Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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- Chances are you've never heard of vaginismus (or, as it is now known, genito pelvic pain penetration disorder) before. Why? Because it's the disorder nobody wants to talk about, least of all those whom it most affects - women. Vaginismus is musculature of the outer third of the vagina, which interferes with coitus and causes distress and interpersonal difficulty.
- Among the male factor infertility, erectile dysfunction was found to be the top ranking cause accounting for 79.37% followed by premature ejaculation 12.01%, Lack of sexual desire 3.92%, homosexual orientation 2.79%, sexual aversion disorder 1.31% and disorders of sexual preference 0.61%.
- Vaginismus is believed to be a psycho-physiologic disorder due to fear from actual or imagined negative experiences with penetration and/or organic pathology. Women with vaginismus have also been noted to have a lack of sex education. Vaginismus was the 63.9% , ed 11.9% , PME 8.3% , low male sexual desire 2.7%, low sexual desire in female 13.9% dysfunctional underlying non consummation of marriage is largely treatable. Adaptation to the situation usually occurs and associated factors add to the primary cause. Treatment of the underlying dysfunction can challenge the relationship.
- Sexual dysfunction is a common problem which leads to inter-personal problems and marital discord. defined as recurrent or persistent involuntary spasm of the with coitus and causes distress and interpersonal difficulty.
Treating vaginismus merits a two-front approach which includes behavioral sex therapy techniques and relational intervention. When appropriate, the behavioral intervention consists of prescribing dilators (from smallest to largest) that the wife is to use in the privacy of her own home to gradually desensitize herself to penetration (the fourth and usually largest dilator is roughly the size of a penis). While the husband may be called upon to help his wife insert the dilators (depending on his wife's comfort level), for the most part his job is to ease off the pressure for her to perform, be supportive, and try to understand his role in the marital dynamic (usually an enabling one) and the associated symptom.
Ascribing to a psychodynamic model of treatment, is helpful for a couple to understand where their symptom came from, but I'll admit this is not always necessary for them to achieve a positive outcome. Nevertheless, employing the psychodynamic systems approach to uncover any conflicts that might be behind or exacerbating the vaginismus. These underlying causes may include prior sexual abuse, chronic control struggles experienced in the family of origin, negative messages or beliefs about sex emanating from the family of origin, religious values that conflict with sexual pleasure, to name a few. I also pay close attention to the couple's interactional style in order to assess whether it, too, is a contributing factor.
What causes it?
- "Both [primary and secondary conditions] are psychologically based. "It's a physical condition, but it's a psychological condition as well.
- "To treat it correctly, you need to treat both the physical and psychological aspects."
- while there are many hypotheses on possible causes, its actual etiology is unknown, probably in part due to the fact sufferers are so reluctant to come forward.
- "It's a really complex thing, And while it is influenced by many things -- there are lots of hypotheses -- the big link, for primary vaginismus anyway, seems to be strong correlation between being raised in a religious environment.
- "This may be due to several factors including lack of information, insufficient premarital education, a cultural context strongly proscribing sexual behavior, and the expectation that intercourse take place immediately after the wedding, necessitating a radical shift from sexual abstinence to sexual intercourse.
- Often the anxiety resulting from repeated attempts at intercourse contributes to the sexual dysfunction. One or both partners may be anxious that penetration will be painful, that there will be bleeding, or that the woman will get pregnant. While a certain amount of anxiety surrounding sexual activity is normal, when one or both partners are overly anxious, sexual function can be affected in the following ways: The male partner may have difficulty maintaining an erection strong enough to allow penetration or he may lose his erection just prior to intercourse. Anxiety may contribute to premature ejaculation, also just prior to reaching penetration. Anxiety may prevent the woman from relaxing enough to allow penetration. She may close her legs or contract her vaginal muscles. This presentation is referred to as vaginismus, defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty of a woman to allow vaginal entry of a penis, a finger, and/or any object, despite her expressed wish to do so. While anxiety may indeed be a factor contributing to and perpetuating many sexual problems, there are many components to sexual problems, including physiological ones. Therefore, each partner in a couple presenting with an unconsummated marriage should undergo a physical exam.
