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A cough is probably one of the most common respiratory diseases that people suffer from. In most cases, it is nothing to worry about and can be cured with cough suppressants and salt water gargles. However, coughing of blood is a serious problem. The coughing up of blood that originates from below the level of the larynx is known as hemoptysis. This can vary in terms of severity depending on the amount of blood being expelled. This disease is a common condition, but on an average, less than 5% of hemoptysis cases are life threatening.
Hemoptysis rarely affects children. The symptoms of this condition include:
Sudden onset of a cough with bloody phlegm
Chest pain: Medical attention should be sought in cases where this condition recurs often, if it lasts for longer than a fortnight or if the volume of blood expectorated is more than 30ml per day. The various tools that help in the diagnosis of this condition are:
Chest radiography: This imaging modality helps lateralize bleeding and understand the amount of lung involvement. It is quick, inexpensive and can also help detect other underlying abnormalities.
Bronchoscopy: This involves the insertions of a rigid or flexible endoscope into the bronchial passages to check the airways and determine active bleeding sites.
Oral antibiotics are usually the first stage of treatment for this condition. Smokers will also be urged to quit cigarettes as this can worsen their condition. Treatment for minor hemoptysis may also include:
- Oral hemostatics
- Cough suppressants
- Radiation of laser treatment
- Therapeutic bronchoscopy
In its later stages, hemoptysis can be treated with a minimally invasive procedure known as endovascular embolization or with surgery. In some cases, endovascular embolization may also be sued to stabilise the patient before surgery. This procedure reduces the pressure in the hypertrophic arterial blood vessels and decreases the risk of perioperative bleeding.
Hemoptysis is also one of the most common complaints of lung cancer patients. Depending on the stage of cancer and the amount of blood expectorated, treatment in some cases may not be possible. In such cases, a parenteral opioid and fast-acting benzodiazepine may be administered.
Our skin requires proper care from time to time, and therefore it is essential to implement the right steps at the right time. Peels are useful assets for polishing and bringing life to our skin. In today’s age, it becomes difficult to maintain the tone and texture of the skin. So, peels help in making this successful in the best ways.
Here are some of the notable and effective advantages of peel treatment.
- Cleansing your skin: Are you tired of dull skin? Then it’s time to opt for a peel treatment. There are different types of peel treatment which lead to excellent results for the skin tone and texture. It helps in cleansing the skin especially the facial skin. It works deep through the facial skin successfully thus leading to much improved and clean skin.
- Works well for acne: Acne is one of the most commonly occurring skin problems in the recent times. It leads to a severe change in the looks of the facial skin. Acne results in deposition of the dirt in the clogged pores when not treated for an extended period. Various peel treatments help in bringing out the dirt from the pores, thus clearing the areas affected by acne.
- Radiant skin: Peel treatments are useful in creating radiant skin just after the procedure. If you are struggling with bringing that glow to your facial skin, then peel treatments work best for almost every type of skin. After the peel treatment, you will be able to see the change in your skin with grace and appreciate the results immediately.
- Revive your skin: Daily exposure to sun damages the sensitive skin after a certain period. This leads to the necessity to bring back that tone and texture of your skin. Peel treatments are effective in reviving the quality of the skin. So, if you are planning to opt for some new type of skin treatment in the sooner time then make sure that you try peel treatments for reviving back your precious facial skin.
- Can cure appearance of fine lines and wrinkles: With age, all of us tend to get wrinkles, and these are most prominent on the facial part of the skin. In order to prevent any adverse effects of aging on the looks of the individual, wrinkles can be cured with the help of peel treatment. So, opt for the best peel treatments to get rid of the wrinkled skin.
Thus, if you are looking for some of the fine solutions for improvement of the facial skin then make sure that you choose for the peel treatments. These are some of the advantageous features of the peel treatments which fetch the desired results for the skin.
What is PRP?
Platelet rich plasma. Plasma is a component of blood that contains special “factors,” or proteins, that help blood to clot. It also contains proteins that support cell growth. Researchers have produced PRP by isolating plasma from blood and concentrating it.
How does prp work?
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) works by promoting wound healing, it activates platelet granules which then releases numerous growth factors. It is proposed that growth factors released from platelets when injected into scalp may act on stem cells in the bulge area of the hair follicles, stimulating the development of new follicles.
