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I am engineering student and I have a lot of tension about exams and study. How to prevent depression and live free? please help.
I want to get the frenulum of my tongue cut. Where can I get it done? I want to get it done to be able to stick my tongue out more. Are there any side effects?
I have black spot as well as pimples on my back. I used scar removal cream for 4 month but didn' t see any changes what should I do?
Face ke colour ko gora karne ke liye kya use karu. Please doctor tell me any cream and I also have acne problem on my face.
Yet I have no facial hair on my face what I have to do for overcome from this problem. My age is 26 now .I look like a child.
Persistent infection of the uterine cervix with high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) leads to development of cervical cancer. Infection with HPV is common especially in sexually active young women, most infections are transient and spontaneously clear within 1 to 2 years without causing cancer. These transient infections may cause temporary changes in cervical cells. If a cervical infection with high risk HPV type persists the cellular changes can eventually develop into more severe precancerous lesions. If pre cancerous lesions are not treated, they can progress to cancer. Thus, an HPV DNA test is recommended to identify the high risk types of HPV.
Why is Pap Smear done?
An HPV test is done to:
Check for high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women who had a Pap test that showed abnormal cervical cells called atypical squamous cells (ASCUS). An HPV test can help look for one or more high-risk types of HPV.
Check for HPV in women older than age 30 as part of screening for abnormal cervical cells.
Help check for abnormal cervical cells after treatment of a high-risk HPV infection.
When should one get screened for cervical cancer?
American Cancer Society does not recommend using HPV DNA test to screen for cervical cancer in females under 30. This is because females in their twenties who are sexually active are much more likely (than older females) to have a HPV infection that goes away on its own. For these young females, results of this test are not as significant and may be confusing.
For females age 30 and older, Pap & HPV co testing is less likely to miss an abnormality (i.e. lower false negative rate than pap testing alone. It also lengthens the screening interval to 5 years and still allows abnormalities to be detected in time to treat them.
Women of age >65 yrs who have had adequate screening history or those who have had total hysterectomy do not need any further screening.
Is HPV test as safe and effective as Pap Smear?
The advantage of the HPV test is that the Pap test misses a fair number of carcinomas as it has a lower sensitivity. Studies have also shown that a negative HPV test is better at predicting that a woman will be free of lesions for the next three years than a negative Pap test.
And while the experience for the patient is the same for both tests, the HPV test requires less material from the cervix to detect an infection so there's less concern that a sample will be inadequate.
How is the HPV test performed?
Before an HPV test, do not douche, use tampons, or use vaginal medicines for at least 48 hours.
In the HPV test, a doctor takes a swab of cells from the cervix, just as for the Pap test. The cells are then analyzed in a laboratory. The genetic material (DNA) of the HPV virus is studied. This test can identify 13 or 14 of the high-risk HPV types associated with cervical cancer. HPV test results are generally available in 1 to 2 weeks.
You may have a small amount of vaginal bleeding or gray-green discharge after this test.
There can be a number of reasons that lead to infertility in women. Endometriosis is one of them. It is a benign condition where the endometrium, which includes the tissues that form the lining inside the uterus, grows outside the uterus. Apart from infertility, it may also cause pelvic pain in women.
There are no such symptoms of endometriosis apart from pelvic pain and it cannot be detected without surgery. Thus, it is very difficult to diagnose this disease and state how common it is. However, research says that the prevalence of this disease in women in their reproductive age is between 3 to 10 per cent.
It is found that endometriosis sometimes leads to infertility. Here is how:
Abdominal Adhesions and Infertility
Normally, the endometriosis implants develop in the abdomen. Then the body surrounds them with connective tissues. The reason for doing so is isolating the implants, so that they cannot harm your body.
Now, sometimes these adhesions can create a blockage in the opening of the fallopian tube or may also pinch off the fallopian tube. This will result in obstruction in the fertilisation of egg and the sperm and thus fertilization will not take place; so there are no chances of conceiving. These obstructions when diagnosed can be treated with surgery.
Secretions from implants
Endometrium plays a vital role in conception where the tissues secrete a wide variety of hormones and nutrients. Now, the endometrial implant also functions in the same way and secretes those hormones. The difference is that it does not deposit them in the lumen of the womb, and it is released in the abdominal cavity. In these substances, there may be some hormones that are responsible for infertility.
Prostaglandins are other hormones that are secreted by the endometrium normally. It helps in a lot of body processes that include various stages of menstrual cycle and pregnancy.
This hormone is required for a lot of functions such as ovulation, sperm mobility, and regression of corpus luteum, immune interaction, menstrual cramps and contraction of the uterus at birth.
Just like the endometrium, the implants also secrete these hormones. And the problem that is caused by the implant secreted prostaglandin hormone is that they are released in the abdomen and not in the womb. Moreover, they are not secreted at the right time, thus sending a wrong message to the brain.
A woman with a few days of pregnancy may face a miscarriage because the ovary will get a signal to start the menstrual cycle, and the womb lining where the egg is implanted will be expelled.
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