- Physical presentations of the female partner that might prevent intercourse can include sexual pain disorders such as localized vulvodynia, also known as vulvar vestibulitis syndrome. This fairly common condition is characterized by pain with touch at the entry to the vagina, which can prevent intercourse. A woman's hymen may be a barrier to intercourse. Some women have a very thick hymen, or a septate hymen, which is a thin piece of membrane running vertically which separates the vagina in to two sides. While most of these conditions can be addressed with sexual counseling and physical therapy, including use of vaginal dilators, in most cases a septate hymen needs to be repaired surgically.
- Frequently, lack of knowledge about sexual anatomy and physiology may contribute to a situation whereby attempting intercourse feels awkward and un-natural. Often all that is needed is some basic anatomical information and positioning advice. For example, a couple may report that the woman's vagina feels dry and excess friction prevents intercourse. In this case, the couple may be advised to ensure that intercourse take place when the woman is sufficiently aroused after plenty of exciting foreplay. Over the counter lubricants may be very helpful. While some people are physically active, very aware of their bodies, and comfortable with movement, other people are less so and may simply have not figured out how their bodies move in order to comfortably find a position for intercourse. One or both of the partners may have mobility problems or difficulty getting in to or maintaining a position. A woman may have difficulty keeping her legs open or a man may not be able to hold his weight up on his arms. In these cases as well, consultation with a physical therapist may be helpful in providing exercises and positioning advice.
- While behavioral solutions may be found for many couples, it is important to note that couples in unconsummated relationships, particularly of long standing duration, may benefit from couples therapy directed by a competent Sexologist. A doctor working with such a couple may wish to gain understanding in how the couple presents and organizes around the problem: How is the presenting problem perceived by each partner? Is there attribution of blame? What is the significance of the dysfunction itself and how is that perceived by the couple? Who is aware of this situation and in what way is outside intervention (community, parents, and religious leader) perceived in assisting or perpetuating this condition? Identifying the various factors contributing to the condition and dealing with them with physical, psychosexual, and couples therapy, may be the key to consummation and the commencement of a satisfying intimate life.
"So we are talking about people who are raised in conservative faith, who may not have looked at their anatomy in the mirror," Small continued. "They haven't touched themselves, they haven't looked at themselves -- they may view the entire thing as being dirty."
"In terms of the secondary form, this is a result of some kind of trauma or sexual issue, and can be triggered by something later on.
"Women don't talk about it. They learn to live with it. I've seen cases where women have been married or in relationship for up to 12 years and only present when they want to have children."
- Women don't talk about it. They learn to live with it. I've seen cases where women have been married or in relationship for up to 12 years and only present when they want to have children.
How to treat it
- Most women who experience vaginismus choose to live with it rather than come forward and have it treated. Even those in long-term relationships may try to conceal what is happening from their partner or forgo sexual relations all together.
- "If they don't do that, they cut that part of intimacy out of their relationship altogether and choose to shut down any intimate feelings they might have. They end up having a very different kind of relationship.
- "What is important to say is there is a cure and they can be helped. That's the message that needs to get out there. Treatment for vaginismus have included systematic desensitization along with insertion of graded dilators/fingers11, drugs like anxiolytics, botulinum toxin injection,12
- and sex therapy. An In the Indian scenario where the talk about sex is taboo and limited among partners it becomes very essential to first improve their communication so as to improve the sex related issues. eclectic approach involving education, graded insertion of fingers, Kegel's exercises and usage of anaesthesia with vaginal containment was tried.
- As Small previously mentioned, the best approach in terms of a cure is to seek both psychological and physical treatment.
- For the psychological side of things, she recommends seeking out a competent female sexologist.
- Physically, many women are taught how to use vaginal dilators in conjunction with relaxation techniques.
- "With vaginal dilators, basically how they work is you start off very very small, and then, using relaxation techniques, slowly work your way up in terms of size.
- "It's imperative these women have a gentle introduction and remember they are in control of the situation.
- "There is also something called saturation therapy which is often undertaken with their partner. Using dilators, they are able to discuss their mental state and what their thoughts are at any stage. There has actually been incredible results with that. Something like 90 percent of participants report sexual success afterward." there has been some preliminary research done into the effectiveness of Botox, but states at this stage, the research is still too new to offer any kind of conclusive evidence.