Who is it beneficial for?
For those with thinning of hair, wide hair partition line especially in women, visible scalp in both men and women and for more volume and strengthening of the hair follicles in general. Apart from its uses in hair it is also used for facial rejuvenation and it gives excellent result. It is well known in the commercial market as vampire face lift and is a big hit among celebrities.
- It is a progressive healing treatment that doesn't require surgery.
- Simple, rapid and highly effective system.
- Autologous (from patient's own blood).
- The system is biocompatible and xeno-free, so there shouldn't be any safety concerns.
- Increase in the concentration of platelets can be observed.
- It helps in the elimination of undesired erythrocytes, which significantly decrease the fibroblast proliferation.
- Contains growth factors that help in the stimulation of growth of the hair follicles.
- Can be performed preoperatively, intraoperatively, or post operatively.
The Science of PRP
There are special cells called platelets used in PRP, that have been theoretically proved to stimulate hair follicles growth by stimulating stem cells and other important cells in the ecosystem of the follicles. They are instrumental in promoting the healing ability and regeneration of cells, formation of new cells and response to injury. PRP stimulates inactive or newly implanted hair follicles, and makes them active by inducing them into a growth phase.
Platelets are known to contain various structures, which are crucial for blood clotting and cell regeneration, and are released during the repair process by the body. Some of these structures are: glycogen, alpha granules and lysosomes.
Who should not go for PRP Treatment?
Those with heavy drug and smoking issue should avoid PRP. Also those who drink a lot of alcohol should avoid PRP. Those suffering from platelets related ailments, sepsis, chronic liver disease, thrombocytopenia, hyperfibrinogenemia, systemic disorders and cancer should also stay away from PRP.
At length, PRP is a boon for all those who aren't fans of surgery or the ones who prefer a more aggressive but non-surgical approach for treatment to their ailments. The results might vary from patient to patient, but it is certainly one of the most promising technologies to stimulate hair growth and rejuvenate your skin, and the results are quite convincing. So decide wisely!
When a blow or a fall causes an injury, where the top of your arm bone pops out from your shoulder socket, it’s called shoulder dislocation. It is a very painful condition and you need to get this relocated to its position immediately. The tissues and bone related to that particular joint get damaged.
If you ignore this situation or keep the shoulder like this, it will be more harmful and painful for you. There may appear a bump in front or at the back of your shoulder that hurts.
What can lead to a dislocated shoulder injury?
- Sharp or a very fast twist of your arm.
- Falling down on a hard surface.
- A sudden hurt or hit.
- It may also happen when you fall down and try to save yourself using your hand. The force of the hit indirectly gets into the shoulder and your shoulder joint may slip from its place.
In some of the outdoor games, there are high chances to get hurt in the shoulder. Hockey, football, rugby, rock climbing, volleyball etc. bring in high probabilities of injuring the shoulder, thereby resulting in a shoulder dislocation.
What is the treatment or therapy of a dislocated shoulder?
The dislocated shoulder should be very urgently treated. As this injury of the shoulder is very painful, you should go to a specialized orthopaedist as fast as possible to fix up the shoulder to its proper joint. As it is very painful and swollen, the faster the treatment, the better it is. When your doctor fixes your shoulder in its actual place or the bone of your arm comes back to the socket, most of your pain will go away and you get huge relief from pain. After the shoulder bone is relocated, you can use further conservative treatment to reduce the pain and swelling of that place. Dislocated shoulder may take 3 to 12 weeks to recover. But this is the approximate time and it depends on the seriousness of the injury.
After the treatment, when all the symptoms are gone, the doctor will suggest some exercises for better results and normal shoulder movement and to prevent future shoulder injury. Ones the shoulder is dislocated, the chances of dislocation in future is further increased as the tissue supporting the head of humerus into its socket is torn. Such patients may land up with recurrent dislocation of shoulder wherein shoulder dislocates easily on specific movement and patients are afraid to do over-head activities. The problem is best diagnosed by MRI Scan.
The best treatment for this is Arthroscopic (Key-Hole Surgery) Bankart's Repair. Following operation shoulder is kept at rest for 2 weeks then Physiotherapy is started. Day to day activities are started after 2 weeks and sports activity is started after 3 to 5 months.
