have been widely studied. Traditional immediate release stimulants take effect in the body quickly, work for 1 to 4 hours, and then are eliminated from the body. Many long-acting stimulant medications are also available, lasting 8 to 9 hours, and requiring 1 daily dosing. Doses of stimulant medications need to be timed to match the child's school schedule to help the child pay attention for a longer period of time and improve classroom performance. The common side effects of stimulants may include, but are not limited to, the following:
Rebound activation (when the effect of the stimulant wears off, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors may increase for a short period of time)
Most side effects of stimulant use are mild, decrease with regular use, and respond to dose changes. Always discuss potential side effects with your child's doctor.
Antidepressant medications may also be administered for children and adolescents with ADHD to help improve attention while decreasing aggression, anxiety, and/or depression.
Psychosocial treatments. Parenting children with ADHD may be difficult and can present challenges that create stress within the family. Classes in behavior management skills for parents can help reduce stress for all family members. Training in behavior management skills for parents usually occurs in a group setting which encourages parent-to-parent support. Behavior management skills may include the following:
Contingent attention (responding to the child with positive attention when desired behaviors occur; withholding attention when undesired behaviors occur)
Teachers may also be taught behavior management skills to use in the classroom setting. Training for teachers usually includes use of daily behavior reports that communicate in-school behaviors to parents.
Behavior management techniques tend to improve targeted behaviors (such as completing school work or keeping the child's hands to himself or herself), but are not usually helpful in reducing overall inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity.
Prevention of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Preventive measures to reduce the incidence of ADHD in children are not known at this time. However, early detection and intervention can reduce the severity of symptoms, decrease the interference of behavioral symptoms on school functioning, enhance the child's normal growth and development, and improve the quality of life experienced by children or adolescents with ADHD.