Steps to take
- If you think you or your partner might have vaginismus, it's extremely important to understand treatment is available, and, better yet, comes with a high level of success rates.
- "The first step is to see a competent female sexologist. "It is one of those things that, when it presents, it is pretty obvious it is on a psychological basis.
- "A sexologist may double-check everything is okay, but typically what they will find is anatomically they are fine and everything is in order and working -- the cause stems from a psychological basis.
- "The big thing about it is it's treatable, and it is possible to lead a really fulfilled life.
Women do not normally visit a gynaecologist, until they are suffering from any problem. Visiting a gynaecologist at regular intervals is important for good health.
Following are the 4 common reasons to visit a gynaecologist:
- Itchy vagina - Vaginal itching is very commonly ignored as most women consider it to be embarrassing, and as something that does not require any attention. However vaginal itching may be an indication of something more serious. Usually vaginal itching is a sign of fungal infection or a symptom of a sexually transmitted disease. In the worst-case scenario, it can even be a sign of vulvar cancer (a cancer of the vulva, which is the external part of your vagina).
- Painful sex - Most women feel that it is normal to feel a little bit of pain in your vagina during sex. However, the truth is that pain during sex is not at all normal. If you feel pain while indulging in sexual activity, there are chances of you suffering from either vaginal dryness or a mild infection, which if left untreated can become worse. Some of these infections can even be STDs such as herpes, gonorrhoea etc.
- Lump in your breast - A lump in the breast, whether or not accompanied by a bloody discharge from your nipples, is most likely a warning sign of cancer. You should also watch out for any type of pain in your breasts or even an abnormal growth as all of these indicate the development of cancerous cells in the breasts.
- Considerable bleeding during periods - If you bleed heavily during your periods, so much so that you have to change your sanitary napkin 2-3 times in just one to two hours, it's a cause of concern. If this heavy menstrual flow is also accompanied with shortness of breath and rapid heart rate, you may be suffering from anaemia. In extreme cases (which is very rare), this can lead to extreme blood loss, which may require a blood transfusion.
More than 90% of pregnancies continue towards a healthy outcome. However, to have a normal pregnancy one must have a retrospective diagnosis for the same and this invariably may be associated with multiple questions from both the parents and close family members. Hence pre-natal screening in several forms allows early prediction of possible problems which may or may not be genetic/inherited. Cases are thus segregated as either high risk or low risk pregnancies and with the aid of specialized FMF- UK accredited softwares we are able to offer the surveillance required on an individual basis.
Maintained international standards of fetal care.
First trimester screening is a combination of fetal ultrasound and maternal blood tests. The ultrasound is done between 11- 13 +6 weeks and is performed by a FMF accredited operator. The blood test is performed on FMF approved bio-chemical assay systems and measures two hormones, beta- HCG and PAPP-A.
The combination of the nuchal translucency and the blood test is known as the combined first trimester screening test which has a 93-95% sensitivity in predicting the risk of chromosomal abnormalities, the most common of which is Down syndrome.
A specific set of guidelines has been formulated for performing the nuchal translucency , cervical, anomaly and fetal well being scans including fetal Dopplers. A scan done as per guidelines helps calculate the risks for aneuploidies (chromosomal abnormalities) and prognosticate the pregnancy for the risk of pre-eclampsia and/or pre-term labour in order to continue a stress free pregnancy both for the mother and near and dear ones!
The need for a CVS or an Amniocentesis
The results of the first trimester combined screening test are available in a weeks time. It provides us with the risks (probability) for the fetus having any chromosomal abnormality. As per guideline, an invasive prenatal test in the form of CVS (chorionic villous sampling) 10-12 weeks or amniocentesis , beyond 16 weeks is offered as a diagnostic test if the risks are higher than 1 in 150. Though these tests carry a risk of miscarriage , 0.5-1%, they are 100% diagnostic for certain chromosomal abnormalities. It is for you to decide whether or not the risk of having a chromosomal abnormality is high enough to warrant having an invasive test.
Simple, by following these 5 expert-backed tips for starting a healthy lifestyle which will ensure that you start the morning right!
- Start your day with a glass of water
- Consume your breakfast within an hour of waking up. Ensure it is high in protein.