Anger is a very negative emotion and can be the underlying cause of many relationships falling apart. There are people who cannot manage their anger completely and express it by yelling, throwing things, or even physically harming others. While anger is a natural emotion, it is important to control it else it can even harm one’s own health.
Research has proven that every emotion is associated with a chemical reaction in the brain. While happiness produces certain chemicals, anger produces another set, leading to a different impact on health. Therefore, it is essential to learn to control anger, so that the negative reactions can be controlled. The following are some simple but effective ways to manage your temper:
- Take a pause: It is a known fact that what is said in the heat of the moment can be very damaging. The person’s response may be completely different if they speak after a while. Some people even would ask if it was indeed them who spoke or did that. Therefore, learn to count to ten or take deep breaths when you know you are angry. This can help you gather your thoughts and respond more aptly.
- Be assertive: Learn to respond without sounding argumentative, at the same time being assertive. Do not try to control others when trying to make your point.
- Regular timeout: For some people, there are periods of the day which prove to be more stressful than the others. Even a simple walk for 10 to 15 minutes can improve your oxygen intake and aid in anger management.
- Nurture your sense of humor: While not all would have it, it is definitely possible to look at the funny side of things. This definitely helps in not just easing the stress and reducing tension for all, but also reduces the anger you feel towards a particular situation or person.
- Relaxation techniques: Be it meditation or yoga, these help you relax by focusing on the breathing. Even exercise, writing poems or stories, singing songs, or listening to music can help in reducing stress and controlling anger.
- Professional help: While it may sound a bit too far-fetched, it is not. If the above self-help measures do not help in managing your anger, and you realize it is taking a toll on your health and/or relationships, seek professional help. With changing life situations, anger management has become a separate area in itself, and with some help, you could greatly change your quality of life.
- Rewards: Reward yourself each time you control your anger and respond in a calmer manner. Over a period of time, this induced habit will become your normal response.
A healthy mind in a healthy body! We have all heard the saying, but do we actually live by it. Though we try to eat a balanced diet, exercise regularly, and practice an overall healthy lifestyle to keep ourselves physically fit, but do we pay enough attention to keeping our mind healthy? The answer would be, not really. Here are a few compelling reasons that will drive us to do so:
To deal with troubles in your personal life: Whether it's an accident or a life loss of someone close to you, or any other strong personal issue, it may not affect your physical health but leaves a deep cut on your mental health. People often try and keep such things to themselves without realising that this would worsen the situation further. It is, however, best to seek help from mental health professionals or talk to someone close to you. If left unattended, these troubles may leave you isolated and detached, leading to problems in personal life.
To prevent damaging your physical health: There is a strong connection between the body and the mind. If body suffers the mind bears it effects and vice-versa the other will bear its effects. Often suffering from depression, anxiety and stress for long leads to heart attacks or strokes and sometimes even disrupts the immune function of the body. Sleep disorders, digestion issues that can impair your physical health are often the result of poor mental health.
To retain your productivity and functionality: Believe it or not, when you fail to nourish your mental health, it also reduces your productivity by making you lethargic and less inclined to participate in any physical activities. Being stressed or depressed due to the issues in life can significantly affect your productivity and functionality at work.
To stop yourself from developing unhealthy addictions: Poor mental health leads to developing unhealthy habits. From smoking excessively to becoming an alcoholic or taking drugs, people often engage in these practices to cope with mental issues. However, if you care about your mental health, you may be in better position to judge the harmful effects of these habits and therefore refrain from developing them.
To lead a happy and long life with friends and family: Various studies have shown that compared to people with mild mental issues and troubled emotional states, it is people with happy lives and sound mental health that live longer. It is advised to care for your mental health as the ignorance of the same may result in anxiety, stress and depression. This will not only hamper your communication with your family and friends but leave you disconnected from others and yearning for loneliness.
Remember, good health can only be achieved when there's a perfect balance between the mental health and the physical health. When any of these conditions get compromised, the overall health starts to deteriorate. Therefore, stay physically and mentally healthy to ensure over-all well-being.