- Make time for a morning exercise routine
- Never skip any food group. Eat more fruits and vegetables.
- Eat healthy snacks every 2-3 hours a day.
Vulvovaginal candidiasis refers to the infection of the vagina, accompanied by itching in the vulva. It is caused by a particular strand of yeast known as candida albicans.
There are several reasons which contribute to the onset of vulvovaginal candidiasis, some of them are:
Pregnancy is a time when the body of a woman undergoes a plethora of changes. With the upsurge of certain hormones, this is also the most potent time when they tend to suffer from vulvovaginal candidiasis.
2. Higher Dose Of Estrogen
Estrogen is responsible for maturing the vagina as well as provides glycogen which facilitates the growth of candida albicans. Subsequently, older and younger women, who are less prone to estrogen disorder, suffer the least from vulvovaginal candidiasis.
3. Uncontrolled Diabetes
Those women who suffer from uncontrolled diabetes for a long period of time are more susceptible to vulvovaginal candidiasis. Although the accurate reason is yet to be known, according to research, the presence of excessive glucose in the blood triggers the production of yeast in the vulva and the vagina.
4. Weak Immune System
A strong immune system is a boon which only few people enjoy. Consequently, the very reverse, a weak immune system is extremely fatal, one that invites several complications; vulvovaginal candidiasis being one of them.
Excessive stress and exhaustion may also be considered as a probable reason that causes imbalance in your system.
6. Hormone Replacement Therapy
Estrogen is commonly held as a possible culprit that causes vulvovaginal candidiasis. Therefore in those hormonal replacement therapies, where estrogen is artificially administered into the body significantly increases the risk of an impending vulvovaginal candidiasis.
In spite of its frequent occurrences, it is possible to treat this infection. Some of the ways by which it can be done are-
1. Anti-fungal cream
Those creams which negate the growth of fungus are, for obvious reasons considered as the most preferred choice to combat vulvovaginal candidiasis. There are plenty of anti-fungal creams available in the market, which can be misleading, therefore you must choose wisely.
This medication works wonders in treating vulvovaginal candidiasis. This must be orally administered under the doctor's supervision to enjoy the results.
The thought of undergoing a major surgery worries most people as they stress about the possible surgical complications, outcomes of the procedure or just get scared with the idea of getting an incision. But, following a few simple steps before the surgery may enable you to not only lessen your fears but also accelerate the recovery process.
Here are some of the most effective tips to prepare yourself in a way that ensures a stress-free surgical procedure.
1. Acquire knowledge about the surgery beforehand
Keep yourself thoroughly informed about the surgical procedures you will undergo. Ask your surgeon about the time required for complete recovery, your stay at the hospital, hygiene standards of the hospital etc. Also, talk about the surgical complications that you may experience and the measures to be taken from your side to deal with them.
2. Inform the doctor about your prevalent health issues
Talk to your doctor if you are suffering from any medical conditions currently like diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, arthritis etc. Also inform him if you are under any kind of medications or allergic to any particular drug.
3. Enquire about the types of anaesthesia available
Knowing about your anaesthesia choices always help you prepare better for an operation. While some surgery requires specific types of anaesthesia for other you can decide whether you want a local, regional or general anaesthesia. Local anaesthesia is used for affecting a small area while the regional one is used for numbing a larger part and general, your entire body.
4. Be prepared to deal with the post-surgery pain
You might experience post-surgery pain depending on the type of procedure followed. Ask your doctor for suggestions on the type of medicines you should do to curb this pain. Generally, most doctors recommend drugs, hot or cold therapy, massage etc.
5. Look for a caregiver in advance
You will require some support and care after the surgery while you recover. Seek the help of your family and friends in this regard and ensure that someone can stay with you for at least a day after you return from the hospital.
6. Follow the pre and post surgery instructions given by the doctor
Follow all the instructions given by the doctor regarding the kind of diet to be followed, restriction from consuming certain things like alcohol or any other lifestyle changes required to keep you healthy before and after the surgery.
Are you suffering from polycystic ovarian syndrome and are looking for an ideal remedy? Polycystic ovarian disease or PCOD is a common female health condition. It is a complex disorder and involves several factors which include insulin resistance, obesity, irregular menstrual bleeding, insufficient ovum production, and abnormal menstrual cycles. PCOD commonly occurs during the reproductive age of a woman and accounts for being a major cause of infertility.