An in vitro fertilisation procedure carried out to counter the problem of male infertility is Intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Male infertility factors include poor quality of sperm, low sperm counts, poor sperm movement or the disability to penetrate an egg. Azoospermia is one such rare condition wherein there is no sperm in the semen. Through this injection, a single sperm can be injected into the egg directly. The fertilised egg is placed into the woman’s uterus or the fallopian tubes. The first successful birth using this procedure was on January 1992 after the conception took place in April 1991.
Sperm can be collected from the male through masturbation. If this procedure somehow fails then sperm can be removed through a surgery. Using a small incision, sperm can be withdrawn from the testicle and is used in the procedure. If the ejaculation of sperm is prevented due to a blockage or if the problem arises in the development of the sperm, surgery method is used.
Injecting the sperm
This is performed through the following steps. A specialised pipette or a glass tube is used to hold the egg, a single sperm is picked with the help of a sharp and delicate needle, the needle is then inserted carefully into the cytoplasm of the egg through the egg shell, then the sperm gets injected into the cytoplasm and the eggs are checked to see whether they have been adequately fertilized.
After this process is done, eggs which are fertilised successfully are selected and placed into the uterus with the help of a catheter. The number of embryos an individual needs to transfer is determined depending on the age of the person and other health issues. For this purpose, a thorough full body check-up is carried out and the medical history is checked during the preliminary consultations.
Expectations from the treatment
The treatment of fertilisation using an Intracytoplasmic sperm injection can be demanding, both physically and mentally for the woman (mother). An individual has to go through regular shots and monitoring including blood tests. There are moments when the shots can be painful for the woman undergoing the procedure.
The reason behind the procedure
When a male is having severe infertility issues, the method of ICSI is helpful. There are times when very little sperm or no sperm ejaculation, the eggs can be fertilised through this procedure. Testing of an embryo for genetic problems is also accomplished through this procedure. When in vitro fertilisation or IVF does not work even after trying repeatedly, then couples can undergo the treatment using ICSI.
When ICSI is used along with better quality eggs, it is seen to be successful on many occasions. Especially for men who have sperm ejaculation issues.
Vaginal bleeding is something that most women experience between their periods when they are not due for a menstrual cycle. It is considered as an abnormal occurrence when you bleed before you are expecting your menstrual period, or after you are done with your monthly cycle. It is usually characterised by bouts of spotting where a thick brown reddish discharge may be experienced. Also, this kind of bleeding is considered abnormal if it occurs during pregnancy or menopause.
Here are a few causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding:
- Hormones: An imbalance in the hormones like the estrogen and progesterone can lead to abnormal vaginal bleeding. These are the hormones that help in regulation of the monthly menstrual cycles. An imbalance can occur due to side effects caused by birth control pills that may not suit the individual, a contraceptive patch, or even contraceptive implants and injections. Further, an intrauterine device may also be the cause for this kind of bleeding. The hormonal balance can also get affected due to internal ailments like a dysfunctional thyroid gland and ovaries.
- Pregnancy and Delivery: Some amount of spotting is considered normal in the first trimester of one's pregnancy. Yet, severe bleeding and persistent spotting must be reported to the gynaecologist immediately. Women also bleed for a while after the delivery of the baby, in the post-partum period. This may also happen when an abortion takes place as the uterus may not have come back to its original size and due to remaining foetal tissues within. Complications during the pregnancy like an ectopic pregnancy or a miscarriage can also lead to such kind of bleeding. An ectopic pregnancy is one where the egg gets implanted in the fallopian tube instead of entering and implanting itself in the uterus.
- Fibroids: Uterine fibroids are usually considered as non-malignant and non-cancerous growths within the uterus. These are common in many women who have gone through child birth. These fibroids can also cause some amount of bleeding and spotting.
- Infections: When there is an infection in the reproductive organs like the ovaries and uterus of the patient, there may be some amount of bleeding. An infection in this area can also cause inflammation, which is one of the primary causes of abnormal bleeding. This can also occur due to a sexually transmitted disease or STD, as well as painful intercourse and sexual abuse which can lead to scarring as well.
- Cancer: One of the least common causes includes cervical, ovarian and other forms of cancer.
Stress and diabetes can also cause abnormal vaginal bleeding in rare cases. It is best to see a doctor as soon as such bleeding takes place.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder in which the body recognizes the body's own system as foreign and produces an inflammatory reaction. The synovium which is the space between the bones and the joints and contains a lubricating fluid which allows easy movement of the joints.