According to Ayurvedic principles, PCOD occurs primarily due to the imbalance state of your doshas. The dosha vaishanmya is linked to the symptoms of PCOD, and the relationship between the doshas and lakshans is permanent.
PCOD is associated with stri beeja and rajah formation, along with medhodhantu to some extent. These should be attended to while the condition is being treated. The Ayurvedic treatment of PCOD aims at providing ideal care by correction of the ama dosha. By this, you achieve koshta shuddi, which in turn regularizes your tridoshas. The way or approach towards Ayurvedic treatment for PCOD includes the following:
- Treatment of agnimandya at both dhatwagni and jataragni levels.
- The alleviation of sroto avarodha is an essential part of PCOD treatment using Ayurveda. You should undertake purificatory therapies which are based on the grade of your doshic vitialation, and the exact area of affliction. These should be followed by rasayana drugs, which are free radical scavenging agents.
- The regularization of the apana Vata is essential as well. You must firmly avoid vihara and kaphkara ahara.
- Yoga and meditation are very important for the Ayurvedic treatment of PCOD. You should perform yoga asanas regularly. Some of the ideal postures for PCOD management include sarvangasana, matyasana, and shavasana.
- It is also very important for you to work out regularly, undertake different physical exercises. This will make your overall life much healthier.
- You must follow a healthy, balanced diet regularly, which should consist of fresh vegetables and fruits.
Ayurvedic herbs for the treatment of PCOD
- The varuna crataeva nurvala is an effective herb which helps in the clearance of channels, which reduces your cyst’s size.
- You can try hareetaki because of its amazing laxative effects, which reduce the morbidity of your body.
- Bilva or aegle marmelos heps in reducing the size of your growth, via its digestive effect.
- Strotasshuddhi is required and herbs likes Punarnava, kaphhar medicines are advised.
- Phytooestrogen sources and female tonic Shatavari is very much advised.
- Agnimantha, similar to lions. Lake er dhareyjata
- Guduchi is another effective remedy for PCOD and has a rejuvenating effect.
- Kanchnar is the drug of choice for Thyroid as per AYURVEDA, Strotasshuddhi is done by using Trikatu, Punarnava and other medicines. Rasayan like Shatavari are advised for enhancing female hormones.
If you are experiencing any symptom of PCOD, it is recommended for you to consult an Ayurvedic practitioner. This ensures that proper diagnosis is undertaken so that you can start treating the condition as early as possible.
Ever wondered why you needed to share your family’s health history at a doctor’s clinic? Specific questions regarding health issues of your immediate family or close blood relatives give your doctor an insight into various health risks you might have now or in future. Those are medical conditions inherited by parents or grandparents through genes. Genes are passed from parents to children in DNA of eggs or sperms. Even a single mutation (fault) in gene can influence body systems and may lead to disorders. If any of the parents have a faulty gene, there are 50:50 chances of the child inheriting it.
Hereditary heart diseases are also a result of mutation in one or more genes and tend to run in families. Genes control almost all aspects of cardiovascular system including strengthening blood vessels, pumping capacity or communication of cells in the heart. A single genetic variation is enough to alter cardiovascular processes increasing the risk of developing a heart disease, attack or a stroke. Some of the most common hereditary cardiac disorders include; Arrhythmias, congenital heart diseases and cardiomyopathy. A family history of heart attack or stroke is also an established high-risk factor for the family members. High blood cholesterol, medically known as familial hypercholesterolemia also tends to run in families.
Unfortunately, many of these conditions cannot be prevented since they are acquired through genes. But there are many ways in which these could be managed before they become complicated or fatal.
Let’s look at some ways by which we can deal with hereditary heart diseases and increase a patient’s chances of survival:
Early Diagnosis And Treatment: When one person in the family is diagnosed with a heart disease, it is strongly advisable for other family members to go in for screening. An early diagnosis can help in better treatment and management of the disease and impacts positively on patients’ life. Medical screening of siblings is highly recommended in case a person suffers a sudden cardiac death especially at a young age.
Watch out for these symptoms at a young age: Abnormal heart rhythm, asthma that does not get better with inhaler, seizures that do not improve with medication, extreme fatigue or shortness of breath are warning signals and need immediate medical attention.
Genetic Testing: Family members may opt for genetic testing to check if they carried genes of an inherited disorder.
Genetic Counselling: Genetic counselling deals with problems like anxieties and fear of attacks, confusion over disease and emotional difficulties in accepting the situation.
We may not be able to change the family history but we can surely change our environment, lifestyle and habits. Eating healthy and following an active lifestyle does help in prevention and management of such diseases.
Over the past decade, many women have opted for Breast Augmentation Surgery. It is a surgical process to improve the aesthetics of one's breast. Apart from giving a much needed lift to the bust size, the augmented breasts can lift up your confidence. Breast Augmentation Surgery, if gone wrong, can create a havoc. The outcome of the surgery can be influenced by a number of factors. Thus, before going under the knife, some important and vital points need to be taken care of.
- It is advisable to avail the services of an experienced surgeon, who has a higher success rate. A lot of confusions and apprehensions may arise during course of the surgery. An experienced surgeon will ease out the tension to a great extend and guide you better.
- Breast Augmentation is no child's play. Do not embark on breast augmentation surgery if you are below 18 years of age. It can result in serious health complications. Surgery can wait, but health once lost, will be gone forever.
- Know the type of implants to be used. Saline and Silicone implants are commonly used in breast augmentation. Both the implants come with their own sets of merits and demerits.
Being softer and smoother, Silicone implants give the augmented breasts a very natural feel. The chances of scalloping (the skin around the breasts appear wavy) are negligible in case of Silicone implants. However, the Silicone implants come pre-filled. Thus, a bigger incision is needed to get it inserted. Though approved by the FDA, leakage of the silicone implants into the body has been reported. The leakage can affect the health seriously. Interference of Silicone implants with the mammogram can also pose a serious threat.
The Saline implants, on the other hand, are not pre filled. Thus, a small incision is all it takes to get the implants inserted. Once inserted, the implants are filled with saline solution. The saline implants can also leak into the body, without any serious implications. The biggest limitation of saline implants is in the fact that it gives the breasts a very hard feel. Scalloping cannot be ruled out either.
Things to take care of:
- Do not go for breast augmentation surgery if you are planning to start a family in 1-2 years of time. A weaning or lactating lady should also avoid the surgery.
- The exact location of the implant is an important factor to ponder upon. One can go for an under the muscle or over the muscle implants.
- One can opt for a round implant or a tear shaped implant. The biggest USP of tear shaped implant lies in the fact that it gives a very natural feel to the augmented breasts. The round implants, on the other hand, are much safer to use.
- Go for the surgery only when you are physically, mentally and emotionally fit and healthy.
I am on my 36th week pf pregnancy and having full back pain and pain on the back side of neck and head. Having it since yesterday. My full backbone hurts until the back side of my neck and head as well. What to do in that case? Is it just normal during the 9th month of pregnancy or there's something more serious about that?
I had protected sex with sex worker. I felt diarrhea, fever and fatigue. So I done HIV 4th generation test after 40 days. The result was HIv negative i.e. O.3. Still I had to check another test after 10 days. But fever diarrhea and fatigue still there and I am taking general medications for that. Please suggest me what to do further.
Hi! My last period was on 28.08.17 to 30.08.17. My ovulation date was on 09.09.17 and we had IC on and after that day. Now I'm feel dizziness, fatigue, breast swelling with little pain and I'm carving foods often. My periods was regular with the cycle of 28 days. My next period is on 24.09.17. I'm I pregnant? Pls answer my question. I wanna conceive a baby.
We went through ultrasound and found nothing except uterus is bulky and the pregnancy kit test was positive .we sexually met 3 weeks before. Where is the fetus according to my situation and what is the conclusions of my reports.
Hello doctor I am suffering from pcod from a long time. I am gaining weight day by day. I am having hard hair growth on my face. I tried almost everything for hair removal but no use. Please suggest something for getting rid of this problem.
I am 25 years old before 1.5 years got married. Last months we tried for baby its missed. please give some advise. Which time need to do sex it will give a positive results. And my wife period is regularly.