Inflammation of this space leads to painful, swollen joints that can also turn red and become stiff over a period of time. The joint surfaces can gradually progresses to produce deformities (the swan-neck deformity of the hand for instance) and disability.
Because it is an autoimmune disorder, the exact etiology is not known but lifestyle, stress, cold weather are supposedly predisposing factors. That being the case, it is not surprising that Ayurveda has a variety of options, both in terms of do's and don't's to manage rheumatoid arthritis - both the severity of symptoms and further progression of the disease.
Do's: A well-planned diet will help by supporting optimal functioning of the immune system and nourish the affected joints.
- People diagnosed with RA should follow a diet that is rich in fruits and vegetables. Drumsticks, bitter gourd, carrot, papaya, green leafy vegetables, cabbage, etc., reduce inflammation and hyperactivity of the immune system. The antioxidant properties in these neutralize the free radicals circulating in the body (responsible for increasing inflammation). This helps control the longstanding inflammation of the joints.
- It is also advisable to eat them as whole fruits and not as juices. The fiber in the whole fruits helps digestion.
- Sprinkle pepper powder over cooling food items like cucumber and radish.
- Include garlic which is an excellent remedy for RA, can be mixed with buttermilk.
- Whole grains such as wheat, brown rice, millet, barley are beneficial for RA, their high fiber content helps in proper digestion and promotes regular bowel movements.
- Honey mixed with water.
- Drink boiled milk to which dry ginger powder is added; this can replace tea and coffee.
- Milk mixed with turmeric powder is also helpful in controlling inflammation.
- Work at reducing weight.
Don'ts: In addition to adding the above to your diet, there are some things to avoid, which can worsen symptoms of inflammation.
- Avoid overall unhealthy and irregular diet habits which affects the immune system and aggravates symptoms
- Avoid sleeping during daytime and staying awake at nights
- Avoid deep fried foods and fermented food items
- Given its autoimmune nature, it is better to avoid regular allergy-inducing foods like dairy products, soy, peanuts, processed foods, artificial additives, etc. These could trigger an enhanced allergic reaction.
- Avoid alcohol, tobacco
- Avoid tea and coffee and other caffeinated drinks
- With simple daily food habit and lifestyle changes, the severity of RA can be managed effectively.
Most women stay confused with the time of their ovulation. Couples who are sexually healthy and are in their 20s and 30s and are not using any birth control measures have 20% chances of getting pregnant. It is interesting to know that you have a high chance of getting pregnant at the time of ovulation. It is a small window period that comes each month. It is the time when your ovary produces ovum or egg and the egg is open for fertilisation. Even if you are having sex two or three days before ovulation, there is a high possibility of fertilisation. After ovulation is over, the window period gets shut for the next cycle. It is the safe period. Though doctors say that it cannot be considered 100% safe to have unprotected sex during this period, the chances of getting pregnant are considerably lower.
When does ovulation actually start?
It should be remembered that ovulation takes place at the middle of your menstrual cycle. It usually occurs halfway through the cycle. Commonly, the average time period of a cycle is 28 days. But, in some cases, women may have cycles as long as 23 to 35 days.
How will you know that you are ovulating?
- Check your calendar: It is a healthy habit to keep a menstrual calendar. You must maintain the dates for a few months. This will give you an idea as to when you actually ovulate.It is difficult to know the actual time of ovulation if you are having irregular periods.
- Carefully listen to your body: It is a common thing that your body spontaneously sends a memo to you before ovulation starts. You get cramps or feel pain in the lower abdomen before ovulation starts. This pain is called mittelschmerz. It is a reminder of the coming periods.
- Chart your body temperature: Well, you will need to keep a record of your basal body temperature. You can measure it after three to five hours of sleep. Your basal body temperature changes throughout the monthly ovulation cycle. Progesterone hormone is responsible for the increase in body temperature. In the first half of the month, the progesterone levels are low and hence the temperature remains low as compared to the second half of ovulation.
- You can go for saliva test: Your saliva contains the estrogen hormone. Its level changes throughout the cycle. You can also use an ovulation detector kit to know the dates.
- One can also track the timing when there is increase in vaginal discharge which starts just before the ovulation and is there for 24 to 48 hours. We can easily notice this as it is intermenstrual.