Bringing a child into this world is one of the most wonderful phases of a woman's life. At the same time, this involves a lot of body changes - physiologically, physically, chemically, and emotionally. Mommy makeover refers to one or a combination of procedures that are done to alter the appearance after delivery, especially relating to one or more of the following:
- Tummy that is sagging (no fat, just loose skin) with stretch marks
- Breasts that are altered in size and shape, sometimes the enlargement could be completely disproportionate with the body and cause back pain
- Undefined thick waistline with irregular fat accumulation
- Fat deposits on the abdomen, thighs, hips, and trunk that do not reduce with dietary changes and exercise
- Skin changes on the face and around the eyes, giving an aged appearance
- Post cesarean, there is excessive skin around the surgical scar
- Reduces tummy size
- Gives a more youthful appearance
- Alters breasts to the desired shape and size
- Weight loss, if happens, could affect the results
- Subsequent pregnancies don't have any complications with tummy tuck but with another pregnancy the effects may be lessened or reversed.
- Since surgery is involved, the risk of unforeseen complications always exists (for instance, in breast implants, there is capsule formation or capsulitis, in rare cases rupture may require removal.)
Mommy makeover is not a single step procedure, but a combination of plastic surgical procedures that are done depending on the problem you present with.
Tummy tuck - If there is abdominal sagging, the tummy is tucked back into position by removing the fat and excessive skin and reworking on the belly button.
Liposuction - Excessive fat deposits in the hips, thighs, trunk area can be removed by sucking out the fat deposits. Most commonly done in the hips and trunk area.
Breast lift - Sagging uneven breasts, drooping nipples, reduced volume are all indications for a breast lift. During the surgery, the breast tissue is repositioned to reproduce a better shape and size and reposition the nipples if required.
Breast reduction - Large breasts are a common problem, and breast reduction is one of the most requested for procedures.
Breast augmentation - Either saline implants or silicone are used to restore breast size and shape to the desired results. Usually, breast lift is combined with breast augmentation.
Facial corrections - From dark circles to sagging skin to wrinkles, facial appearance can be changed based on the presenting symptoms.
These are very brief descriptions of the various procedures that are done as part of mummy makeover. A detailed consultation with your plastic surgeon regarding costs, subsequent pregnancies, aftercare, recovery, healing, and limitations and risks is to be had ahead of the surgery.
A Pap smear test helps in detecting the signs and onset of cervical cancer. This test helps in pointing at the presence of any suspicious cells that may require further examination and testing with the help of an oncologist. You will enjoy a negative result in case you have a normal reading during the examination process and no further treatment will be required. Yet, you will be asked to go through the test on a regular basis. But here is what happens if you have an abnormal reading.
- Positive Result: You are said to have a positive result, if you any unusual or abnormal cells were found during this Pap Smear Test. While this may not necessarily mean that you have cervical cancer, it can show what kind of abnormal cells are present in this area of your body. The doctor will check for the following things after a positive result.
- ASCUS: This is also known as Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance. This is a liquid based test that will seek to study the thin and flat squamous cells that may be found on the surface of a perfectly healthy and normal cervix. This test will check for the presence of any virus that may lead to the development of cancer and to determine the level of risk to the patient. Further, if there is any high risk virus, then further treatment and testing will be required.
- Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion: When some of the cells that have been extracted during the Pap Smear test turn out to be precancerous, then they are Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions. In many cases, it takes a few years for these lesions to turn cancerous especially when the changes are low grade, which pertains to the size, shape and other features of the same. If a high grade lesion is detected, then diagnostic testing in the form of imaging tests may be required.
- Atypical Glandular Cells: These mucus producing cells grow within the cervical opening and usually spread into the uterus as well. While they may appear abnormal, it is difficult to tell whether or not they are cancerous, especially in the early stages.
- Squamous Cell Cancer: This is an almost certain reading of the growth of cancer in the cervix. When a reading from the Pap Smear includes such a finding, the doctor will recommend immediate evaluation.
- Colposcopy: Once you have had a positive reading with any of the above findings, the doctor will perform this procedure with sample tissue extracted during a biopsy. This will be done with the use of a special magnifying tool known as a colposcope to examine the cervix, vagina and vulva tissues.